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1.
  • Bridel, Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6157 .- 2168-6149. ; 76:9, s. 1035-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions compared with healthy controls (HC) and is a candidate biomarker for neuroaxonal damage. The influence of age and sex is largely unknown, and levels across neurological disorders have not been compared systematically to date.To assess the associations of age, sex, and diagnosis with NfL in CSF (cNfL) and to evaluate its potential in discriminating clinically similar conditions.PubMed was searched for studies published between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016, reporting cNfL levels (using the search terms neurofilament light and cerebrospinal fluid) in neurological or psychiatric conditions and/or in HC.Studies reporting NfL levels measured in lumbar CSF using a commercially available immunoassay, as well as age and sex.Individual-level data were requested from study authors. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the fixed effects of age, sex, and diagnosis on log-transformed NfL levels, with cohort of origin modeled as a random intercept.The cNfL levels adjusted for age and sex across diagnoses.Data were collected for 10 059 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [18.8] years; 54.1% female). Thirty-five diagnoses were identified, including inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (n = 2795), dementias and predementia stages (n = 4284), parkinsonian disorders (n = 984), and HC (n = 1332). The cNfL was elevated compared with HC in a majority of neurological conditions studied. Highest levels were observed in cognitively impaired HIV-positive individuals (iHIV), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Huntington disease. In 33.3% of diagnoses, including HC, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD), cNfL was higher in men than women. The cNfL increased with age in HC and a majority of neurological conditions, although the association was strongest in HC. The cNfL overlapped in most clinically similar diagnoses except for FTD and iHIV, which segregated from other dementias, and PD, which segregated from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.These data support the use of cNfL as a biomarker of neuroaxonal damage and indicate that age-specific and sex-specific (and in some cases disease-specific) reference values may be needed. The cNfL has potential to assist the differentiation of FTD from AD and PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.
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2.
  • Eriksson, Anna-Lena, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • SHBG gene promoter polymorphisms in men are associated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin, androgen and androgen metabolite levels, and hip bone mineral density.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 91:12, s. 5029-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: SHBG regulates free sex steroid levels, which in turn regulate skeletal homeostasis. Twin studies have demonstrated that genetic factors largely account for interindividual variation in SHBG levels. Glucuronidated androgen metabolites have been proposed as markers of androgenic activity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the SHBG gene promoter [(TAAAA)(n) microsatellite and rs1799941 single-nucleotide polymorphism] are associated with serum levels of SHBG, sex steroids, or bone mineral density (BMD) in men. DESIGN AND STUDY SUBJECTS: We conducted a population-based study of two cohorts of Swedish men: elderly men (MrOS Sweden; n congruent with 3000; average age, 75.4 yr) and young adult men (GOOD study; n = 1068; average age, 18.9 yr). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured serum levels of SHBG, testosterone, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides, androsterone glucuronide, and BMD determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: In both cohorts, (TAAAA)(n) and rs1799941 genotypes were associated with serum levels of SHBG (P < 0.001), dihydrotestosterone (P < 0.05), and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides (P < 0.05). In the elderly men, they were also associated with testosterone and BMD at all hip bone sites. The genotype associated with high levels of SHBG was also associated with high BMD. Interestingly, male mice overexpressing human SHBG had increased cortical bone mineral content in the femur, suggesting that elevated SHBG levels may cause increased bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that polymorphisms in the SHBG promoter predict serum levels of SHBG, androgens, and glucuronidated androgen metabolites, and hip BMD in men.
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3.
  • Malmström, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • High frequency of lactose intolerance in a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population in northern Europe
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 10, s. 89-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genes and culture are believed to interact, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence for the process. One candidate example that has been put forward is lactase persistence in adulthood, i.e. the ability to continue digesting the milk sugar lactose after childhood, facilitating the consumption of raw milk. This genetic trait is believed to have evolved within a short time period and to be related with the emergence of sedentary agriculture. Results: Here we investigate the frequency of an allele (-13910*T) associated with lactase persistence in a Neolithic Scandinavian population. From the 14 individuals originally examined, 10 yielded reliable results. We find that the T allele frequency was very low (5%) in this Middle Neolithic hunter-gatherer population, and that the frequency is dramatically different from the extant Swedish population (74%). Conclusions: We conclude that this difference in frequency could not have arisen by genetic drift and is either due to selection or, more likely, replacement of hunter-gatherer populations by sedentary agriculturalists.
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4.
