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  • Holmstrom, G. E., et al. (författare)
  • Swedish National Register for Retinopathy of Prematurity (SWEDROP) and the Evaluation of Screening in Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Archives of Ophthalmology. - Chicago, USA : Ama American Medical Association. - 0003-9950. ; 130:11, s. 1418-1424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To evaluate screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Sweden and to investigate possible modifications of the present screening guidelines. Methods: Infants in Sweden with a gestational age (GA) of 31 weeks + 6 days or less are screened for ROP. Data from the Swedish national register for ROP (SWEDROP) during 2008 and 2009 were extracted and compared with a national perinatal quality register. Results: In SWEDROP, there were 1791 infants born before a GA of 32weeks from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2009. Another 70 infants were registered in the perinatal quality register but not in SWEDROP (drop-out rate, 3.8% [70 of 1861 infants]). Seven infants died before termination of screening. In the final study cohort (1784 infants), 15.6% had mild ROP and 8.5% had severe ROP. Treatment was performed in 4.4% of the infants, none of whom had a GA at birth of more than 28 weeks. Nine infants with a GA of more than 28 weeks at birth developed stage 3 ROP, which regressed spontaneously. The total number of examinations was 9286 (964 in infants with a GA of 31 weeks), and the mean (range) number of examinations of each infant was 5.2 (1-30). Conclusions: The SWEDROP, a quality register for ROP, has a national coverage (ie, participation) of 96%. Data from 2008 to 2009 show that it seems possible to reduce the upper limit for screening in Sweden by 1 week, including only infants with a GA of 30 weeks + 6 days or less. However, such a change should be combined with a strong recommendation to neonatologists to refer also severely ill and more "mature" infants.
  • Hellgren, K. M., et al. (författare)
  • Ophthalmologic Outcome of Extremely Preterm Infants at 6.5 Years of Age Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Jama Ophthalmology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6165 .- 2168-6173. ; 134:5, s. 555-562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE This follow-up study of extremely preterm (EPT) children (<27 weeks' gestational age [GA] at birth) revealed major eye and visual problems in 37.9%(147 of 388) of all EPT infants and in 55.4%(67 of 121) of the most immature subgroups at 6.5 years of age. These major eye and visual problems were strongly associated with treatment-requiring retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). OBJECTIVES To investigate the ophthalmologic outcome of a national cohort of EPT children at 6.5 years of age and to evaluate the impact of prematurity and ROP. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS All surviving EPT children born in Sweden between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, were included and compared with a matched term control group, as part of a prospective national follow-up study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visual acuity, refraction in cycloplegia, and manifest strabismus were evaluated and compared with GA at birth and with treatment-requiring ROP. RESULTS The study cohort comprised 486 participants. The mean (SD) GA of the children who were included was 25 (1) weeks, and 45.7%(222 of 486) were female. At a median age of 6.6 years, 89.3%(434 of 486) of eligible EPT children were assessed and compared with 300 control group children. In the EPT group, 2.1%(9 of 434) were blind, 4.8%(21 of 434) were visually impaired according to the World Health Organization criteria, and 8.8% (38 of 434) were visually impaired according to the study criteria. Strabismus was found in 17.4% (68 of 390) and refractive errors in 29.7%(115 of 387) of the EPT children compared with 0% (0 of 299) and 5.9% (17 of 289), respectively, of the control children (P<.001). Altogether at 6.5 years of age, 37.9%(147 of 388) of the EPT children had some ophthalmologic abnormality compared with 6.2%(18 of 290) of the matched control group (95% CI of the difference, 26.1%-37.2%). When treatment-requiring ROP was adjusted for, no significant association between GA and visual impairment could be detected. For refractive errors, the association with GA remained after adjustment for treatment-requiring ROP (odds ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58-0.91 for each 1-week increment). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In a Swedish national cohort of EPT children at 6.5 years of age, major eye and visual problems were frequently found. Treatment-requiring ROP was a stronger impact factor than GA on visual impairment and strabismus, but not on refractive errors, as a whole. In modern neonatal intensive care settings, ophthalmologic problems continue to account for a high proportion of long-term sequelae of prematurity.
