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  • Makowska, J. S., et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe: the global allergy and asthma network (GA(2)LEN) survey
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Allergy. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 71:11, s. 1603-1611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper and lower respiratory tract disorders. MethodsThe GA(2)LEN survey was conducted in 22 centers in 15 European countries. Each of 19 centers selected random samples of 5000 adults aged 15-74 from their general population, and in three centers (Athens, Munich, Oslo), a younger population was sampled. Questionnaires including questions about age, gender, presence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status, and history of NSAID-induced hypersensitivity reactions were sent to participants by mail. Totally, 62 737 participants completed the questionnaires. ResultsThe mean prevalence of NSAID-induced dyspnea was 1.9% and was highest in the three Polish centers [Katowice (4.9%), Krakow (4.8%), and Lodz (4.4%)] and lowest in Skopje, (0.9%), Amsterdam (1.1%), and Umea (1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of respiratory reactions to NSAIDs was higher in participants with chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms (Odds Ratio 2.12; 95%CI 1.78-2.74), asthma symptoms in last 12 months (2.7; 2.18-3.35), hospitalization due to asthma (1.53; 1.22-1.99), and adults vs children (1.53; 1.24-1.89), but was not associated with allergic rhinitis. ConclusionOur study documented significant variation between European countries in the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory hypersensitivity reactions, and association with chronic airway diseases, but also with environmental factors.
  • Burney, P., et al. (författare)
  • A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations : a GAL2EN project
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 63:7, s. 865-871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study in Europe to assess the relation of plasma selenium to asthma. The network compared 569 cases in 14 European centres with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 576 controls from the same centres with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12 months. RESULTS: All cases and controls were selected from the same population defined by age and place of residence. Mean plasma selenium concentrations among the controls ranged from 116.3 microg/l in Palermo to 67.7 microg/l in Vienna and 56.1 microg/l among the children in Oslo. Random effects meta-analysis of the results from the centres showed no overall association between asthma and plasma selenium [odds ratio (OR)/10 microg/l increase in plasma selenium: 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.21] though there was a significantly protective effect in Lodz (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29-0.78) and a marginally significant adverse effect in Amsterdam (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 0.98-2.90) and Ghent (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.03-1.77). CONCLUSION: This study does not support a role for selenium in protection against asthma, but effect modification and confounding cannot be ruled out.
  • Keppler, M., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of a planetary-mass companion within the gap of the transition disk around PDS 70
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 617
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Young circumstellar disks are the birthplaces of planets. Their study is of prime interest to understand the physical and chemical conditions under which planet formation takes place. Only very few detections of planet candidates within these disks exist, and most of them are currently suspected to be disk features.Aims. In this context, the transition disk around the young star PDS 70 is of particular interest, due to its large gap identified in previous observations, indicative of ongoing planet formation. We aim to search for the presence of an embedded young planet and search for disk structures that may be the result of disk-planet interactions and other evolutionary processes.Methods. We analyse new and archival near-infrared images of the transition disk PDS 70 obtained with the VLT/SPHERE, VLT/NaCo, and Gemini/NICI instruments in polarimetric differential imaging and angular differential imaging modes.Results. We detect a point source within the gap of the disk at about 195 mas (similar to 22 au) projected separation. The detection is confirmed at five different epochs, in three filter bands and using different instruments. The astrometry results in an object of bound nature, with high significance. The comparison of the measured magnitudes and colours to evolutionary tracks suggests that the detection is a companion of planetary mass. The luminosity of the detected object is consistent with that of an L-type dwarf, but its IR colours are redder, possibly indicating the presence of warm surrounding material. Further, we confirm the detection of a large gap of similar to 54 au in size within the disk in our scattered light images, and detect a signal from an inner disk component. We find that its spatial extent is very likely smaller than similar to 17 au in radius, and its position angle is consistent with that of the outer disk. The images of the outer disk show evidence of a complex azimuthal brightness distribution which is different at different wavelengths and may in part be explained by Rayleigh scattering from very small grains.Conclusions. The detection of a young protoplanet within the gap of the transition disk around PDS 70 opens the door to a so far observationally unexplored parameter space of planetary formation and evolution. Future observations of this system at different wavelengths and continuing astrometry will allow us to test theoretical predictions regarding planet-disk interactions, planetary atmospheres, and evolutionary models.
