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Sökning: WFRF:(Iggman D)

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1.
  • Rosqvist, F., et al. (författare)
  • Overeating Saturated Fat Promotes Fatty Liver and Ceramides Compared With Polyunsaturated Fat: A Randomized Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 104:12, s. 6207-6219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Saturated fatty acid (SFA) vs polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) may promote nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by yet unclear mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if overeating SFA- and PUFA-enriched diets lead to differential liver fat accumulation in overweight and obese humans. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized trial (LIPOGAIN-2). Overfeeding SFA vs PUFA for 8 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of caloric restriction. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women who are overweight or have obesity (n = 61). INTERVENTION: Muffins, high in either palm (SFA) or sunflower oil (PUFA), were added to the habitual diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lean tissue mass (not reported here). Secondary and exploratory outcomes included liver and ectopic fat depots. RESULTS: By design, body weight gain was similar in SFA (2.31 ± 1.38 kg) and PUFA (2.01 ± 1.90 kg) groups, P = 0.50. SFA markedly induced liver fat content (50% relative increase) along with liver enzymes and atherogenic serum lipids. In contrast, despite similar weight gain, PUFA did not increase liver fat or liver enzymes or cause any adverse effects on blood lipids. SFA had no differential effect on the accumulation of visceral fat, pancreas fat, or total body fat compared with PUFA. SFA consistently increased, whereas PUFA reduced circulating ceramides, changes that were moderately associated with liver fat changes and proposed markers of hepatic lipogenesis. The adverse metabolic effects of SFA were reversed by calorie restriction. CONCLUSIONS: SFA markedly induces liver fat and serum ceramides, whereas dietary PUFA prevents liver fat accumulation and reduces ceramides and hyperlipidemia during excess energy intake and weight gain in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2019 Endocrine Society.
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2.
  • Uusitupa, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome - a randomized study (SYSDIET)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2796. ; 274:1, s. 52-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Methods We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18-24weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55years, BMI 31.6kgm-2, 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. Results Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmolL-1 95% CI -0.35; -0.01, P=0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (-0.15, -0.28; -0.00, P=0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (-0.04, -0.07; -0.00, P=0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference -84, -133; -37ngL-1, P= 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P=0.049) and magnesium (mg, -0.23, -0.41; -0.05, P=0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. Conclusions Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation.
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3.
  • Bjermo, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 95:5, s. 1003-1012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Replacing SFAs with vegetable PUFAs has cardiometabolic benefits, but the effects on liver fat are unknown. Increased dietary n-6 PUFAs have, however, also been proposed to promote inflammation-a yet unproven theory. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of PUFAs on liver fat, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders. DESIGN: We randomly assigned 67 abdominally obese subjects (15% had type 2 diabetes) to a 10-wk isocaloric diet high in vegetable n-6 PUFA (PUFA diet) or SFA mainly from butter (SFA diet), without altering the macronutrient intake. Liver fat was assessed by MRI and magnetic resonance proton (1H) spectroscopy (MRS). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9, a hepatic LDL-receptor regulator), inflammation, and adipose tissue expression of inflammatory and lipogenic genes were determined. RESULTS: A total of 61 subjects completed the study. Body weight modestly increased but was not different between groups. Liver fat was lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet [between-group difference in relative change from baseline; 16% (MRI; P < 0.001), 34% (MRS; P = 0.02)]. PCSK9 (P = 0.001), TNF receptor-2 (P < 0.01), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P = 0.02) concentrations were lower during the PUFA diet, whereas insulin (P = 0.06) tended to be higher during the SFA diet. In compliant subjects (defined as change in serum linoleic acid), insulin, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue gene expression was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SFA intake, n-6 PUFAs reduce liver fat and modestly improve metabolic status, without weight loss. A high n-6 PUFA intake does not cause any signs of inflammation or oxidative stress. Downregulation of PCSK9 could be a novel mechanism behind the cholesterol-lowering effects of PUFAs.
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4.
