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  • Aaron-Morrison, A. P., et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS). - 0003-0007 .- 1520-0477. ; 98:8, s. S1-S280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44 degrees C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0 degrees C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8 degrees C, representing a 3.5 degrees C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute similar to 7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01 degrees C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st century-to-date of +0.162 degrees C decade(-1) is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100 degrees C decade(-1). Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Nino at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Nina contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Multi-wavelength observations of the flaring gamma-ray blazar 3C 66A in 2008 October
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 726:1, s. 43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The BL Lacertae object 3C 66A was detected in a flaring state by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and VERITAS in 2008 October. In addition to these gamma-ray observations, F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, PAIRITEL, MDM, ATOM, Swift, and Chandra provided radio to X-ray coverage. The available light curves show variability and, in particular, correlated flares are observed in the optical and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band. The resulting spectral energy distribution can be well fitted using standard leptonic models with and without an external radiation field for inverse Compton scattering. It is found, however, that only the model with an external radiation field can accommodate the intra-night variability observed at optical wavelengths.
  • Aaltonen, T., et al. (författare)
  • Tevatron Run II combination of the effective leptonic electroweak mixing angle
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D : covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology. - AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 97:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Drell-Yan lepton pairs produced in the process p (p) over bar -> l(+)l(-) + X through an intermediate gamma*/Z boson have an asymmetry in their angular distribution related to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the electroweak force and the associated mixing of its neutral gauge bosons. The CDF and D0 experiments have measured the effective-leptonic electroweak mixing parameter sin(2) theta(lept)(eff) using electron and muon pairs selected from the full Tevatron proton-antiproton data sets collected in 2001-2011, corresponding to 9-10 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity. The combination of these measurements yields the most precise result from hadron colliders, sin(2)theta(lept)(eff) = 0.23148 +/- 0.00033. This result is consistent with, and approaches in precision, the best measurements from electron-positron colliders. The standard model inference of the on-shell electroweak mixing parameter sin(2) theta(W), or equivalently the W-boson mass M-W, using the ZFITTER software package yields sin(2) theta(W) = 0.22324 +/- 0.00033 or equivalently, M-W = 80.367 +/- 0.017 GeV/c(2).
  • Aaltonen, T., et al. (författare)
  • Combined Forward-Backward Asymmetry Measurements in Top-Antitop Quark Production at the Tevatron
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 120:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron have measured the asymmetry between yields of forward- and backward-produced top and antitop quarks based on their rapidity difference and the asymmetry between their decay leptons. These measurements use the full data sets collected in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of root s = 1.96 TeV. We report the results of combinations of the inclusive asymmetries and their differential dependencies on relevant kinematic quantities. The combined inclusive asymmetry is A(FB)(t (t) over bar) = 0.128 +/- 0.025. The combined inclusive and differential asymmetries are consistent with recent standard model predictions.
  • Aaltonen, T., et al. (författare)
  • Higgs boson studies at the Tevatron
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 88:5, s. 052014
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the standard model Higgs boson with mass in the range 90-200 GeV/c(2) produced in the gluon-gluon fusion, WH, ZH, t (t) over barH, and vector boson fusion processes, and decaying in the H -> b (b) over bar, H -> W+W-, H -> ZZ, H -> tau(+)tau(-), and H -> gamma gamma modes. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 10 fb(-1) and were collected at the Fermilab Tevatron in p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV. The searches are also interpreted in the context of fermiophobic and fourth generation models. We observe a significant excess of events in the mass range between 115 and 140 GeV/c(2). The local significance corresponds to 3.0 standard deviations at m(H) = 125 GeV/c(2), consistent with the mass of the Higgs boson observed at the LHC, and we expect a local significance of 1.9 standard deviations. We separately combine searches for H -> b (b) over bar, H -> W+W-, H -> tau(+)tau(-), and H -> gamma gamma. The observed signal strengths in all channels are consistent with the presence of a standard model Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV/c(2).
