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  • Ekström, M., et al. (författare)
  • Oral corticosteroid use, morbidity and mortality in asthma: A nationwide prospective cohort study in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 74:11, s. 2181-2190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Patterns and determinants of long-term oral corticosteroid (OCS) use in asthma and related morbidity and mortality are not well-described. In a nationwide asthma cohort in Sweden, we evaluated the patterns and determinants of OCS use and risks of OCS-related morbidities and mortality. Methods: Data for 217 993 asthma patients (aged ≥ 6 years) in secondary care were identified between 2007 and 2014 using Swedish national health registries. OCS use at baseline was categorized: regular users (≥5 mg/d/y; n = 3299; 1.5%); periodic users (>0 but <5 mg/d/y; n = 49 930; 22.9%); and nonusers (0 mg/d/y; n = 164 765; 75.6%). Relative risks of becoming a regular OCS user and for morbidity and mortality were analysed using multivariable Cox regression. Results: At baseline, 24% of asthma patients had used OCS during the last year and 1.5% were regular users. Of those not using OCS at baseline, 26% collected at least one OCS prescription and 1.3% became regular OCS users for at least 1 year during the median follow-up of 5.3 years. Age at asthma diagnosis, increasing GINA severity and Charlson Comorbidity Index were associated with regular OCS use. Compared to periodic and non-OCS use, regular use was associated with increased incidence of OCS-related morbidities and greater all-cause mortality, adjusted HR 1.34 (95% CI 1.24-1.45). Conclusions: Oral corticosteroids use is frequent for asthma patients, and many are regular users. Regular OCS use is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These findings indicate that there is a need of other treatment options for patients with severe asthma who are using regular OCS. © 2019 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  • Porsbjerg, C., et al. (författare)
  • Nordic consensus statement on the systematic assessment and management of possible severe asthma in adults
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Clinical Respiratory Journal. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2001-8525. ; 5:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although a minority of asthma patients suffer from severe asthma, they represent a major clinical challenge in terms of poor symptom control despite high-dose treatment, risk of exacerbations, and side effects. Novel biological treatments may benefit patients with severe asthma, but are expensive, and are only effective in appropriately targeted patients. In some patients, symptoms are driven by other factors than asthma, and all patients with suspected severe asthma ('difficult asthma') should undergo systematic assessment, in order to differentiate between true severe asthma, and 'difficult-to-treat' patients, in whom poor control is related to factors such as poor adherence or co-morbidities. The Nordic Consensus Statement on severe asthma was developed by the Nordic Severe Asthma Network, consisting of members from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland and Estonia, including representatives from the respective national respiratory scientific societies with the aim to provide an overview and recommendations regarding the diagnosis, systematic assessment and management of severe asthma. Furthermore, the Consensus Statement proposes recommendations for the organization of severe asthma management in primary, secondary, and tertiary care.
  • Ahlroth Pind, C., et al. (författare)
  • Patient-reported signs of dampness at home may be a risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis: A cross-sectional study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - Hoboken : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 47:11, s. 1383-1389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: An association between dampness at home and respiratory conditions has been convincingly demonstrated in children. Fewer studies have been performed in adults, and data are lacking for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). With a prevalence of 10.9% in Europe, CRS imposes a significant burden on quality of life, as well as economy. Objective: Our aim was to study CRS and other respiratory conditions in relation to dampness at home in a representative sample of adults. Methods: The Swedish GA2LEN questionnaire was answered by 26 577 adults (16-75 years) and included questions on respiratory symptoms, smoking, education and environmental exposure. CRS was defined according to the EP3OS criteria. Dampness was defined as reporting water damage, floor dampness or visible moulds in the home during the last 12 months. The dampness score was ranked from 0 to 3, counting the number of signs of dampness reported. Results: Dampness at home was reported by 11.3% and was independently related to respiratory conditions after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic factors and smoking: CRS odds ratio (OR) 1.71; allergic rhinitis OR 1.24; current asthma OR 1.21; wheeze OR 1.37; nocturnal dyspnoea OR 1.80; nocturnal coughing OR 1.34; and chronic bronchitis OR 1.64. The risk of CRS and most of the other respiratory conditions was further elevated in subjects reporting multiple signs of dampness. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: This study demonstrated an independent association between dampness at home and CRS in adults. The high burden of this and the other respiratory conditions studied is a strong argument in favour of countering indoor dampness by improving building standards. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  • Arne, Mats, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Factors associated with good self-rated health and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. - 1176-9106 .- 1178-2005. ; 6, s. 511-519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Recent guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) state that COPD is both preventable and treatable. To gain a more positive outlook on the disease it is interesting to investigate factors associated with good, self-rated health and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD in the population. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, postal survey questionnaires were sent to a stratified, random population in Sweden in 2004 and 2008. The prevalence of subjects (40–84 years) who reported having COPD was 2.1% in 2004 and 2.7% in 2008. Data were analyzed for 1475 subjects. Regression models were used to analyze the associations between health measures (general health status, the General Health Questionnaire, the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire) and influencing factors. Results: The most important factor associated with good, self-rated health and quality of life was level of physical activity. Odds ratios for general health varied from 2.4 to 7.7 depending on degree of physical activity, where subjects with the highest physical activity level reported the best health and also highest quality of life. Social support and absence of economic problems almost doubled the odds ratios for better health and quality of life. Conclusions: In this population-based public health survey, better self-rated health status and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD was associated with higher levels of physical activity, social support, and absence of economic problems. The findings indicated that of possible factors that could be influenced, promoting physical activity and strengthening social support are important in maintaining or improving the health and quality of life in subjects with COPD. Severity of the disease as a possible confounding effect should be investigated in future population studies.
