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  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3:S08002
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme includes collisions with lighter ions, lower energy running and dedicated proton-nucleus runs. ALICE will also take data with proton beams at the top LHC energy to collect reference data for the heavy-ion programme and to address several QCD topics for which ALICE is complementary to the other LHC detectors. The ALICE detector has been built by a collaboration including currently over 1000 physicists and engineers from 105 Institutes in 30 countries, Its overall dimensions are 16 x 16 x 26 m(3) with a total weight of approximately 10 000 t. The experiment consists of 18 different detector systems each with its own specific technology choice and design constraints, driven both by the physics requirements and the experimental conditions expected at LHC. The most stringent design constraint is to cope with the extreme particle multiplicity anticipated in central Pb-Pb collisions. The different subsystems were optimized to provide high-momentum resolution as well as excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a broad range in momentum, up to the highest multiplicities predicted for LHC. This will allow for comprehensive studies of hadrons, electrons, muons, and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei. Most detector systems are scheduled to be installed and ready for data taking by mid-2008 when the LHC is scheduled to start operation, with the exception of parts of the Photon Spectrometer (PHOS), Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and Electro Magnetic Calorimeter (EMCal). These detectors will be completed for the high-luminosity ion run expected in 2010. This paper describes in detail the detector components as installed for the first data taking in the summer of 2008.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of event background fluctuations for charged particle jet reconstruction in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of event background fluctuations on charged particle jet reconstruction in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV has been measured with the ALICE experiment. The main sources of non-statistical fluctuations are characterized based purely on experimental data with an unbiased method, as well as by using single high p(t) particles and simulated jets embedded into real Pb-Pb events and reconstructed with the anti-k(t) jet finder. The influence of a low transverse momentum cut-off on particles used in the jet reconstruction is quantified by varying the minimum track p(t) between 0.15 GeV/c and 2 GeV/c. For embedded jets reconstructed from charged particles with p(t) > 0.15 GeV/c, the uncertainty in the reconstructed jet transverse momentum due to the heavy-ion background is measured to be 11.3 GeV/c (standard deviation) for the 10% most central Pb-Pb collisions, slightly larger than the value of 11.0 GeV/c measured using the unbiased method. For a higher particle transverse momentum threshold of 2 GeV/c, which will generate a stronger bias towards hard fragmentation in the jet finding process, the standard deviation of the fluctuations in the reconstructed jet transverse momentum is reduced to 4.8-5.0 GeV/c for the 10% most central events. A non-Gaussian tail of the momentum uncertainty is observed and its impact on the reconstructed jet spectrum is evaluated for varying particle momentum thresholds, by folding the measured fluctuations with steeply falling spectra.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Charged-Particle Multiplicity Density at Midrapidity in Central Pb-Pb Collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 105:25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity density at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV is presented. For an event sample corresponding to the most central 5% of the hadronic cross section, the pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles at midrapidity is 1584 +/- 4(stat) +/- 76(syst), which corresponds to 8.3 +/- 0.4(syst) per participating nucleon pair. This represents an increase of about a factor 1.9 relative to pp collisions at similar collision energies, and about a factor 2.2 to central Au-Au collisions at root s(NN) = 0.2 TeV. This measurement provides the first experimental constraint for models of nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Elliptic Flow of Charged Particles in Pb-Pb Collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 105:25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) p = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2 < p(t) < 5.0 GeV/c. The elliptic flow signal v(2), measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087 +/- 0.002(stat) +/- 0.003(syst) in the 40%-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v(2)(p(t)) reaches a maximum of 0.2 near p(t) = 3 GeV/c. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Light vector meson production in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV ALICE Collaboration
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 710:4-5, s. 557-568
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ALICE experiment has measured low-mass dimuon production in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV in the dimuon rapidity region 2.5 < y < 4. The observed dimuon mass spectrum is described as a superposition of resonance decays (eta, rho, omega, eta', phi) into muons and semi-leptonic decays of charmed mesons. The measured production cross sections for omega and phi are sigma(omega)(1 < p(t) < 5 GeV/c. 2.5 < y < 4) = 5.28 +/- 0.54(stat) +/- 0.49(syst) mb and sigma(phi)(1 < p(t) < 5 GeV/c. 2.5 < y < 4) = 0.940 +/- 0.084(stat) +/- 0.076(syst) mb. The differential cross sections d(2)sigma/dy dp(t) are extracted as a function of p(t) for omega and phi. The ratio between the rho and omega cross section is obtained. Results for the phi are compared with other measurements at the same energy and with predictions by models. (C) 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Alignment of the ALICE Inner Tracking System with cosmic-ray tracks