  • Salzer, Jonatan, et al. (författare)
  • Rituximab in multiple sclerosis : a retrospective observational study on safety and efficacy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 87:20, s. 2074-2081
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of rituximab in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: In this retrospective uncontrolled observational multicenter study, off-label rituximab-treated patients with MS were identified through the Swedish MS register. Outcome data were collected from the MS register and medical charts. Adverse events (AEs) grades 2-5 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were recorded. Results: A total of 822 rituximab-treated patients with MS were identified: 557 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 198 secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 67 primary progressive MS (PPMS). At baseline, 26.2% had contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs). Patients were treated with 500 or 1,000 mg rituximab IV every 6-12 months, during a mean 21.8 (SD 14.3) months. During treatment, the annualized relapse rates were 0.044 (RRMS), 0.038 (SPMS), and 0.015 (PPMS), and 4.6% of patients displayed CELs. Median Expanded Disability Status Scale remained unchanged in RRMS (p = 0.42) and increased by 0.5 and 1.0 in SPMS and PPMS, respectively (p = 0.10 and 0.25). Infusion-related AEs occurred during 7.8% of infusions and most were mild. A total of 89 AEs grades >= 2 (of which 76 infections) were recorded in 72 patients. No case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was detected. Conclusions: This is the largest cohort of patients with MS treated with rituximab reported so far. The safety, clinical, and MRI findings in this heterogeneous real-world cohort treated with different doses of rituximab were similar to those reported in previous randomized controlled trials on B-cell depletion therapy in MS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with MS, rituximab is safe and effective.
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5.
  • Andersson, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic influences on the temperature dependence of mobility in conjugated polymers
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Organic electronics. - : Elsevier. - 1566-1199 .- 1878-5530. ; 9:5, s. 569-574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The temperature dependence of charge carrier mobility in conjugated polymers and their blends with fullerenes is investigated with different electrical methods, through field effect transistor (FET), space charge limited current (SCLC) and charge extraction (CELIV) measurements. Simple models, such as the Gaussian disorder model (GDM), are shown to accurately predict the temperature behavior, and a good correlation between the different measurement methods is obtained. Inconsistent charge carrier concentrations in the modeling are explained through intrinsic non-equilibrium effects, and are responsible for the limited applicability of existing numerical models. A severe extrinsic influence from water in FETs with a hydrophilic insulator interface is also demonstrated. The presence of water leads to a significant overestimate of the disorder in the materials from measurements close to room temperature and erratic behavior in the 150-350 K range. To circumvent this problem it is shown to be necessary to measure under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Holm, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Patients' perspective on prostatic artery embolization : A qualitative study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: SAGE Open Medicine. - : SAGE Open. - 2050-3121. ; 9, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim was to describe the patients' experience of undergoing prostatic artery embolization.Methods: A retrospective qualitative interview study was undertaken with 15 patients of mean age 73 years who had undergone prostatic artery embolization with a median duration of 210 min at two medium sized hospitals in Sweden. The reasons for conducting prostatic artery embolization were clean intermittent catheterization (n = 4), lower urinary tract symptoms (n = 10) or haematuria (n = 1). Data were collected through individual, semi-structured telephone interviews 1-12 months after treatment and analysed using qualitative content analysis.Results: Four categories with sub-categories were formulated to describe the results: a diverse experience; ability to control the situation; resumption of everyday activities and range of opinions regarding efficacy of outcomes. Overall, the patients described the procedure as painless, easy and interesting and reported that while the procedure can be stressful, a calm atmosphere contributed to achieving a good experience. Limitations on access to reliable information before, during and after the procedure were highlighted as a major issue. Practical ideas for improving patient comfort during the procedure were suggested. Improved communications between treatment staff and patients were also highlighted. Most patients could resume everyday activities, some felt tired and bruising caused unnecessary worry for a few. Regarding functional outcome, some patients described substantial improvement in urine flow while others were satisfied with regaining undisturbed night sleep. Those with less effect were considering transurethral resection of the prostate as a future option. Self-enrolment to the treatment and long median operation time may have influenced the results.Conclusions: From the patients' perspective, prostatic artery embolization is a well-tolerated method for treating benign prostate hyperplacia.
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7.
