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Sökning: WFRF:(Jansson Jan Hakan)

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1.
  • Sundström, Johan, Professor, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Weight gain and blood pressure
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 38:3, s. 387-394
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Although the causality of the obesity—hypertension association is established, the potential for prevention is not. We hypothesized that weight gain between early adulthood and mid-life is associated with higher mid-life blood pressure.METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis using a large contemporaneous population-based mid-life cohort of men and women aged 50-64 years. Recalled body weight at age 20 years was self-reported, and mid-life body weight and office blood pressures were measured in accordance with a detailed protocol.RESULTS: On average, men had gained 14.9 (95% CI 14.6-15.2) kg of weight, and women 14.6 (95% CI 14.4-14.9) kg, between age 20 years and the mid-life examination, corresponding to 0.40 (95% CI 0.39-0.41) kg/year for men and women. Both weight at age 20 years and weight at the mid-life examination were associated with mid-life blood pressures. On average, a 10 kg weight increase between age 20 years and mid-life was associated with 2.2 (95% CI 0.9-3.5) mmHg higher systolic and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5) mmHg higher diastolic mid-life blood pressure in men, and 3.2 (2.5-4.0) mmHg higher systolic and 2.4 (1.9-2.9) mmHg higher diastolic mid-life blood pressure in women. Mid-life weight was more closely associated than weight at age 20 years with mid-life blood pressure. For a given mid-life weight, blood pressure was higher in persons with higher weight gain from age 20 years.CONCLUSION: In sum, weight gain between early adulthood and mid-life was associated with higher mid-life blood pressure. The magnitude of the association indicates a potentially great public health impact of strategies to prevent weight gain throughout adulthood.
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2.
  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • A genomic approach to therapeutic target validation identifies a glucose-lowering GLP1R variant protective for coronary heart disease
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1946-6234 .- 1946-6242. ; 8:341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Regulatory authorities have indicated that new drugs to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) should not be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Human genetics may be able to guide development of antidiabetic therapies by predicting cardiovascular and other health endpoints. We therefore investigated the association of variants in six genes that encode drug targets for obesity or T2D with a range of metabolic traits in up to 11, 806 individuals by targeted exome sequencing and follow-up in 39, 979 individuals by targeted genotyping, with additional in silico follow-up in consortia. We used these data to first compare associations of variants in genes encoding drug targets with the effects of pharmacological manipulation of those targets in clinical trials. We then tested the association of those variants with disease outcomes, including coronary heart disease, to predict cardiovascular safety of these agents. A low-frequency missense variant (Ala316Thr; rs10305492) in the gene encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R), the target of GLP1R agonists, was associated with lower fasting glucose and T2D risk, consistent with GLP1R agonist therapies. The minor allele was also associated with protection against heart disease, thus providing evidence that GLP1R agonists are not likely to be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Our results provide an encouraging signal that these agents may be associated with benefit, a question currently being addressed in randomized controlled trials. Genetic variants associated with metabolic traits and multiple disease outcomes can be used to validate therapeutic targets at an early stage in the drug development process.
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3.
  • Hansson, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Use of snus and acute myocardial infarction: pooled analysis of eight prospective observational studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 1573-7284 .- 0393-2990. ; 27:10, s. 771-779
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of snus (also referred to as Scandinavian or Swedish moist smokeless tobacco), which is common in Sweden and increasing elsewhere, is receiving increasing attention since considered a tobacco smoke "potential reduction exposure product". Snus delivers a high dose of nicotine with possible hemodynamic effects, but its impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether snus use is associated with risk of and survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Data from eight prospective cohort studies set in Sweden was pooled and reanalysed. The relative risk of first time AMI and 28-day case-fatality was calculated for 130,361 men who never smoked. During 2,262,333 person-years of follow-up, 3,390 incident events of AMI were identified. Current snus use was not associated with risk of AMI (pooled multivariable hazard ratio 1.04, 95 % confidence interval 0.93 to 1.17). The short-term case fatality rate appeared increased in snus users (odds ratio 1.28, 95 % confidence interval 0.99 to 1.68). This study does not support any association between use of snus and development of AMI. Hence, toxic components other than nicotine appear implicated in the pathophysiology of smoking related ischemic heart disease. Case fatality after AMI is seemingly increased among snus users, but this relationship may be due to confounding by socioeconomic or life style factors.
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4.