  • Hellström, Ann, 1959, et al. (författare)
  • Extreme prematurity, treated retinopathy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and cerebral palsy are significant risk factors for ophthalmological abnormalities at 6.5 years of age
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - : WILEY. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 107:5, s. 811-821
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: This study evaluated the contributions of various prenatal and postnatal predictive factors to a documented high prevalence of ophthalmological abnormalities in children aged 6.5 years who were born extremely preterm. Methods: We carried out a prospective population-based study of all children born in Sweden at a gestational age of 22 + 0 to 26 + 6 weeks based on the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study. The main outcome measures were a combined score of visual impairment, refractive errors and strabismus at 6.5 years of age. Models of univariate and multivariable regression were used to analyse potential prenatal and postnatal predictive factors at different clinically relevant time-points from one minute after birth to 30 months. Results: We focused on 399 known extremely preterm survivors and compared them to 300 full-term controls. Significant antecedents for ophthalmological abnormalities included prematurity per se, retinopathy of prematurity that required treatment, severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and cerebral palsy. Severe intraventricular haemorrhage was no longer a significant risk factor when we adjusted it for the 30-month cognitive and neuromotor development outcomes. Conclusion: This time-course risk analysis model showed a changing panorama of significant risk factors for ophthalmological abnormalities in children aged 6.5 years who were born extremely preterm.
  • Ekstrom, U., et al. (författare)
  • Insufficient mixing of thawed serum samples leading to erroneous results - experience from a field study and use of a correction procedure
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - : Informa Healthcare. - 0036-5513 .- 1502-7686. ; 80:2, s. 99-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Incorrect analysis results that are close to expected might not be recognized in scientific studies or routine patient care. In two field studies we obtained unexpected results in a large number of samples. The present study aimed to identify the source of error in the samples from these studies and to validate a method to obtain correct results. Pre-analytical procedures were scrutinized, giving no indications of inappropriate pre-analytical sample handling in the field or during transport in a tropical climate. Using a new set of samples from volunteers in simulation experiments, we observed the known concentration gradient of analytes sampled in gel as well as plain tubes after freezer storage and thawing. Experiments demonstrated that mixing of samples by vortexing alone was not sufficient to disrupt the gradient formed by freezing and thawing, which appeared to cause the problem encountered when we in field studies analyzed and biobanked large sample sets by robot pipetting. A correction procedure was introduced, in which the obtained value of an analyte was multiplied by a correction factor calculated for each sample using the expected sodium level (140 mmol/L) divided by the measured sodium value. When it was validated on results from the simulation experiments, we repeatedly found that the correction lead to results very close to true values for analytes of different size and charge. Usefulness of the procedure was demonstrated when applied to a large set of field study results.
  • Holmstrom, G., et al. (författare)
  • Five years of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in Sweden: results from SWEDROP, a national quality register
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Ophthalmology. - London, UK : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-1161 .- 1468-2079. ; 100:12, s. 1656-1661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/aims Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a sight-threatening disease, requiring efficient screening and treatment. The present study aims to describe various aspects on treatment for ROP in Sweden. Methods Data on treatment for ROP in infants born in 2008-2012 were extracted from Swedish national register for retinopathy of prematurity, a web-based national register. Results During 2008-2012, 3488 infants with a gestational age (GA) at birth of <31 weeks had been screened for ROP in Sweden. Altogether, 30.3% (1057/3488) of the infants developed ROP and 5.2% (181/3488) were treated. Type 1 ROP was found in at least one eye in 83.2% (149/179) of the treated infants. One third of the eyes (32.2% right, 29.9% left eyes) were treated more than once. Laser was the only treatment in 90% of the eyes. Mean number of laser spots at first laser session was 1177 and 1386 in right and left eyes, respectively. Number of laser spots correlated negatively with GA at birth (p=0.01). There was no change in frequency of treatment or number of laser spots during the 5-year period. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections were performed in 28 eyes, encircling band was used in five eyes and vitrectomies were performed in seven eyes. Twenty-six retinal surgeons performed 9.4 (range 1-37) treatment sessions in the 181 infants. Conclusions The present study reveals similar incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment during the 5-year study period. Many surgeons were involved in treatment of a rather limited number of infants. The results call for national discussions on organisation of ROP treatment.
  • Holmström, Gerd E, et al. (författare)
  • Ophthalmologic outcome at 30 months' corrected age of a prospective swedish cohort of children born before 27 weeks of gestation the extremely preterm infants in Sweden study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: JAMA ophthalmology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6165. ; 132:2, s. 182-189
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Follow-up at 30 months' corrected age reveals eye and visual problems in one-third of children born extremely prematurely (<27 weeks' gestation).OBJECTIVE To investigate the ophthalmologic outcome of extremely preterm children at 30 months' corrected age.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective, population-based follow-up study (Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study [EXPRESS]) was conducted in Sweden. The population included extremely preterm infants (<27 weeks' gestation) born in Sweden between 2004 and 2007, of whom 491 survived until age 2.5 years. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was performed in the neonatal period. At 30 months' corrected age, an ophthalmologic assessment was performed in 411 of 491 children (83.7%).MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visual acuity, manifest strabismus, and refractive errors were evaluated.RESULTS Visual impairment was identified in 3.1% of the children, and 1.0% were blind. Refractive errors, defined as myopia less than -3 diopters (D), hypermetropia greater than +3 D, astigmatism 2 D or more, and/or anisometropia 2 D or more, were found in 25.6% of the children, and 14.1% had manifest strabismus. There were significant associations between visual impairment and treated ROP (P = .02), cognitive disability (P < .001), and birth weight (P = .02). Multiple regression analyses revealed significant associations between strabismus and treated ROP (P < .001), cognitive disability (P < .01), and cerebral palsy (P = .02). Refractive errors were significantly correlated with severity of ROP (right eye, P < .001; left eye, P < .01). Children who had been treated for ROP had the highest frequency (69.0%) of eye and visual abnormalities.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE One-third of the extremely prematurely born children in this study had some kind of eye or visual problems, such as visual impairment, strabismus, or major refractive error. Despite being born extremely preterm, the present cohort has a similar prevalence of blindness and visual impairment as in previous Swedish cohorts of children born less prematurely.