  • Chauvin, G., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of a warm, dusty giant planet around HIP 65426
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 605
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. The SHINE program is a high-contrast near-infrared survey of 600 young, nearby stars aimed at searching for and characterizing new planetary systems using VLT/SPHERE's unprecedented high-contrast and high-angular-resolution imaging capabilities. It is also intended to place statistical constraints on the rate, mass and orbital distributions of the giant planet population at large orbits as a function of the stellar host mass and age to test planet-formation theories.Methods. We used the IRDIS dual-band imager and the IFS integral field spectrograph of SPHERE to acquire high-contrast coronagraphic differential near-infrared images and spectra of the young A2 star HIP 65426. It is a member of the similar to 17 Myr old Lower Centaurus-Crux association. Results. At a separation of 830 mas (92 au projected) from the star, we detect a faint red companion. Multi-epoch observations confirm that it shares common proper motion with HIP 65426. Spectro-photometric measurements extracted with IFS and IRDIS between 0.95 and 2.2 mu m indicate a warm, dusty atmosphere characteristic of young low-surface-gravity L5-L7 dwarfs. Hot-start evolutionary models predict a luminosity consistent with a 6-12 M-Jup, T-eff = 1300-1600K and R = 1.5 +/- 0.1 R-Jup giant planet. Finally, the comparison with Exo-REM and PHOENIX BT-Settl synthetic atmosphere models gives consistent effective temperatures but with slightly higher surface gravity solutions of log(g) = 4.0-5.0 with smaller radii (1.0-1.3 R-Jup).Conclusions. Given its physical and spectral properties, HIP 65426 b occupies a rather unique placement in terms of age, mass, and spectral-type among the currently known imaged planets. It represents a particularly interesting case to study the presence of clouds as a function of particle size, composition, and location in the atmosphere, to search for signatures of non-equilibrium chemistry, and finally to test the theory of planet formation and evolution.
  • Demenais, Florence, et al. (författare)
  • Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:1, s. 42-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.
  • Porsbjerg, C., et al. (författare)
  • Nordic consensus statement on the systematic assessment and management of possible severe asthma in adults
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Clinical Respiratory Journal. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2001-8525. ; 5:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although a minority of asthma patients suffer from severe asthma, they represent a major clinical challenge in terms of poor symptom control despite high-dose treatment, risk of exacerbations, and side effects. Novel biological treatments may benefit patients with severe asthma, but are expensive, and are only effective in appropriately targeted patients. In some patients, symptoms are driven by other factors than asthma, and all patients with suspected severe asthma ('difficult asthma') should undergo systematic assessment, in order to differentiate between true severe asthma, and 'difficult-to-treat' patients, in whom poor control is related to factors such as poor adherence or co-morbidities. The Nordic Consensus Statement on severe asthma was developed by the Nordic Severe Asthma Network, consisting of members from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland and Estonia, including representatives from the respective national respiratory scientific societies with the aim to provide an overview and recommendations regarding the diagnosis, systematic assessment and management of severe asthma. Furthermore, the Consensus Statement proposes recommendations for the organization of severe asthma management in primary, secondary, and tertiary care.