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 5
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment devoted to investigating the strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC energies. The ALICE ITS, Inner Tracking System, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors with three different technologies; in the outward direction: two layers of pixel detectors, two layers each of drift, and strip detectors. The number of parameters to be determined in the spatial alignment of the 2198 sensor modules of the ITS is about 13,000. The target alignment precision is well below 10 mu m in some cases (pixels). The sources of alignment information include survey measurements, and the reconstructed tracks from cosmic rays and from proton-proton collisions. The main track-based alignment method uses the Millepede global approach. An iterative local method was developed and used as well. We present the results obtained for the ITS alignment using about 10(5) charged tracks from cosmic rays that have been collected during summer 2008, with the ALICE solenoidal magnet switched off.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • First proton-proton collisions at the LHC as observed with the ALICE detector: measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density at root s=900 GeV
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 65:1-2, s. 111-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On 23rd November 2009, during the early commissioning of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two counter-rotating proton bunches were circulated for the first time concurrently in the machine, at the LHC injection energy of 450 GeV per beam. Although the proton intensity was very low, with only one pilot bunch per beam, and no systematic attempt was made to optimize the collision optics, all LHC experiments reported a number of collision candidates. In the ALICE experiment, the collision region was centred very well in both the longitudinal and transverse directions and 284 events were recorded in coincidence with the two passing proton bunches. The events were immediately reconstructed and analyzed both online and offline. We have used these events to measure the pseudorapidity density of charged primary particles in the central region. In the range vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.5, we obtain dN(ch)/d eta = 3.10 +/- 0.13(stat.) +/- 0.22(syst.) for all inelastic interactions, and dN(ch)/d eta = 3.51 +/- 0.15(stat.) +/- 0.25(syst.) for nonsingle diffractive interactions. These results are consistent with previous measurements in proton-antiproton interactions at the same centre-of-mass energy at the CERN Sp<(p)over bar>S collider. They also illustrate the excellent functioning and rapid progress of the LHC accelerator, and of both the hardware and software of the ALICE experiment, in this early start-up phase.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at root s=900 GeV with ALICE at the LHC
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 693:2, s. 53-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The inclusive charged particle transverse momentum distribution is measured in proton-proton collisions at root s = 900 GeV at the LHC using the ALICE detector. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8) over the transverse momentum range 0.15 < p(T) < 10 GeV/c. The correlation between transverse momentum and particle multiplicity is also studied. Results are presented for inelastic (INEL) and non-single-diffractive (NSD) events. The average transverse momentum for vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8 is < p(T)>(INEL) = 0.483 +/- 0.001 (stat.) +/- 0.007 (syst.) GeV/c and < p(T)>(NSD) = 0.489 +/- 0.001 (stat.) +/- 0.007 (syst.) GeV/c, respectively. The data exhibit a slightly larger < p(T)> than measurements in wider pseudorapidity intervals. The results are compared to simulations with the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and PHOJET. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • J/psi Polarization in pp Collisions at root s=7 TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 108:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ALICE Collaboration has studied J/psi production in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV at the LHC through its muon pair decay. The polar and azimuthal angle distributions of the decay muons were measured, and results on the J/psi polarization parameters lambda(theta) and lambda(phi) were obtained. The study was performed in the kinematic region 2: 5 < y < 4, 2 < p(t) < 8 GeV/c, in the helicity and Collins-Soper reference frames. In both frames, the polarization parameters are compatible with zero, within uncertainties.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of charm production at central rapidity in proton-proton collisions at root s=7 TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The p(t)-differential inclusive production cross sections of the prompt charmed mesons D-0, D+, and D*(+) in the rapidity range vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5 were measured in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV at the LHC using the ALICE detector. Reconstructing the decays D-0 -> K-pi(+), D+ -> K-pi(+)pi(+), D*(+) -> D-0 pi(+), and their charge conjugates, about 8,400 D-0, 2,900 D+, and 2,600 D*(+) mesons with 1 < p(t) < 24 GeV/c were counted, after selection cuts, in a data sample of 3.14 x 10(8) events collected with a minimum-bias trigger (integrated luminosity L-int = 5 nb(-1)). The results are described within uncertainties by predictions based on perturbative QCD.
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