  • Aaltonen, T., et al. (författare)
  • Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element V-tb
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 115:15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb(-1) per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be sigma(t) = 2.25(-0.31)(+0.29) pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s + t channel cross section measurement resulting in sigma(s+t) = 3.30(-0.40)(+0.52) pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio sigma(s)/sigma(t). The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is vertical bar V-tb vertical bar = 1.02(-0.05)(+0.06), corresponding to vertical bar V-tb vertical bar > 0.92 at the 95% C. L.
  • Aaltonen, T., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for a Particle Produced in Association with Weak Bosons and Decaying to a Bottom-Antibottom Quark Pair in Higgs Boson Searches at the Tevatron
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 109:7, s. 071804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb(-1). The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c(2). We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c(2). The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair.
  • Aaltonen, T., et al. (författare)
  • Tevatron Constraints on Models of the Higgs Boson with Exotic Spin and Parity Using Decays to Bottom-Antibottom Quark Pairs
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 114:15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combined constraints from the CDF and D0 Collaborations on models of the Higgs boson with exotic spin J and parity P are presented and compared with results obtained assuming the standard model value J(P) = 0(+). Both collaborations analyzed approximately 10 fb(-1) of proton-antiproton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV collected at the Fermilab Tevatron. Two models predicting exotic Higgs bosons with J(P) = 0(-) and J(P) = 2(+) are tested. The kinematic properties of exotic Higgs boson production in association with a vector boson differ from those predicted for the standard model Higgs boson. Upper limits at the 95% credibility level on the production rates of the exotic Higgs bosons, expressed as fractions of the standard model Higgs boson production rate, are set at 0.36 for both the J(P) = 0(-) hypothesis and the J(P) = 2(+) hypothesis. If the production rate times the branching ratio to a bottom-antibottom pair is the same as that predicted for the standard model Higgs boson, then the exotic bosons are excluded with significances of 5.0 standard deviations and 4.9 standard deviations for the J(P) = 0(-) and J(P) = 2(+) hypotheses, respectively.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • Simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign on PKS 2005-489 in a high state
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361. ; 533, s. A110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 was the target of a multi-wavelength campaign with simultaneous observations in the TeV gamma-ray (H.E.S.S.), GeV gamma-ray (Fermi/LAT), X-ray (RXTE, Swift), UV (Swift) and optical (ATOM, Swift) bands. This campaign was carried out during a high flux state in the synchrotron regime. The flux in the optical and X-ray bands reached the level of the historical maxima. The hard GeV spectrum observed with Fermi/LAT connects well to the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) spectrum measured with H.E.S.S. with a peak energy between similar to 5 and 500 GeV. Compared to observations with contemporaneous coverage in the VHE and X-ray bands in 2004, the X-ray flux was similar to 50 times higher during the 2009 campaign while the TeV gamma-ray flux shows marginal variation over the years. The spectral energy distribution during this multi-wavelength campaign was fit by a one zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a well determined cutoff in X-rays. The parameters of a one zone SSC model are inconsistent with variability time scales. The variability behaviour over years with the large changes in synchrotron emission and small changes in the inverse Compton emission does not warrant an interpretation within a one-zone SSC model despite an apparently satisfying fit to the broadband data in 2009.
  • Aaltonen, T., et al. (författare)
  • Combination of CDF and D0 W-Boson mass measurements
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 88:5, s. 052018
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We summarize and combine direct measurements of the mass of the W boson in root s = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collision data collected by CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Earlier measurements from CDF and D0 are combined with the two latest, more precise measurements: a CDF measurement in the electron and muon channels using data corresponding to 2.2 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, and a D0 measurement in the electron channel using data corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity. The resulting Tevatron average for the mass of the W boson is M-W = 80387 +/- 16 MeV. Including measurements obtained in electron-positron collisions at LEP yields the most precise value of M-W = 80385 +/- 15 MeV.
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