SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Jackson Victoria E.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Jackson Victoria E.)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 10
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Wain, Louise V, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analyses for lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identify new loci and potential druggable targets.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:3, s. 416-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function and is the third leading cause of death globally. Through genome-wide association discovery in 48,943 individuals, selected from extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, and follow-up in 95,375 individuals, we increased the yield of independent signals for lung function from 54 to 97. A genetic risk score was associated with COPD susceptibility (odds ratio per 1 s.d. of the risk score (∼6 alleles) (95% confidence interval) = 1.24 (1.20-1.27), P = 5.05 × 10(-49)), and we observed a 3.7-fold difference in COPD risk between individuals in the highest and lowest genetic risk score deciles in UK Biobank. The 97 signals show enrichment in genes for development, elastic fibers and epigenetic regulation pathways. We highlight targets for drugs and compounds in development for COPD and asthma (genes in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and CHRM3) and describe targets for potential drug repositioning from other clinical indications.</p>
  •  
2.
  • Jackson, Victoria E, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of exome array data identifies six novel genetic loci for lung function.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Wellcome open research. - 2398-502X. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. <strong>Methods:</strong> We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV <sub>1</sub>), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV <sub>1</sub> to FVC (FEV <sub>1</sub>/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. <strong>Results:</strong> We identified significant (P&lt;2·8x10 <sup>-7</sup>) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in <em>RPAP1</em>, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( <em>SEC24C, CASC17</em> and <em>UQCC1</em>) and two intergenic SNPs near to <em>LY86</em> and <em>FGF10.</em> Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including <em>TYRO3</em> and <em>PLAU</em>. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.</p>
  •  
3.
  • Sakornsakolpat, Phuwanat, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic landscape of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identifies heterogeneous cell-type and phenotype associations
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:3, s. 494-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P &lt; 5 x 10<sup>-8</sup>; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.</p>
  •  
4.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites. Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers. Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures. Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.</p>
  •  
5.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.</p><p>Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.</p><p>Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.</p><p>Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.</p>
  •  
6.
  • Aschard, Hugues, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for large-scale gene-by-smoking interaction effects on pulmonary function
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 46:3, s. 894-904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Smoking is the strongest environmental risk factor for reduced pulmonary function. The genetic component of various pulmonary traits has also been demonstrated, and at least 26 loci have been reproducibly associated with either FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) or FEV1/FVC (FEV1/forced vital capacity). Although the main effects of smoking and genetic loci are well established, the question of potential gene-by-smoking interaction effect remains unanswered. The aim of the present study was to assess, using a genetic risk score approach, whether the effect of these 26 loci on pulmonary function is influenced by smoking.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> We evaluated the interaction between smoking exposure, considered as either ever vs never or pack-years, and a 26-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genetic risk score in relation to FEV1 or FEV1/FVC in 50 047 participants of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) and SpiroMeta consortia.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> We identified an interaction (βint = -0.036, 95% confidence interval, -0.040 to -0.032, P = 0.00057) between an unweighted 26 SNP genetic risk score and smoking status (ever/never) on the FEV1/FVC ratio. In interpreting this interaction, we showed that the genetic risk of falling below the FEV 1: /FVC threshold used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is higher among ever smokers than among never smokers. A replication analysis in two independent datasets, although not statistically significant, showed a similar trend in the interaction effect.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> This study highlights the benefit of using genetic risk scores for identifying interactions missed when studying individual SNPs and shows, for the first time, that persons with the highest genetic risk for low FEV1/FVC may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of smoking.</p>
  •  
7.
  • Erzurumluoglu, A Mesut, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of up to 622,409 individuals identifies 40 novel smoking behaviour associated genetic loci
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P &lt; 5 × 10<sup>-8</sup> in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P &lt; 5 × 10<sup>-8</sup>) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P &lt; 4.5 × 10<sup>-3</sup>) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.</p>
  •  
8.
  • Afshin, Ashkan, et al. (författare)
  • Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017 a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 393:10184, s. 1958-1972
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Suboptimal diet is an important preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); however, its impact on the burden of NCDs has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of major foods and nutrients across 195 countries and to quantify the impact of their suboptimal intake on NCD mortality and morbidity.</p><p>Methods: By use of a comparative risk assessment approach, we estimated the proportion of disease-specific burden attributable to each dietary risk factor (also referred to as population attributable fraction) among adults aged 25 years or older. The main inputs to this analysis included the intake of each dietary factor, the effect size of the dietary factor on disease endpoint, and the level of intake associated with the lowest risk of mortality. Then, by use of diseasespecific population attributable fractions, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), we calculated the number of deaths and DALYs attributable to diet for each disease outcome.</p><p>Findings: In 2017, 11 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 10-12) deaths and 255 million (234-274) DALYs were attributable to dietary risk factors. High intake of sodium (3 million [1-5] deaths and 70 million [34-118] DALYs), low intake of whole grains (3 million [2-4] deaths and 82 million [59-109] DALYs), and low intake of fruits (2 million [1-4] deaths and 65 million [41-92] DALYs) were the leading dietary risk factors for deaths and DALYs globally and in many countries. Dietary data were from mixed sources and were not available for all countries, increasing the statistical uncertainty of our estimates.</p><p>Interpretation: This study provides a comprehensive picture of the potential impact of suboptimal diet on NCD mortality and morbidity, highlighting the need for improving diet across nations. Our findings will inform implementation of evidence-based dietary interventions and provide a platform for evaluation of their impact on human health annually.</p>
  •  
9.
  • Thun, Gian Andri, et al. (författare)
  • Causal and Synthetic Associations of Variants in the SERPINA Gene Cluster with Alpha1-antitrypsin Serum Levels
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 9:8, s. e1003585
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Several infrequent genetic polymorphisms in the SERPINA1 gene are known to substantially reduce concentration of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the blood. Since low AAT serum levels fail to protect pulmonary tissue from enzymatic degradation these polymorphisms also increase the risk for early onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of more common SERPINA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in respiratory health remains poorly understood. We present here an agnostic investigation of genetic determinants of circulating AAT levels in a general population sample by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1392 individuals of the SAPALDIA cohort. Five common SNPs defined by showing minor allele frequencies (MAFs) &gt;5% reached genome-wide significance all located in the SERPINA gene cluster at 14q32.13. The top-ranking genotyped SNP rs4905179 was associated with an estimated effect of beta = 20.068 g/L per minor allele (P = 1.20*10(-12)). But denser SERPINA1 locus genotyping in 5569 participants with subsequent stepwise conditional analysis as well as exon-sequencing in a subsample (N = 410) suggested that AAT serum level is causally determined at this locus by rare (MAF&lt;1%) and low-frequent (MAF 1-5%) variants only in particular by the well-documented protein inhibitor S and Z (PI S PI Z) variants. Replication of the association of rs4905179 with AAT serum levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (N = 8273) was successful (P&lt;0.0001) as was the replication of its synthetic nature (the effect disappeared after adjusting for PI S and Z P = 0.57). Extending the analysis to lung function revealed a more complex situation. Only in individuals with severely compromised pulmonary health (N = 397) associations of common SNPs at this locus with lung function were driven by rarer PI S or Z variants. Overall our meta-analysis of lung function in ever-smokers does not support a functional role of common SNPs in the SERPINA gene cluster in the general population.</p>
  •  
10.
  • Birney, Ewan, et al. (författare)
  • Prepublication data sharing
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 461:7261, s. 168-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Rapid release of prepublication data has served the field of genomics well. Attendees at a workshop in Toronto recommend extending the practice to other biological data sets.</p>
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 10
 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy