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Sökning: WFRF:(Humble Mats B. 1952 )

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  • Bejerot, S., et al. (författare)
  • The extreme male brain revisited: gender coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - London, United Kingdom : Royal College of Psychiatrists. - 0007-1250 .- 1472-1465. ; 201:2, s. 116-123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The 'extreme male brain' theory suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an extreme variant of male intelligence. However, somewhat paradoxically, many individuals with ASD display androgynous physical features regardless of gender. Aims To assess physical measures, supposedly related to androgen influence, in adults with and without ASD. Method Serum hormone levels, anthropometry, the ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) and psychiatric symptomatology were measured in 50 adults with high-functioning ASD and age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls. Photographs of face and body, as well as voice recordings, were obtained and assessed with respect to gender coherence, blindly and independently, by eight assessors. Results Women with ASD had higher total and bioactive testosterone levels, less feminine facial features and a larger head circumference than female controls. Men in the ASD group were assessed as having less masculine body characteristics and voice quality, and displayed higher (i.e. less masculine) 2D:4D ratios, but similar testosterone levels to controls. Androgynous facial features correlated strongly and positively with autistic traits measured with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in the total sample. In males and females with ASD dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did not decrease with age, in contrast to the control group. Conclusions Women with ASD had elevated testosterone levels and several masculinised characteristics compared with controls, whereas men with ASD displayed several feminised characteristics. Our findings suggest that ASD, rather than being characterised by masculinisation in both genders, may constitute a gender defiant disorder.
  • Humble, Mats B., 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma oxytocin changes and anti-obsessive response during serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment : a placebo controlled study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: ; 13, s. 344-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The drug treatments of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). However, a correlation between the neuropeptide oxytocin in cerebrospinal fluid and the severity of OCD has previously been shown, and oxytocin and serotonin are interconnected within the brain. Few studies have investigated whether SRIs have any effect on oxytocin; thus, our aim was to explore the possibility that oxytocinergic mechanisms contribute to the anti-obsessive effect of SRIs.Method: In a randomized, double-blind trial, comparing SRIs (clomipramine and paroxetine) with placebo in 36 adults with OCD (characterized for subtypes), plasma oxytocin was measured with radioimmunoassay after plasma extraction, at baseline, after 1 week, and after 4 weeks of treatment, and related to baseline severity and clinical response after 12 weeks, as measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).Results: Baseline oxytocin levels correlated positively with baseline Y-BOCS ratings, but only among the future SRI responders. Patients with early onset of OCD had higher baseline oxytocin. During treatment, plasma oxytocin did not differ between SRI and placebo treatment. In SRI responders, plasma oxytocin first decreased and then increased; in non-responders (to SRI as well as to placebo), the reverse was the case. After 4 weeks, treatment responders had attained higher oxytocin levels compared to non-responders. The intra-individual range (i.e. the variability) of plasma oxytocin between measurements was the measure that best differentiated responders from non-responders. This range was higher in responders than non-responders, and lower in patients with autistic traits.Conclusions: SRIs have highly variable effects on plasma oxytocin between individuals. The associations between baseline oxytocin and OCD severity and between oxytocin changes and treatment response support the notions that oxytocin is involved in OCD pathophysiology, and that the anti-obsessive effects of SRIs are partly exerted through oxytocinergic mechanisms.