  • Jakobsson, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Large differences in testosterone excretion in Korean and Swedish men are strongly associated with a UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 2B17 polymorphism.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 91:2, s. 687-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: The reproductive endocrinology in Asians and Caucasians is of great interest in view of large differences in prostate cancer rate and sensitivity to pharmacological male contraception. In addition, interpretation of certain antidoping tests is confounded by interethnic variation in androgen disposition. Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferases have a key role in the homeostasis and metabolism of androgens. Recently a deletion polymorphism was detected in the UGT2B17 gene. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the contribution of the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism to the interindividual and interethnic variation of androgen metabolism and excretion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Urine from 122 Swedish and 74 Korean healthy men was analyzed for several androgen glucuronides including testosterone. The distribution of the natural logarithms of urinary testosterone concentrations showed a distinct bimodal pattern in both groups, suggesting a monogenic inheritance. When the UGT2B17 genotypes were compared with urinary testosterone levels, all of the individuals of the UGT2B17 homozygous deletion/deletion genotype had no or negligible amounts of urinary testosterone. The deletion/deletion genotype was seven times more common in the Korean (66.7%) than the Swedish population (9.3%). In addition, the Swedes had significantly higher levels of serum testosterone, compared with the Koreans. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the UGT2B17 polymorphism is strongly associated with the bimodal distribution of the testosterone excretion and also with the large differences in testosterone excretion between Koreans and Swedes.
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8.
  • Jakobsson, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • The evolutionary history of the common chloroplast genome of Arabidopsis thaliana and A. suecica.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of evolutionary biology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1420-9101 .- 1010-061X. ; 20:1, s. 104-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The evolutionary history of the common chloroplast (cp) genome of the allotetraploid Arabidopsis suecica and its maternal parent A. thaliana was investigated by sequencing 50 fragments of cpDNA, resulting in 98 polymorphic sites. The variation in the A. suecica sample was small, in contrast to that of the A. thaliana sample. The time to the most recent common ancestor (T-MRCA) of the A. suecica cp genome alone was estimated to be about one 37th of the T-MRCA of both the A. thaliana and A. suecica cp genomes. This corresponds to A. suecica having a MRCA between 10 000 and 50 000 years ago, suggesting that the entire species originated during, or before, this period of time, although the estimates are sensitive to assumptions made about population size and mutation rate. The data was also consistent with the hypothesis of A. suecica being of single origin. Isolation-by-distance and population structure in A. thaliana depended upon the geographical scale analysed; isolation-by-distance was found to be weak on the global scale but locally pronounced. Within the genealogical cp tree of A. thaliana, there were indications that the root of the A. suecica species is located among accessions of A. thaliana that come primarily from central Europe. Selective neutrality of the cp genome could not be rejected, despite the fact that it contains several completely linked protein-coding genes.
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9.
  • Kılınç, Gülşah Merve, et al. (författare)
  • Human population dynamics and Yersinia pestis in ancient northeast Asia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - : AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 2375-2548. ; 7:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present genome-wide data from 40 individuals dating to c.16,900 to 550 years ago in northeast Asia. We describe hitherto unknown gene flow and admixture events in the region, revealing a complex population history. While populations east of Lake Baikal remained relatively stable from the Mesolithic to the Bronze Age, those from Yakutia and west of Lake Baikal witnessed major population transformations, from the Late Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic, and during the Bronze Age, respectively. We further locate the Asian ancestors of Paleo-Inuits, using direct genetic evidence. Last, we report the most northeastern ancient occurrence of the plague-related bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Our findings indicate the highly connected and dynamic nature of northeast Asia populations throughout the Holocene.
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10.
  • Sadik, May, 1970, et al. (författare)
  • A new computer-based decision-support system for the interpretation of bone scans
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nucl Med Commun. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0143-3636. ; 27:5, s. 417-423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To develop a completely automated method, based on image processing techniques and artificial neural networks, for the interpretation of bone scans regarding the presence or absence of metastases. METHODS: A total of 200 patients, all of whom had the diagnosis of breast or prostate cancer and had undergone bone scintigraphy, were studied retrospectively. Whole-body images, anterior and posterior, were obtained after injection of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The study material was randomly divided into a training group and a test group, with 100 patients in each group. The training group was used in the process of developing the image analysis techniques and to train the artificial neural networks. The test group was used to evaluate the automated method. The image processing techniques included algorithms for segmentation of the head, chest, spine, pelvis and bladder, automatic thresholding and detection of hot spots. Fourteen features from each examination were used as input to artificial neural networks trained to classify the images. The interpretations by an experienced physician were used as the 'gold standard'. RESULTS: The automated method correctly identified 28 of the 31 patients with metastases in the test group, i.e., a sensitivity of 90%. A false positive classification of metastases was made in 18 of the 69 patients not classified as having metastases by the experienced physician, resulting in a specificity of 74%. CONCLUSION: A completely automated method can be used to detect metastases in bone scans. Future developments in this field may lead to clinically valuable decision-support tools.
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