  • Hernestål-Boman, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Signs of dysregulated fibrinolysis precede the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a population-based study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Diabetology. - : BioMed Central. - 1475-2840 .- 1475-2840. ; 11, s. 152-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Diabetic patients experience stimulated coagulation and dysfibrinolysis, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This imbalance may precede the manifest diagnosis. We investigated whether elevated antigen levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the tPA/PAI-1 complex, or von Willebrand Factor (VWF) precede type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis, and whether this elevation occurs before increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) in individuals who later develop T2DM.Methods: We conducted a prospective incident case-referent study within the Vasterbotten Intervention Programme. Cardiovascular risk factor data as well as FPG and 2hPG and blood samples for future research were collected at a baseline health examination between 1989 and 2000, (n= 28 736). During follow-up in January 2001, 157 cases had developed T2DM. Referents without T2DM were matched for sex, age, and year of participation (n=277). Subgroup analysis was performed for cases with normal baseline glucose levels (FPG <6.1 mmol/L and 2hPG < 8.9 mmol/L) and cases with elevated levels (FPG 6.1-6.9 mmol/L and/or 2hPG 8.9-12.1 mmol/L).Results: After adjusting for BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, systolic blood pressure and levels of C-reactive protein and triglycerides, independent associations were found between incident T2DM and elevated levels of tPA (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.23), PAI-1 (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.14-2.28), and tPA/PAI-1 complex (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.56-3.84). In participants with normal glucose levels, PAI-1 (OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.10 - 3.86) exhibited an independent relationship with incident T2DM after the adjustments.Conclusions: Elevated levels of fibrinolytic variables precede the manifestation of T2DM after adjusting for metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and can be detected several years before changes in glucose tolerance.
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5.
  • Krivospitskaya, Olesya, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • A CYP26B1 polymorphism enhances retinoic acid catabolism and may aggravate atherosclerosis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ; 18:1, s. 712-718
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • All-trans retinoic acid, controlled by CYP26 enzymes, potentially has beneficial effects in atherosclerosis treatment. This study investigates CYP26B1 in atherosclerosis and effects of a genetic polymorphism in CYP26B1 on retinoid catabolism. We found that CYP26B1 mRNA was induced by retinoic acid in human atherosclerotic arteries and CYP26B1 and the macrophage marker CD68 co-localized in human atherosclerotic lesions. In mice, Cyp26B1 mRNA was higher in atherosclerotic than normal arteries. Databases were queried for non-synonymous CYP26B1 SNPs and rs2241057 selected for further studies. Constructs of the CYP26B1 variants were created and used for production of purified proteins and transfection of macrophage-like cells. The minor variant catabolized retinoic acid with significantly higher efficiency, indicating that rs2241057 is functional and suggesting reduced retinoid availability in tissues with the minor variant. rs2241057 was investigated in a Stockholm Coronary Atherosclerosis Risk Factor (SCARF) subgroup. The minor allele was associated with slightly larger lesions as determined by angiography. In summary, this study identifies the first CYP26B1 polymorphism that alters CYP26B1 capacity to metabolize retinoic acid. CYP26B1 was expressed in macrophage-rich areas of human atherosclerotic lesions, induced by retinoic acid and increased in murine atherosclerosis. Taken together, the results indicate that CYP26B1 capacity is genetically regulated and suggest that local CYP26B1 activity may influence atherosclerosis.
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6.
  • Marklund, Matti, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality : An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 139:21, s. 2422-2436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies.Methods:We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available).Results:In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships.Conclusions:In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.
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7.
  • Warensjö, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers of milk fat and the risk of myocardial infarction in men and women : a prospective, matched case-control study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 92:1, s. 194-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: High intakes of saturated fat have been associated with cardiovascular disease, and milk fat is rich in saturated fat. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the serum milk fat biomarkers pentadecanoic acid (15:0), heptadecanoic acid (17:0), and their sum (15:0+17:0) and a first myocardial infarction (MI). Design: The study design was a prospective case-control study nested within a large population- based cohort in Sweden. Included in the study were 444 cases (307 men) and 556 controls (308 men) matched on sex, age, date of examination, and geographic region. Clinical, anthropometric, biomarker fatty acid, physical activity, and dietary data were collected. The odds of a first MI were investigated by using conditional logistic regression. Results: In women, proportions of milk fat biomarkers in plasma phospholipids were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in controls than in cases and were, in general, negatively, albeit weakly, correlated with risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The crude standardized odds ratios of becoming an MI case were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.94) in women and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.1) in men. After multivariable adjustment for confounders, the inverse association remained in both sexes and was significant in women. In agreement with biomarker data, quartiles of reported intake of cheese (men and women) and fermented milk products (men) were inversely related to a first MI (P for trend < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Milk fat biomarkers were associated with a lower risk of developing a first MI, especially in women. This was partly confirmed in analysis of fermented milk and cheese intake. Components of metabolic syndrome were observed as potential intermediates for the risk relations. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92:194-202.
