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  • Sandblom, G, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer staging in a population-based register.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 36:2, s. 99-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown a relationship between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and prostate tumour volume. Reports based on selected case series have also indicated that serum PSA may be used for staging, although a varying prevalence of metastasizing tumours complicates the interpretation of these studies. In order to determine the accuracy of the serum level of PSA in predicting the presence of metastases we performed a prospective cohort study of a geographically defined population of men with prostate cancer.METHODS: Serum level of PSA and the results of investigations for regional lymph node and distant metastases were recorded for all 8328 men with prostate cancer registered in the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register 1996-1997.RESULTS: The prevalence of lymph node metastases among men who had undergone lymph node exploration was 4%, 16% and 33% for well, moderately and poorly differentiated tumours. The corresponding prevalence of distant metastases was 12%, 30% and 48%. With serum PSA <20 ng/ml as a cut-off point the negative likelihood ratios for well and moderately differentiated tumours were found to be 0.47 and 0.45 for lymph node metastases and 0.24 and 0.18 for distant metastases, resulting in post-test probabilities >92% for the exclusion of metastases. In men with poorly differentiated tumours, the negative likelihood ratio would need to be even lower to safely exclude disseminated disease.CONCLUSION: For well to moderately differentiated tumours, further investigations to assess the presence of metastases may be omitted with no great risk for understaging if serum PSA <20 ng/ml.
  • FitzGerald, L. M., et al. (författare)
  • Germline variants in IL4, MGMT and AKT1 are associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality : an analysis of 12,082 prostate cancer cases
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1365-7852 .- 1476-5608. ; 21:2, s. 228-237
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of mortality and genetic factors can influence tumour aggressiveness. Several germline variants have been associated with PCa-specific mortality (PCSM), but further replication evidence is needed. Methods Twenty-two previously identified PCSM-associated genetic variants were genotyped in seven PCa cohorts (12,082 patients; 1544 PCa deaths). For each cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk of PCSM associated with each variant. Data were then combined using a meta-analysis approach. Results Fifteen SNPs were associated with PCSM in at least one of the seven cohorts. In the meta-analysis, after adjustment for clinicopathological factors, variants in the MGMT (rs2308327; HR 0.90; p-value = 3.5 x 10(-2)) and IL4 (rs2070874; HR 1.22; p-value = 1.1 x 10(-3)) genes were confirmed to be associated with risk of PCSM. In analyses limited to men diagnosed with local or regional stage disease, a variant in AKT1, rs2494750, was also confirmed to be associated with PCSM risk (HR 0.81; p-value = 3.6 x 10(-2)). Conclusions This meta-analysis confirms the association of three genetic variants with risk of PCSM, providing further evidence that genetic background plays a role in PCa-specific survival. While these variants alone are not sufficient as prognostic biomarkers, these results may provide insights into the biological pathways modulating tumour aggressiveness.
  • Hugosson, Jonas, 1955, et al. (författare)
  • A 16-yr Follow-up of the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 0302-2838. ; 76:1, s. 43-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has previously demonstrated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening decreases prostate cancer (PCa) mortality. Objective: To determine whether PSA screening decreases PCa mortality for up to 16 yr and to assess results following adjustment for nonparticipation and the number of screening rounds attended. Design, setting, and participants: This multicentre population-based randomised screening trial was conducted in eight European countries. Report includes 182 160 men, followed up until 2014 (maximum of 16 yr), with a predefined core age group of 162 389 men (55-69 yr), selected from population registry. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The outcome was PCa mortality, also assessed with adjustment for nonparticipation and the number of screening rounds attended. Results and limitations: The rate ratio of PCa mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.89, p < 0.001) at 16 yr. The difference in absolute PCa mortality increased from 0.14% at 13 yr to 0.18% at 16 yr. The number of men needed to be invited for screening to prevent one PCa death was 570 at 16 yr compared with 742 at 13 yr. The number needed to diagnose was reduced to 18 from 26 at 13 yr. Men with PCa detected during the first round had a higher prevalence of PSA >20 ng/ml (9.9% compared with 4.1% in the second round, p < 0.001) and higher PCa mortality (hazard ratio = 1.86, p < 0.001) than those detected subsequently. Conclusions: Findings corroborate earlier results that PSA screening significantly reduces PCa mortality, showing larger absolute benefit with longer follow-up and a reduction in excess incidence. Repeated screening may be important to reduce PCa mortality on a population level. Patient summary: In this report, we looked at the outcomes from prostate cancer in a large European population. We found that repeated screening reduces the risk of dying from prostate cancer. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology.