  • Wesseling, Catharina, et al. (författare)
  • The Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Mesoamerica: A Call for Interdisciplinary Research and Action.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Public Health. - : Amer Public Health Assoc Inc. - 1541-0048 .- 0090-0036. ; 103:11, s. 1927-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the last 20 years, several regions in Central America and Mexico have seen a dramatic increase of a rapidly progressive chronic kidney disease, unexplained by diabetes and hypertension.(1-3) This regional epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is also being referred to as the Mesoamerican nephropathy or MeN.(4) It has been estimated that this largely unknown epidemic has caused the premature death of at least 20 000 men.(3) In MeN-affected areas in Nicaragua(3) and Costa Rica (C. W., unpublished data), chronic kidney disease mortality is up to five-fold the national rates. In El Salvador, kidney disease was the second most common cause of death among males in 2009.(5) MeN primarily, but not only, affects young and middle-aged male laborers in the agricultural sector, in particular sugarcane workers.(1-3) (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 12, 2013: e1-e4. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301594).
  • Alhamdow, Ayman, et al. (författare)
  • Chimney sweeps in Sweden : a questionnaire-based assessment of long-term changes in work conditions, and current eye and airway symptoms
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - : Springer. - 0340-0131 .- 1432-1246. ; 90:2, s. 207-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To explore chimney sweeping work tasks, chimney sweeps’ use of protective equipment, and type of fuel used by clients, over time. Further, to assess work-relatedness of current eye and airway symptoms. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 2011, male Swedish chimney sweeps (n = 483; age 21–69 years) answered a questionnaire about their occupational history and eye and airway symptoms. Results: Between 1960 and 2010, black-soot-sweeping in private homes was the major task, although it decreased during the time period, for chimney sweeps. Between 1975 and 2010, the use of petroleum oil decreased, whereas the use of pellets and wood increased. Also, the use of gloves and masks increased significantly. Black-soot-sweeping in industry was associated with work-related eye symptoms (prevalence odds ratio POR = 3.76, 95% CI: 1.72–8.24, for every 10% increment of working time, adjusted for age and tobacco smoking). Chimney sweeps also had slightly higher prevalence of cough with increasing black-soot-sweeping (POR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99–1.13 for every 10% increment, further adjusted for the use of mask), and the association was more pronounced, although nonsignificant, for black-soot-sweeping in industry (adjusted POR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.98–1.61). Conclusions: Chimney sweeping tasks and use of protective equipment as well as type of fuel used by the clients changed significantly over the last 35 years, which may have changed chimney sweeps’ exposure to soot. Still, chimney sweeps in Sweden have black-soot-sweeping-related eye and airway symptoms.
  • Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Detecting decreased sexual health with MDHAQ-S
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Health (Irvine). - : SCIRP. - 1949-4998 .- 1949-5005. ; :5, s. 38-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are instruments that measure sexual function or sexual health for persons with RA, but since sexual health is a sensitive issue, the hypothesis is that it would be easier to have a standard questionnaire that could indicate the need for communication about sexual health issues instead of an extra questionnaire with more detailed questions on sexual health. The aim of the study is to find out whether sexual health difficulties can be screened by factors included in the MDHAQ-S for persons with RA. This study explores the relation between factors included in the MDHAQ-S and the Sexual Health Questionnaire (QSH) using a mixed methods design combining quantitative and qualitative data. The MDHAQ-S covers sexual health issues, not only by using the question on sexual health, but also on other factors included in the questionnaire such as increased pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, physical capacity, level of physical activity and body weight. To explore decreased sexual arousal, decreased sexual satisfaction and decreased sexual well-being, in-depth interviews must be held with persons with RA, either using a sexual health questionnaire or in a clinical interview.
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