  • Garcia-Larsen, V., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intake of flavonoids and ventilatory function in european adults: A GA2LEN study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - Basel : MDPI AG. - 2072-6643. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA2LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FVC (FEV1/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV1/FVC < LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA2LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes’ procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC < LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV1/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a β-coeff 0.33, 0.10, 0.57 and a β-coeff 0.44, 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes’ procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction. Conclusions: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Lagrange, A. -M., et al. (författare)
  • Post-conjunction detection of beta Pictoris b with VLT/SPHERE
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. With an orbital distance comparable to that of Saturn in the solar system, beta Pictoris b is the closest (semi-major axis similar or equal to 9 au) exoplanet that has been imaged to orbit a star. Thus it offers unique opportunities for detailed studies of its orbital, physical, and atmospheric properties, and of disk-planet interactions. With the exception of the discovery observations in 2003 with NaCo at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), all following astrometric measurements relative to beta Pictoris have been obtained in the southwestern part of the orbit, which severely limits the determination of the planet's orbital parameters.Aims. We aimed at further constraining beta Pictoris b orbital properties using more data, and, in particular, data taken in the northeastern part of the orbit.Methods. We used SPHERE at the VLT to precisely monitor the orbital motion of beta beta Pictoris b since first light of the instrument in 2014.Results. We were able to monitor the planet until November 2016, when its angular separation became too small (125 mas, i.e., 1.6 au) and prevented further detection. We redetected beta Pictoris b on the northeast side of the disk at a separation of 139 mas and a PA of 30 degrees in September 2018. The planetary orbit is now well constrained. With a semi-major axis (sma) of a = 9.0 +/- 0.5 au (1 sigma), it definitely excludes previously reported possible long orbital periods, and excludes beta Pictoris b as the origin of photometric variations that took place in 1981. We also refine the eccentricity and inclination of the planet. From an instrumental point of view, these data demonstrate that it is possible to detect, if they exist, young massive Jupiters that orbit at less than 2 au from a star that is 20 pc away.
  • Malinovschi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference equations for diffusing capacity in relation to respiratory burden in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Lausanne, Switzerland : EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) has recently published international reference values for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Lower limit of normal (LLN), i.e. the 5th percentile, usually defines impaired D-LCO. We examined if the GLI LLN for D-LCO differs from the LLN in a Swedish population of healthy, never-smoking individuals and how any such differences affect identification of subjects with respiratory burden. Spirometry, D-LCO, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and questionnaires were obtained from the first 15 040 participants, aged 50-64 years, of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Both GLI reference values and the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method were used to define the LLN in asymptomatic never-smokers without respiratory disease (n=4903, of which 2329 were women). Both the median and LLN for D-LCO from SCAPIS were above the median and LLN from the GLI (p<0.05). The prevalence of D-LCO GLI LLN but GLI LLN but GLI LLN and >SCAPIS LLN). No differences were found with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma. The GLI LLN for D-LCO is lower than the estimated LLN in healthy, never-smoking, middle-aged Swedish adults. Individuals with D-LCO above the GLI LLN but below the SCAPIS LLN had, to a larger extent, an increased respiratory burden. This suggests clinical implications for choosing an adequate LLN for studied populations.
  • Marcon, A., et al. (författare)
  • Trends in smoking initiation in Europe over 40 years: A retrospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 13:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Tobacco consumption is the largest avoidable health risk. Understanding changes of smoking over time and across populations is crucial to implementing health policies. We evaluated trends in smoking initiation between 1970 and 2009 in random samples of European populations. We pooled data from six multicentre studies involved in the Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts consortium, including overall 119,104 subjects from 17 countries (range of median ages across studies: 33-52 years). We estimated retrospectively trends in the rates of smoking initiation (uptake of regular smoking) by age group, and tested birth cohort effects using Age-Period-Cohort (APC) modelling. We stratified all analyses by sex and region (North, East, South, West Europe). Smoking initiation during late adolescence (16-20 years) declined for both sexes and in all regions (except for South Europe, where decline levelled off after 1990). By the late 2000s, rates of initiation during late adolescence were still high (40-80 per 1000/year) in East, South, and West Europe compared to North Europe (20 per 1000/year). Smoking initiation rates during early adolescence (11-15 years) showed a marked increase after 1990 in all regions (except for North European males) but especially in West Europe, where they reached 40 per 1000/year around 2005. APC models supported birth cohort effects in the youngest cohorts. Smoking initiation is still unacceptably high among European adolescents, and increasing rates among those aged 15 or less deserve attention. Reducing initiation in adolescents is fundamental, since youngsters are particularly vulnerable to nicotine addiction and tobacco adverse effects.
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