  • Schröder, Fritz H, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-cancer mortality at 11 years of follow-up.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The New England journal of medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 1533-4406 .- 0028-4793. ; 366:11, s. 981-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several trials evaluating the effect of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on prostate-cancer mortality have shown conflicting results. We updated prostate-cancer mortality in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer with 2 additional years of follow-up.
  • Schröder, Fritz H, et al. (författare)
  • Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The New England journal of medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 1533-4406 .- 0028-4793. ; 360:13, s. 1320-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer was initiated in the early 1990s to evaluate the effect of screening with prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) testing on death rates from prostate cancer.
  • Sandblom, G, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-specific antigen as surrogate for characterizing prostate cancer subgroups
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 36:2, s. 106-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE To evaluate how serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer vary with age and intensity in the diagnostic activity and to describe the treatment selection processes associated with PSA level. MATERIAL AND METHODS All men in the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register diagnosed during 1996-1997 were included. In 1996 the register included 19 counties, covering 61% of the Swedish male population, and in 1997 21 counties with 79% of the Swedish male population. RESULTS A total of 8328 men were registered. PSA levels were missing in 341 cases. With increasing PSA there was a shift towards more advanced and poorly differentiated tumours. PSA at diagnosis increased with age, with the exception of patients younger than 50 years who had higher PSA values. The mean logarithm of PSA correlated negatively with the percentage of localized tumours (p < 0.005) and the age-adjusted incidence (p < 0.05) in each respective county in 1997. PSA was higher in men receiving radiotherapy compared with those treated with radical prostatectomy as well as in the group treated with bilateral orchiectomy compared with those receiving GnRH-analogues. CONCLUSIONS If PSA is used as a surrogate measure of extent of tumour volume in a population of prostate cancer patients, our findings indicate that age distribution and differences in incidence (possibly due to variation in diagnostic activity) should be taken into account. In our cohort there was a selection process, probably in part guided by PSA level, when choosing type of curative or palliative treatment.
  • Carlsson, Sigrid V., et al. (författare)
  • Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice : A microsimulation screening analysis
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 122:21, s. 3386-3393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus “good practice.”. METHODS: Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN) was used to evaluate the effect on quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) if 4 recommendations were followed: limited screening in older men, selective biopsy in men with elevated PSA, active surveillance for low-risk tumors, and treatment preferentially delivered at high-volume centers. Outcomes were compared with a base model in which annual screening started at ages 55 to 69 years and were simulated using data from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. RESULTS: In terms of QALYs gained compared with no screening, for 1000 screened men who were followed over their lifetime, recommended good practice led to 73 life-years (LYs) and 74 QALYs gained compared with 73 LYs and 56 QALYs for the base model. In contrast, common practice led to 78 LYs gained but only 19 QALYs gained, for a greater than 75% relative reduction in QALYs gained from unadjusted LYs gained. The poor outcomes for common practice were influenced predominantly by the use of aggressive treatment for men with low-risk disease, and PSA testing in older men also strongly reduced potential QALY gains. CONCLUSIONS: Commonly used PSA screening and treatment practices are associated with little net benefit. Following a few straightforward clinical recommendations, particularly greater use of active surveillance for low-risk disease and reducing screening in older men, would lead to an almost 4-fold increase in the net benefit of prostate cancer screening. Cancer 2016;122:3386–3393.
  • Nilsson, Hanna, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of hernia formation after radical prostatectomy: a comparison between open and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy within the prospectively controlled LAPPRO trial.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery. - : Springer. - 1248-9204.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to incisional hernia, inguinal hernia is a recognized complication to radical retropubic prostatectomy. To compare the risk of developing inguinal and incisional hernias after open radical prostatectomy compared to robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.Patients planned for prostatectomy were enrolled in the prospective, controlled LAPPRO trial between September 2008 and November 2011 at 14 hospitals in Sweden. Information regarding patient characteristics, operative techniques and occurrence of postoperative inguinal and incisional hernia were retrieved using six clinical record forms and four validated questionnaires.3447 patients operated with radical prostatectomy were analyzed. Within 24 months, 262 patients developed an inguinal hernia, 189 (7.3%) after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and 73 (8.4%) after open radical prostatectomy. The relative risk of having an inguinal hernia after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy was 18% lower compared to open radical retropubic prostatectomy, a non-significant difference. Risk factors for developing an inguinal hernia after prostatectomy were increased age, low BMI and previous hernia repair. The incidence of incisional hernia was low regardless of surgical technique. Limitations are the non-randomised setting.We found no difference in incidence of inguinal hernia after open retropubic and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The low incidence of incisional hernia after both procedures did not allow for statistical analysis. Risk factors for developing an inguinal hernia after prostatectomy were increased age and BMI.
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