  • Gillberg, Linn, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue transcriptomics and epigenomics in low birthweight men and controls : role of high-fat overfeeding
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:4, s. 799-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Individuals who had a low birthweight (LBW) are at an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes when exposed to high-fat overfeeding (HFO). We studied genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) after 5 days of HFO and after a control diet in 40 young men, of whom 16 had LBW. Methods mRNA expression was analysed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays and DNA methylation using Illumina 450K BeadChip arrays. Results We found differential DNA methylation at 53 sites in SAT from LBW vs normal birthweight (NBW) men (false discovery rate < 5%), including sites in the FADS2 and CPLX1 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes. When we used reference-free cell mixture adjustments to potentially adjust for cell composition, 4,323 sites had differential methylation in LBW vs NBW men. However, no differences in SAT gene expression levels were identified between LBW and NBW men. In the combined group of all 40 participants, 3,276 genes (16.5%) were differentially expressed in SAT after HFO (false discovery rate < 5%) and there was no difference between LBW men and controls. The most strongly upregulated genes were ELOVL6, FADS2 and NNAT; in contrast, INSR, IRS2 and the SLC27A2 fatty acid transporter showed decreased expression after HFO. Interestingly, SLC27A2 expression correlated negatively with diabetes- and obesity-related traits in a replication cohort of 142 individuals. DNA methylation at 652 CpG sites (including in CDK5, IGFBP5 and SLC2A4) was altered in SAT after overfeeding in this and in another cohort. Conclusions/interpretation Young men who had a LBW exhibit epigenetic alterations in their adipose tissue that potentially influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Short-term overfeeding influences gene transcription and, to some extent, DNA methylation in adipose tissue; there was no major difference in this response between LBW and control participants.
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6.
  • Iggman, D, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly men
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer-Verlag. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 53:5, s. 850-857
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Dietary fatty acids may affect insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition partly reflects long-term dietary intake, but data from large studies regarding relationships with insulin sensitivity are lacking. We aimed to determine the association between adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly Swedish men. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n?=?795, mean age 71 years), adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and fatty acid composition was determined by gas–liquid chromatography. Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by a euglycaemic clamp. Results Palmitic acid (16:0), the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the diet and in adipose tissue, was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r?=?-0.14), as were 16:1 n-7 (r?=?-0.15), 20:3 n-6 (r?=?-0.31), 20:4 n-6 (r?=?-0.38), 22:4 n-6 (r?=?-0.37) and 22:5 n-3 (r?=?-0.24; p?
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7.
  • Iggman, David, et al. (författare)
  • Association of adipose tissue fatty acids with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in elderly men
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 1:7, s. 745-753
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: The major polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue objectively reflect long-term dietary intake, and may provide more reliable information than would self-reported intake. Whether adipose tissue fatty acids predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality needs investigation.Objective: To investigate associations between adipose tissue fatty acids and cardiovascular and overall mortality in a cohort of elderly men.Design, Setting, and Participants: We hypothesized that polyunsaturated fatty acids reflecting dietary intake, are inversely associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In the Swedish cohort study Uppsala Longitudinal Cohort of Adult Men, buttock fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography in 1992 to 1993 and 2008. The study participants were followed during 11 311 person-years, between 1991 and 2011 (median follow-up, 14.8 years). In this community-based study that took place from 1970 to 1973, all men born in 1920 to 1924 in Uppsala, Sweden, were invited and 2322 (82%) were included (at age 50 years). At the reinvestigation at age 71 years, 1221 (73%) of the 1681 invited men participated. Adipose tissue biopsy specimens were taken in a subsample of 853 men. There was no loss to follow-up.Exposures: Adipose tissue proportions of 4 polyunsaturated fatty acids that were considered to mainly reflect dietary intake (linoleic acid, 18:2n-6; α-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3; eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3; and docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3) comprised primary analyses, and all other available fatty acids were secondary analyses.Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, performed in 2015.Results: Among the 853 Swedish men, there were 605 deaths, of which 251 were cardiovascular deaths. After adjusting for risk factors, none of the 4 primary fatty acids were associated with cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.92-1.05 for each standard deviation increase; P ≥ .27). Linoleic acid was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; P = .02) and directly associated with intake (P < .001). In secondary analyses, palmitoleic acid, 16:1n-7 (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.21; P = .02) was associated with higher all-cause mortality, whereas heptadecanoic acid, 17:0, tended to be associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00; P = .05). Arachidonic:linoleic acid ratio was associated with both cardiovascular (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.31; P = .04) and all-cause (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23; P = .005) mortality.Conclusions and Relevance: Adipose tissue linoleic acid was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in elderly men, although not significantly with cardiovascular mortality.
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8.
