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Sökning: WFRF:(Hui Zhen Huan)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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2.
  • Pasquini, Marcelo C., et al. (författare)
  • Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Outcomes in Monosomal Karyotype Myeloid Malignancies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Biology of blood and marrow transplantation. - 1083-8791 .- 1523-6536. ; 22:2, s. 248-257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The presence of monosomal karyotype (MK+) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with dismal outcomes. We evaluated the impact of MK+ in AML (MK+AML, n = 240) and in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (MK+MDS, n = 221) on hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes compared with other cytogenetically defined groups (AML, n = 3360; MDS, n = 1373) as reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 1998 to 2011. MK+AML was associated with higher disease relapse (hazard ratio, 1.98; P < .01), similar transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (hazard ratio, 1.01; P = .90), and worse survival (hazard ratio, 1.67; P < .01) compared with those outcomes for other cytogenetically defined AML. Among patients with MDS, MK+ MDS was associated with higher disease relapse (hazard ratio, 2.39; P < .01), higher TRM (hazard ratio, 1.80; P < .01), and worse survival (HR, 2.02; P < .01). Subset analyses comparing chromosome 7 abnormalities (del7/7q) with or without MK+ demonstrated higher mortality for MK+ disease in for both AML (hazard ratio, 1.72; P < .01) and MDS (hazard ratio, 1.79; P < .01). The strong negative impact of MK+ in myeloid malignancies was observed in all age groups and using either myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Alternative approaches to mitigate disease relapse in this population are needed.
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