  • Bengtsson, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Incident Chronic Rhinosinusitis Is Associated With Impaired Sleep Quality : Results of the RHINE Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM). - : American Academy of Sleep Medicine. - 1550-9389 .- 1550-9397. ; 15:6, s. 899-905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Objectives: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory disease of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Associations between CRS and poor sleep quality have been reported. This 10-year follow-up study investigates possible associations between incident CRS and sleep quality.Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 16,500 individuals in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and Estonia in 2000. It included questions on airway diseases, age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, comorbidities, education and sleep quality. In 2010, a second questionnaire was sent to the same individuals, with a response rate of 53%. A subgroup of 5,145 individuals without nasal symptoms in 2000 was studied. Multiple logistic regression was performed to examine associations between CRS (defined according to the European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps epidemiological criteria) at follow-up and sleep quality, with adjustment for potential confounders. Individuals with the respective sleep problem at baseline were excluded.Results: Over 10 years, 141 (2.7%) of the individuals without nasal symptoms in 2000 had developed CRS. CRS was associated with difficulties inducing sleep (adjusted odds ratio 2.81 [95% CI 1.67–4.70]), difficulties maintaining sleep (2.07 [1.35–3.18]), early morning awakening (3.03 [1.91–4.81]), insomnia (2.21 [1.46–3.35]), excessive daytime sleepiness (2.85 [1.79–4.55]), and snoring (3.31 [2.07–5.31]). Three insomnia symptoms at baseline increased the risk of CRS at follow-up by 5.00 (1.93–12.99).Conclusions: Incident CRS is associated with impaired sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness. Insomnia symptoms may be a risk factor for the development of CRS.
  • Bergström, Göran, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 278:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started.
  • Bjerg, Anders, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • Higher Risk of Wheeze in Female than Male Smokers. Results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Women who smoke have higher risk of lung function impairment, COPD and lung cancer than smoking men. An influence of sex hormones has been demonstrated, but the mechanisms are unclear and the associations often subject to confounding. This was a study of wheeze in relation to smoking and sex with adjustment for important confounders. Methods In 2008 the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) questionnaire was mailed to 45.000 Swedes (age 16–75 years), and 26.851 (60%) participated. “Any wheeze”: any wheeze during the last 12 months. “Asthmatic wheeze”: wheeze with breathlessness apart from colds. Results Any wheeze and asthmatic wheeze was reported by 17.3% and 7.1% of women, vs. 15.8% and 6.1% of men (both p<0.001). Although smoking prevalence was similar in both sexes, men had greater cumulative exposure, 16.2 pack-years vs. 12.8 in women (p<0.001). Most other exposures and characteristics associated with wheeze were significantly overrepresented in men. Adjusted for these potential confounders and pack-years, current smoking was a stronger risk factor for any wheeze in women aged <53 years, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.85 (1.56–2.19) vs. 1.60 (1.30–1.96) in men. Cumulative smoke exposure and current smoking each interacted significantly with female sex, aOR 1.02 per pack-year (p<0.01) and aOR 1.28 (p = 0.04) respectively. Female compared to male current smokers also had greater risk of asthmatic wheeze, aOR 1.53 vs. 1.03, interaction aOR 1.52 (p = 0.02). These interactions were not seen in age ≥53 years. Discussion In addition to the increased risk of COPD and lung cancer female, compared to male, smokers are at greater risk of significant wheezing symptoms in younger age. This became clearer after adjustment for important confounders including cumulative smoke exposure. Estrogen has previously been shown to increase the bioactivation of several compounds in tobacco smoke, which may enhance smoke-induced airway inflammation in fertile women.