  • Iggman, D., et al. (författare)
  • Replacing dairy fat with rapeseed oil causes rapid improvement of hyperlipidaemia : a randomized controlled study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 270:4, s. 356-364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Rapeseed oil (RO), also known as canola oil, principally contains the unsaturated fatty acids 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 and may promote cardiometabolic health. Objective. To investigate the effects on lipoprotein profile, factors of coagulation and insulin sensitivity of replacing a diet rich in saturated fat from dairy foods (DF diet) with a diet including RO-based fat (RO diet). Design. During a 2 x 3-week randomized, controlled, cross-over trial, 20 free-living hyperlipidaemic subjects were provided with isocaloric test diets that differed in fat composition alone. Blood lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic factors and insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamp) were determined before and after the dietary intervention. Results. All subjects completed the study, and compliance was high according to changes in serum fatty acids. The RO diet, but not the DF diet, reduced the levels of serum cholesterol (-17%), triglycerides (-20%) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-17%), cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (-21%), apolipoprotein (apo) B/apo A-I ratio (-4%) and factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) (-5%) from baseline. These changes were significantly different between the diets (P = 0.05 to P < 0.0001), except for FVIIc (P = 0.1). The RO diet, but not the DF diet, modestly increased serum lipoprotein( a) (+6%) and tended to increase the glucose disappearance rate (K-value, +33%). HDL cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, fibrinogen and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels did not change from baseline or differ between the two diets. Conclusions. In a diet moderately high in total fat, replacing dairy fat with RO causes a rapid and clinically relevant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile including lowering of triglycerides in hyperlipidaemic individuals.
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9.
  • Iggman, David, et al. (författare)
  • Role of dietary fats in modulating cardiometabolic risk during moderate weight gain : a randomized double-blind overfeeding trial (LIPOGAIN study)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 3:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Whether the type of dietary fat could alter cardiometabolic responses to a hypercaloric diet is unknown. In addition, subclinical cardiometabolic consequences of moderate weight gain require further study.METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 7-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, 39 healthy, lean individuals (mean age of 27±4) consumed muffins (51% of energy [%E] from fat and 44%E refined carbohydrates) providing 750 kcal/day added to their habitual diets. All muffins had identical contents, except for type of fat; sunflower oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA diet) or palm oil rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA diet). Despite comparable weight gain in the 2 groups, total: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein:HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B:AI ratios decreased during the PUFA versus the SFA diet (-0.37±0.59 versus +0.07±0.29, -0.31±0.49 versus +0.05±0.28, and -0.07±0.11 versus +0.01±0.07, P=0.003, P=0.007, and P=0.01 for between-group differences), whereas no significant differences were observed for other cardiometabolic risk markers. In the whole group (ie, independently of fat type), body weight increased (+2.2%, P<0.001) together with increased plasma proinsulin (+21%, P=0.007), insulin (+17%, P=0.003), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, (+9%, P=0.008) fibroblast growth factor-21 (+31%, P=0.04), endothelial markers vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin (+9, +5, and +10%, respectively, P<0.01 for all), whereas nonesterified fatty acids decreased (-28%, P=0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Excess energy from PUFA versus SFA reduces atherogenic lipoproteins. Modest weight gain in young individuals induces hyperproinsulinemia and increases biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, effects that may be partly outweighed by the lipid-lowering effects of PUFA.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01427140.
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10.
  • Perfilyev, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of polyunsaturated and saturated fat overfeeding on the DNA-methylation pattern in human adipose tissue : A randomized controlled trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 105:4, s. 991-1000
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses. Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial. Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of ∼450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both diets resulted in similar body weight increases. We also combined the data from the 2 groups to examine the overall effect of overfeeding on the DNA methylation in adipose tissue. Results: The DNA methylation of 4875 Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites was affected differently between the 2 diets. Furthermore, both the SFA and PUFA diets increased the mean degree of DNA methylation in adipose tissue, particularly in promoter regions. However, although the mean methylation was changed in 1797 genes [e.g., alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (FTO), interleukin 6 (IL6), insulin receptor (INSR), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] by PUFAs, only 125 genes [e.g., adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing (ADIPOQ)] were changed by SFA overfeeding. In addition, the SFA diet significantly altered the expression of 28 transcripts [e.g., acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1)], whereas the PUFA diet did not significantly affect gene expression. When the data from the 2 diet groups were combined, the mean methylation of 1444 genes, including fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), MC3R, PPARG coactivator 1 α (PPARGC1A), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was changed in adipose tissue by overfeeding. Moreover, the baseline DNA methylation of 12 CpG sites that was annotated to 9 genes [e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MAPK7), melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), and splicing factor SWAP homolog (SFRS8)] was associated with the degree of weight increase in response to extra energy intake. Conclusions: SFA overfeeding and PUFA overfeeding induce distinct epigenetic changes in human adipose tissue. In addition, we present data that suggest that baseline DNA methylation can predict weight increase in response to overfeeding in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01427140. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;105:991-1000.
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