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Sökning: WFRF:(Immler Simone)

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1.
  • Kotrschal, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Positive genetic correlation between brain size and sexual traits in male guppies artificially selected for brain size
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology. - 1010-061X .- 1420-9101. ; 28:4, s. 841-850
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brain size is an energetically costly trait to develop and maintain. Investments into other costly aspects of an organism's biology may therefore place important constraints on brain size evolution. Sexual traits are often costly and could therefore be traded off against neural investment. However, brain size may itself be under sexual selection through mate choice on cognitive ability. Here, we use guppy (Poecilia reticulata) lines selected for large and small brain size relative to body size to investigate the relationship between brain size, a large suite of male primary and secondary sexual traits, and body condition index. We found no evidence for trade-offs between brain size and sexual traits. Instead, larger-brained males had higher expression of several primary and precopulatory sexual traits - they had longer genitalia, were more colourful and developed longer tails than smaller-brained males. Larger-brained males were also in better body condition when housed in single-sex groups. There was no difference in post-copulatory sexual traits between males from the large- and small-brained lines. Our data do not support the hypothesis that investment into sexual traits is an important limiting factor to brain size evolution, but instead suggest that brain size and several sexual traits are positively genetically correlated.
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2.
  • Levine, Hagai, et al. (författare)
  • Male reproductive health statement (XIIIth international symposium on Spermatology, may 9th-12th 2018, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Basic and Clinical Andrology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). ; 28, s. 13-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On the occasion of the XIIIth International Symposium on Spermatology held from 9 to 13 May 2018 in Stockholm (Sweden), participants (guest speakers and audience) collectively felt the need to make a public statement on the general issue of male reproductive health. Our intention is to raise awareness of what we believe is a neglected area of research despite alarming situations around the world. The disclosure strategy desired by the co-authors is to bring it to the attention of the greatest number partly by considering co-publication in the various periodicals dealing with Reproductive Biology and Andrology. BaCA's editorial office accepted this mission and found it natural that our periodical, the official journal of the French Andrology Society (SALF), should carry this message.
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3.
  • Alavioon, Ghazal, 1986- (författare)
  • Haploid selection in animals : Exploring the fitness consequences and underlying mechanisms
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A consequence of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is the evolution of a biphasic life cycle with alternating diploid and haploid gametic phases. While our focus in evolutionary biology is on selection during the diploid phase, we know relatively little about selection occurring during the haploid gametic stage. This is particularly true in predominantly diploid animals, where gene expression and hence selection have long been thought to be absent in haploid cells like gametes and particularly sperm. During my PhD, I tested the idea of selection during the haploid gametic phase using zebrafish Danio rario as a study species. I combined a large-scale selection experiment over three generations with fitness assays and next-generation sequencing to assess the importance of haploid selection. We measured offspring fitness in all three generations.  In addition, we compared gene expression in brain and testes of F1 and F3 adult male from each treatment by RNA sequencing. We found that offspring sired by longer-lived sperm showed higher survival rate and higher early- and late-life reproductive fitness compared to offspring sired by shorter-lived sperm. We also found differentially expressed genes between the two treatments with functions in metabolic and developmental pathways. These findings suggest that the observed fitness differences to be caused by small expression changes in many basic genes. We also tested for a genetic underpinning of the selected sperm phenotypes and identified allelic differences across the entire genome. Finally, we investigated the additive genetic component and parental effect of different sperm phenotypes. We found generally low additive genetic variation and high parental effects on sperm performance traits. In conclusion, this thesis provides evidence that the phenotypic variation among intact fertile sperm within an ejaculate affects offspring fitness throughout life and provides a clear link between sperm phenotype and offspring fitness and between sperm phenotype and sperm genotype.
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4.
  • Alavioon, Ghazal, et al. (författare)
  • Haploid selection within a single ejaculate increases offspring fitness
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; :30, s. 8053-8058
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An inescapable consequence of sex in eukaryotes is the evolution of a biphasic life cycle with alternating diploid and haploid phases. The occurrence of selection during the haploid phase can have far-reaching consequences for fundamental evolutionary processes including the rate of adaptation, the extent of inbreeding depression, and the load of deleterious mutations, as well as for applied research into fertilization technology. Although haploid selection is well established in plants, current dogma assumes that in animals, intact fertile sperm within a single ejaculate are equivalent at siring viable offspring. Using the zebrafish Danio rerio, we show that selection on phenotypic variation among intact fertile sperm within an ejaculate affects offspring fitness. Longer-lived sperm sired embryos with increased survival and a reduced number of apoptotic cells, and adult male offspring exhibited higher fitness. The effect on embryo viability was carried over into the second generation without further selection and was equally strong in both sexes. Sperm pools selected by motile phenotypes differed genetically at numerous sites throughout the genome. Our findings clearly link within-ejaculate variation in sperm phenotype to offspring fitness and sperm genotype in a vertebrate and have major implications for adaptive evolution.