  • Meehan, Adrian D., 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • The prevalence of lithium-associated hyperparathyroidism in a large Swedish population attending psychiatric outpatient units
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. - 0271-0749 .- 1533-712X. ; 35:3, s. 279-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This retrospective study determined the prevalence of lithium-associated hyperparathyroidism (LHPT) in 2 geographically defined, equivalent populations in Sweden, with no other selection bias.Methods: The medical journals of all patients receiving lithium treatment were examined specifically regarding their biochemistry: calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), creatinine, and vitamin D. The condition LHPT was defined biochemically. All patient data were noted, and the prevalence of the condition could thereby be calculated.Results: A total of 423 patients were included (251 women and 172 men; 3: 2), treated over a mean of 13.5 years (range, 1-46 years), aged 19 to 92. 77 patients (18%) were identified with LHTP whose median serum calcium-was 2.55 mmol/L and PTH was 99 ng/L. A further 21% showed tendencies toward hypercalcemia. Forty-three percent had vitamin D insufficiency. Five patients (approximately 1%) had undergone parathyroidectomy.Conclusion: The prevalence of LHPT is high and often goes undetected. Vitamin D insufficiency is common as is polypharmacy. Surgery, for unclear reasons, has not been performed extensively, possibly because of limited knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology or surgery's significance. We present standard recommendations on patient management and suggest continual, specific follow-up including the monitoring of calcium, PTH, and vitamin D at least annually. Surgery should be considered with intention to improve psychiatric well-being and provide multiorgan protection.
  • Bejerot, Susanne, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood clumsiness and peer victimization : a case-control study of psychiatric patients
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - London, United Kingdom : BioMed Central. - 1471-244X .- 1471-244X. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Poor motor and social skills as well as peer victimization are commonly reported in both ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. Positive relationships between poor motor and poor social skills, and between poor social skills and peer victimization, are well documented, but the relationship between poor motor skills and peer victimization has not been studied in psychiatric populations.Method: 277 patients (133 males, 144 females), mean age 31 years, investigated for ADHD or autism spectrum disorder in adulthood and with normal intelligence, were interviewed about childhood peer victimization and examined for gross motor skills. The parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire on childhood problems, the Five to Fifteen. The Five to Fifteen is a validated questionnaire with 181 statements that covers various symptoms in childhood across eight different domains, one of them targeting motor skills. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between motor skills and the risk and duration of peer victimization, adjusted for sex and diagnosis.Results: Victims were described as more clumsy in childhood than their non-victimized counterparts. A significant independent association was found between reportedly poor childhood gross motor skills and peer victimization (adjusted odds ratio: 2.97 [95% confidence interval: 1.46-6.07], n = 235, p = 0.003). In adulthood, the victimized group performed worse on vertical jumps, a gross motor task, and were lonelier. Other factors that were expected to be associated with peer victimization were not found in this highly selected group.Conclusion: Poor gross motor skills constitute a strong and independent risk factor for peer victimization in childhood, regardless of sex, childhood psychiatric care and diagnosis.
  • Bejerot, Susanne, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence-Based Brief Obsessive-Compulsive Scale
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease. - : Sage Publications. - 1179-5735 .- 1179-5735. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Humble, Mats B., 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) among psychiatric out-patients in Sweden : relations with season, age, ethnic origin and psychiatric diagnosis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Elsevier. - 0960-0760 .- 1879-1220. ; 121:1-2, s. 467-470
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a chart review at a psychiatric out-patient department, latitude 59.3 degrees N, a sample of patients with tests of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) and plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was collected, together with demographic data and psychiatric diagnoses. During 19 months, 117 patients were included. Their median 25-OHD was 45 nmol/l; considerably lower than published reports on Swedish healthy populations. Only 14.5% had recommended levels (over 75). In 56.4%, 25-OHD was under 50 nmol/l, which is related to several unfavourable health outcomes. Seasonal variation of 25-OHD was blunted. Patients with ADHD had unexpectedly low iPTH levels. Middle East, South-East Asian or African ethnic origin, being a young male and having a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia predicted low 25-OHD levels. Hence, the diagnoses that have been hypothetically linked to developmental (prenatal) vitamin D deficiency, schizophrenia and autism, had the lowest 25-OHD levels in this adult sample, supporting the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be a predisposing developmental factor but also relate to the adult patients' psychiatric state. This is further supported by the considerable psychiatric improvement that coincided with vitamin D treatment in some of the patients whose deficiency was treated.
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