  • Bjerg, Anders, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • The association between asthma and rhinitis is stable over time despite diverging trends in prevalence
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0954-6111 .- 1532-3064. ; 109:3, s. 312-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite the well-known association between asthma and rhinitis, in Swedish adults the prevalence of rhinitis rose from 22% to 31% between 1990 and 2008 while asthma prevalence was unchanged. We tested whether the association of rhinitis with asthma was stable over time using the same population-based databases. Methods: Two surveys of adults (20-44 years) living in three regions of Sweden, carried out in 1990 (n = 8982) and 2008 (n = 9156) were compared. Identical questions regarding respiratory symptoms, asthma and rhinitis were used. Asthmatic wheeze: Wheeze with breathlessness apart from colds. Current asthma: Asthma attacks and/or asthma medication use. Results: Subjects with rhinitis had level time trends in asthmatic wheeze, current asthma and most nocturnal respiratory symptoms between 1990 and 2008, adjusted for age, sex, area and smoking. Any wheeze however decreased slightly. In never-smokers asthma symptoms were similarly associated with rhinitis in 1990 and 2008: any wheeze OR 4.0 vs. 4.4 (p = 0.339); asthmatic wheeze OR 6.0 vs. 5.9 (p = 0.937); and current asthma OR 9.6 vs. 7.7 (p = 0.213). In the whole population there were decreases in the asthma symptoms most closely associated to smoking, which decreased by half 1990-2008. Conversely current asthma, which was strongly associated with rhinitis and not with smoking, increased (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The association of rhinitis with asthma was stable between 1990 and 2008. The pattern in the time trends of asthma outcomes strongly suggests that decreased smoking counterbalanced the driving effect of increased rhinitis on asthma prevalence. The findings illustrate the public health benefits of decreased smoking. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ek, A., et al. (författare)
  • Chronic rhinosinusitis in asthma is a negative predictor of quality of life: results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN survey
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Allergy. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 68:10, s. 1314-1321
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAsthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) both impair quality of life, but the quality-of-life impact of comorbid asthma and CRS is poorly known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CRS and other relevant factors on quality of life in asthmatic subjects. MethodsThis Swedish cohort (age 17-76years) consists of 605 well-characterized asthmatics with and without CRS, 110 individuals with CRS only, and 226 controls and is part of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) survey. The Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (mAQLQ), the Euro Quality of Life (EQ-5D) health questionnaire, spirometry, skin prick test (SPT), exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), smell test, and peak nasal inspiratory flow were used. ResultsSubjects having both asthma and CRS have lower mAQLQ scores in all domains (P<0.001) and a lower EQ-5D index value and EQ-5D VAS value (P<0.001) compared to those with asthma only. Asthmatics with CRS have significantly lower FEV1%pred and FVC%pred (88.4 [85.1-91.7] and 99.9 [96.7-103.0], respectively) compared with asthma only (91.9 [90.3-93.4] and 104.0 [102.5-105.5], respectively P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis shows that low asthma quality of life is associated with having CRS (P<0.0001), lower lung function (P=0.008), current smoking (P=0.01), BMI>30kg/m(2) (P=0.04), high age (P=0.03), and a negative SPT (P=0.04). ConclusionsComorbid CRS was a significant and independent negative predictor of quality of life in asthmatics. Other negative factors were lower lung function, current smoking, obesity, advanced age, and having nonatopic asthma.
  • Ekström, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of the Swedish Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP) in outpatients with cardiorespiratory disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open Respiratory Research. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2052-4439. ; 6:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Breathlessness is a cardinal symptom in cardiorespiratory disease. An instrument for measuring different aspects of breathlessness was recently developed, the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP). This study aimed to validate the MDP in terms of the underlying factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity in Swedish outpatients with cardiorespiratory disease. Methods Outpatients with stable cardiorespiratory disease and breathlessness in daily life were recruited. Factor structure of MDP was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis; internal consistency was analysed using Cronbach's alpha; and test-retest reliability was analysed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for patients with unchanged breathlessness between assessments (baseline, after 30-90 min and 2 weeks). Concurrent validity was evaluated using correlations with validated scales of breathlessness, anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life. Results In total, 182 outpatients with cardiorespiratory disease and breathlessness in daily life were included; 53.3% were women; main diagnoses were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (24.7%), asthma (21.4%), heart failure (19.2%) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (18.7%). The MDP total, immediate perception and emotional response scores, and individual item scores showed expected factor structure and acceptable measurement properties: internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, range 0.80-0.93); test-retest reliability at 30-90 min and 2 weeks (ICC, range 0.67-0.91); and concurrent validity. There was no evidence of a learning effect. Findings were similar between diagnoses. Discussion MDP is a valid instrument for multidimensional measurement of breathlessness in Swedish outpatients across cardiorespiratory diseases.
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