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5.
  • Alavioon, Ghazal, et al. (författare)
  • Selection for longer lived sperm within ejaculate reduces reproductive ageing in offspring
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: EVOLUTION LETTERS. - 2056-3744. ; 3:2, s. 198-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Males produce numerous sperm in a single ejaculate that greatly outnumber their potential egg targets. Recent studies found that phenotypic and genotypic variation among sperm in a single ejaculate of a male affects the fitness and performance of the resulting offspring. Specifically, within-ejaculate sperm selection for sperm longevity increased the performance of the resulting offspring in several key life-history traits in early life. Because increased early-life reproductive performance often correlates with rapid ageing, it is possible that within-ejaculate sperm selection increases early-life fitness at the cost of accelerated senescence. Alternatively, within-ejaculate sperm selection could improve offspring quality throughout the life cycle, including reduced age-specific deterioration. We tested the two alternative hypotheses in an experimental setup using zebrafish Danio rerio. We found that within-ejaculate sperm selection for sperm longevity reduced age-specific deterioration of fecundity and offspring survival but had no effect on fertilization success in males. Remarkably, we found an opposing effect of within-ejaculate sperm selection on female fecundity, where selection for sperm longevity resulted in increased early-life performance followed by a slow decline, while females sired by unselected sperm started low but increased their fecundity with age. Intriguingly, within-ejaculate sperm selection also reduced the age-specific decline in fertilization success in females, suggesting that selection for sperm longevity improves at least some aspects of female reproductive ageing. These results demonstrate that within-ejaculate variation in sperm phenotype contributes to individual variation in animal life histories in the two sexes and may have important implications for assisted fertilization programs in livestock and humans.
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6.
  • Alavioon, Ghazal, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Sperm performance traits exhibit low additive genetic component and strong parental effects in external fertilizer
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Despite their key role in determining reproductive success and with that Darwinian fitness, the heritability and underlying additive genetic variance of reproductive traits is still not fully understood. While some traits show relatively high genetic variance, others show very low genetic variance, which is particularly true for complex non-morphological traits. In line with these general patterns, morphological sperm traits show surprisingly high heritability, whereas heritability reported for sperm quality and performance traits generally is lower. A possible explanation for this is the general notion that more fitness related traits show lower levels of additive genetic variance and heritability. We investigated the additive genetic variance and heritability of sperm swimming velocity, the percentage of motile sperm, sperm concentration in the ejaculate and sperm longevity in the externally fertilizing zebrafish Danio rerio. All sperm traits showed low but significant additive genetic variance and high parental components. While the additive genetic variance was significant it was lower than reported in many other studies. A possible explanation for this is that in externally fertilizing species, sperm traits are the prime determinant of fertilization success and high plasticity is crucial for swift adaptations to changes in the environmental conditions such as competition but also water temperature and currents. Given that this is the first study looking into the heritability of sperm traits in an external fertilizer it will be interesting to understand, whether this is true for other externally fertilizing species and taxa.
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7.
  • Alavioon, Ghazal, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • The fitness consequences of selection among sperm within an ejaculate across generations
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The evolution of a biphasic life cycle with alternating diploid and haploid phases is a necessary consequence of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. Selection in each of the phases may have far reaching consequences for many evolutionary processes. While our focus in evolutionary biology lies mainly on selection during the diploid phase, we know relatively little about the role and consequences of selection occurring during the haploid gametic stage. This is particularly true in predominantly diploid animals where the haploid gametic phase is very short. To test the importance of haploid selection in animals, we performed a large-scale selection experiment with selection acting on haploid sperm. We selected on sperm longevity within an ejaculate and tested the effects of such selection over three generation. We performed fitness assays for every generation and found that offspring sired by longer-lived sperm generally exhibit higher fitness from early development into adulthood compared to offspring sired by their shorter-lived sibling sperm in all three generations. These fitness effects were carried over into the second generation without further selection in all three generations. Moreover, using RNA sequencing, we assessed differences in tissue specific gene expression between the offspring sired by the two sperm phenotypes in generation F1 and F3. The transcriptomes in both tissues differed significantly between the two treatments. Many very basic housekeeping genes involved in metabolism and development showed small differences in expression in both tissues. Our study provides solid evidence for the far-reaching consequences of selection on different sperm within a single ejaculate in three consecutive generations, and offers exciting new insights into the possible underlying mechanisms. Our results further highlight the importance of selection at the haploid gametic stages for fundamental evolutionary processes and assisted fertilization technologies.
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8.