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8.
  • Webb, Thomas R., et al. (författare)
  • Systematic Evaluation of Pleiotropy Identifies 6 Further Loci Associated With Coronary Artery Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 69:7, s. 823-836
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies have so far identified 56 loci associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Many CAD loci show pleiotropy; that is, they are also associated with other diseases or traits. OBJECTIVES This study sought to systematically test if genetic variants identified for non-CAD diseases/traits also associate with CAD and to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the extent of pleiotropy of all CAD loci. METHODS In discovery analyses involving 42,335 CAD cases and 78,240 control subjects we tested the association of 29,383 common (minor allele frequency >5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms available on the exome array, which included a substantial proportion of known or suspected single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with common diseases or traits as of 2011. Suggestive association signals were replicated in an additional 30,533 cases and 42,530 control subjects. To evaluate pleiotropy, we tested CAD loci for association with cardiovascular risk factors (lipid traits, blood pressure phenotypes, body mass index, diabetes, and smoking behavior), as well as with other diseases/traits through interrogation of currently available genome-wide association study catalogs. RESULTS We identified 6 new loci associated with CAD at genome-wide significance: on 2q37 (KCNJ13-GIGYF2), 6p21 (C2), 11p15 (MRVI1-CTR9), 12q13 (LRP1), 12q24 (SCARB1), and 16q13 (CETP). Risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.15 to 0.86, and odds ratio per copy of the risk allele ranged from 1.04 to 1.09. Of 62 new and known CAD loci, 24 (38.7%) showed statistical association with a traditional cardiovascular risk factor, with some showing multiple associations, and 29 (47%) showed associations at p < 1 x 10(-4) with a range of other diseases/traits. CONCLUSIONS We identified 6 loci associated with CAD at genome-wide significance. Several CAD loci show substantial pleiotropy, which may help us understand the mechanisms by which these loci affect CAD risk. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
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9.
  • Wessel, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • Low-frequency and rare exome chip variants associate with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes susceptibility
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fasting glucose and insulin are intermediate traits for type 2 diabetes. Here we explore the role of coding variation on these traits by analysis of variants on the HumanExome BeadChip in 60,564 non-diabetic individuals and in 16,491 T2D cases and 81,877 controls. We identify a novel association of a low-frequency nonsynonymous SNV in GLP1R (A316T; rs10305492; MAF = 1.4%) with lower FG (beta = -0.09 +/- 0.01 mmol l(-1), P = 3.4 x 10(-12)), T2D risk (OR[95% CI] = 0.86[0.76-0.96], P = 0.010), early insulin secretion (beta = -0.07 +/- 0.035 pmol(insulin) mmol(glucose)(-1), P = 0.048), but higher 2-h glucose (beta = 0.16 +/- 0.05 mmol l(-1), P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We identify a gene-based association with FG at G6PC2 (p(SKAT) = 6.8 x 10(-6)) driven by four rare protein-coding SNVs (H177Y, Y207S, R283X and S324P). We identify rs651007 (MAF = 20%) in the first intron of ABO at the putative promoter of an antisense lncRNA, associating with higher FG (beta = 0.02 +/- 0.004 mmol l(-1), P = 1.3 x 10(-8)). Our approach identifies novel coding variant associations and extends the allelic spectrum of variation underlying diabetes-related quantitative traits and T2D susceptibility.
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10.
  • Andersson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • GDF-15 is associated with sudden cardiac death due to incident myocardial infarction
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 152, s. 165-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to acute myocardial infarction (MI) in previously healthy patients is challenging. Proteomic analysis may lead to an understanding of biological mechanisms and provide predictive biomarkers.Methods: In this prospective, nested case-control study from northern Sweden, 87 candidate cardiovascular protein biomarkers were studied in 244 individuals who later died within 24 h from an incident MI and 244 referents without MI and individually matched for age, sex and date of health examination and alive at the date of event in the index person. Association analysis was conducted using conditional logistic regression. Bonferroni correction was applied to avoid false positive findings.Results: Ten proteins were associated with future SCD due to acute MI in the non-adjusted analysis. The strongest association were found for growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41, 2.25) per standard deviation increase in protein, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor with an OR of 1.66 (95% CI 1.34, 2.06). In models adjusted for lipid levels, body mass index, education, smoking, hypertension and C-reactive protein, only association with GDF-15 remained (OR 1.47 (95% 1.11, 1.95)).Conclusion: Elevated levels of GDF-15 are associated with increased risk of SCD within 24 h of incident MI. Further research may enable the use of GDF-15 together with other clinical and biological markers to guide primary preventive interventions for individuals at high risk for SCD.
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