  • Alavioon, Ghazal, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Within-ejaculate selection for sperm longevity reduces male reproductive ageing
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Males produce numerous sperm in the single ejaculate that greatly outnumber their potential egg targets. Recent studies found that phenotypic variation among sperm in the single ejaculate of a male reflects the phenotype and the genotype of the resulting offspring. Specifically, within-ejaculate sperm selection (WESS) for sperm longevity increased the performance of the resulting offspring in several key life-history traits in early-life. Because increased early-life reproductive performance often correlates with rapid ageing, it is possible that WESS increases early-life fitness at the cost of accelerated senescence. Alternatively, WESS can improve offspring quality throughout the life cycle, including reduced age-specific deterioration. We found that WESS for sperm longevity reduced age-specific deterioration of male fertility and embryo survival, while there is no effect on fertilization success. Remarkably, we found opposing effect of WESS on female fecundity, where selection for sperm longevity resulted in increased early-life performance followed by a slow decline, while unselected controls started low but increased their fecundity with age. Intriguingly, WESS also reduced the age-specific decline in fertilization success in females, suggesting that selection for sperm longevity improves at least some aspects of female reproductive ageing. These results demonstrate that within-ejaculate variation in sperm phenotype contributes to individual variation in animal life histories in the two sexes and have important implications for assisted fertilization programs in livestock and humans. 
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9.
  • Chen, Hwei-yen, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Trade-off between somatic and germline repair in a vertebrate supports the expensive germ line hypothesis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : NATL ACAD SCIENCES. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 117:16, s. 8973-8979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The disposable soma theory is a central tenet of the biology of aging where germline immortality comes at the cost of an aging soma [T. B. L. Kirkwood, Nature 270, 301-304 (1977); T. B. L. Kirkwood, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B BioL Sd 205, 531-546 (1979); T. B. L Kirkwood, S. N. Austad, Nature 408, 233-238 (2000)]. Limited resources and a possible trade-off between the repair and maintenance of the germ cells and growth and maintenance of the soma may explain the deterioration of the soma over time. Here we show that germline removal allows accelerated somatic healing under stress. We tested "the expensive germ line" hypothesis by generating germline-free zebrafish Danio rerio and testing the effect of the presence and absence of the germ line on somatic repair under benign and stressful conditions. We exposed male fish to sublethal low-dose ionizing radiation, a genotoxic stress affecting the soma and the germ line, and tested how fast the soma recovered following partial fin ablation. We found that somatic recovery from ablation occurred substantially faster in irradiated germline-free fish than in the control germline-carrying fish where somatic recovery was stunned. The germ line did show signs of postirradiation recovery in germline-carrying fish in several traits related to offspring number and fitness. These results support the theoretical conjecture that germline maintenance is costly and directly trades off with somatic maintenance.
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10.
  • Hermans Née Hotzy, Cosima (författare)
  • Selection in sperm and its consequences : Exploring haploid selection, ageing and epigenetic effects in sperm
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sexually reproducing eukaryotes are typically going through a biphasic life cycle with a diploid and a haploid phase. Unlike in plants where selection on haploid pollen genotypes is well established, the possibility of selection occurring in animal sperm is currently not known. One of the main reasons for this lack of knowledge is the general assumption that due to the shortness and the apparent absence of gene expression in haploid sperm, selection during that phase is unlikely to occur. The aim of this thesis was to fill this gap and address some of the main fundamental questions. I investigated the interaction between sperm phenotype and offspring phenotype with a focus on the trans-generational effects of (i) selection on the haploid sperm genotype, (ii) sperm ageing and (iii) sperm-mediated epigenetic effects. For one, we performed several experimental studies to investigate how selection on the sperm phenotype affects offspring performance in two externally fertilizing fishes, Atlantic salmon and zebrafish. We found that in Atlantic salmon, sperm of intermediate post-activation longevity sire offspring that hatch earlier. In zebrafish, longer living sperm sire more viable offspring with a higher fitness than their short-lived sibling sperm. We explored the mechanisms of these trans-generational effects and found that neither intrinsic post-ejaculation sperm ageing (Atlantic salmon and zebrafish) nor pre-ejaculation sperm ageing (zebrafish) affect offspring performance. However, we identified genetic differences between sperm pools that were obtained by selecting different phenotypes within ejaculates of zebrafish males. These results suggest a genetic basis for intra-ejaculate sperm phenotype variation and show that there is potential for haploid selection in sperm. In a separate experiment, we explored the role of sexual selection in shaping sperm-mediated epigenetic effects, and found that short-time changes in male-male competition affect offspring hatching time and survival. In conclusion, this thesis provides evidence that sperm phenotype affects offspring phenotype, and that sperm phenotype is affected by both epigenetic changes influenced by the male environment and differences in the haploid genome of sperm.
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