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Sökning: WFRF:(Jarvis Erich D.)

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1.
  • Artigas Soler, María, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association and large-scale follow up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 43:11, s. 1082-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry with follow up of the top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P < 5 × 10(-8)) with pulmonary function in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (also known as EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1 and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function.
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2.
  • Paternoster, Lavinia, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies three new risk loci for atopic dermatitis.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 44:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a commonly occurring chronic skin disease with high heritability. Apart from filaggrin (FLG), the genes influencing atopic dermatitis are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 5,606 affected individuals and 20,565 controls from 16 population-based cohorts and then examined the ten most strongly associated new susceptibility loci in an additional 5,419 affected individuals and 19,833 controls from 14 studies. Three SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the discovery and replication cohorts combined, including rs479844 upstream of OVOL1 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.88, P = 1.1 × 10(-13)) and rs2164983 near ACTL9 (OR = 1.16, P = 7.1 × 10(-9)), both of which are near genes that have been implicated in epidermal proliferation and differentiation, as well as rs2897442 in KIF3A within the cytokine cluster at 5q31.1 (OR = 1.11, P = 3.8 × 10(-8)). We also replicated association with the FLG locus and with two recently identified association signals at 11q13.5 (rs7927894; P = 0.008) and 20q13.33 (rs6010620; P = 0.002). Our results underline the importance of both epidermal barrier function and immune dysregulation in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis.
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3.
  • Li, Cai, et al. (författare)
  • Two Antarctic penguin genomes reveal insights into their evolutionary history and molecular changes related to the Antarctic environment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: GigaScience. - 2047-217X .- 2047-217X. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Penguins are flightless aquatic birds widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The distinctive morphological and physiological features of penguins allow them to live an aquatic life, and some of them have successfully adapted to the hostile environments in Antarctica. To study the phylogenetic and population history of penguins and the molecular basis of their adaptations to Antarctica, we sequenced the genomes of the two Antarctic dwelling penguin species, the Adelie penguin [Pygoscelis adeliae] and emperor penguin [Aptenodytes forsteri]. Results: Phylogenetic dating suggests that early penguins arose similar to 60 million years ago, coinciding with a period of global warming. Analysis of effective population sizes reveals that the two penguin species experienced population expansions from similar to 1 million years ago to similar to 100 thousand years ago, but responded differently to the climatic cooling of the last glacial period. Comparative genomic analyses with other available avian genomes identified molecular changes in genes related to epidermal structure, phototransduction, lipid metabolism, and forelimb morphology. Conclusions: Our sequencing and initial analyses of the first two penguin genomes provide insights into the timing of penguin origin, fluctuations in effective population sizes of the two penguin species over the past 10 million years, and the potential associations between these biological patterns and global climate change. The molecular changes compared with other avian genomes reflect both shared and diverse adaptations of the two penguin species to the Antarctic environment.
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4.
  • Green, Richard E., et al. (författare)
  • Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1335-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To provide context for the diversification of archosaurs-the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds-we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the comparatively rapid evolution is derived in birds. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs, thereby providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs.
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5.
  • Warren, Wesley C, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of a songbird
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7289, s. 757-762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The zebra finch is an important model organism in several fields with unique relevance to human neuroscience. Like other songbirds, the zebra finch communicates through learned vocalizations, an ability otherwise documented only in humans and a few other animals and lacking in the chicken-the only bird with a sequenced genome until now. Here we present a structural, functional and comparative analysis of the genome sequence of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), which is a songbird belonging to the large avian order Passeriformes. We find that the overall structures of the genomes are similar in zebra finch and chicken, but they differ in many intrachromosomal rearrangements, lineage-specific gene family expansions, the number of long-terminal-repeat-based retrotransposons, and mechanisms of sex chromosome dosage compensation. We show that song behaviour engages gene regulatory networks in the zebra finch brain, altering the expression of long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs, transcription factors and their targets. We also show evidence for rapid molecular evolution in the songbird lineage of genes that are regulated during song experience. These results indicate an active involvement of the genome in neural processes underlying vocal communication and identify potential genetic substrates for the evolution and regulation of this behaviour.
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6.
  • Jarvis, Erich D., et al. (författare)
  • Phylogenomic analyses data of the avian phylogenomics project
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: GigaScience. - 2047-217X .- 2047-217X. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Determining the evolutionary relationships among the major lineages of extant birds has been one of the biggest challenges in systematic biology. To address this challenge, we assembled or collected the genomes of 48 avian species spanning most orders of birds, including all Neognathae and two of the five Palaeognathae orders. We used these genomes to construct a genome-scale avian phylogenetic tree and perform comparative genomic analyses. Findings: Here we present the datasets associated with the phylogenomic analyses, which include sequence alignment files consisting of nucleotides, amino acids, indels, and transposable elements, as well as tree files containing gene trees and species trees. Inferring an accurate phylogeny required generating: 1) A well annotated data set across species based on genome synteny; 2) Alignments with unaligned or incorrectly overaligned sequences filtered out; and 3) Diverse data sets, including genes and their inferred trees, indels, and transposable elements. Our total evidence nucleotide tree (TENT) data set (consisting of exons, introns, and UCEs) gave what we consider our most reliable species tree when using the concatenation-based ExaML algorithm or when using statistical binning with the coalescence-based MP-EST algorithm (which we refer to as MP-EST*). Other data sets, such as the coding sequence of some exons, revealed other properties of genome evolution, namely convergence. Conclusions: The Avian Phylogenomics Project is the largest vertebrate phylogenomics project to date that we are aware of. The sequence, alignment, and tree data are expected to accelerate analyses in phylogenomics and other related areas.
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7.
  • Jarvis, Erich D., et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1320-1331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago.
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8.
  • Künstner, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative genomics based on massive parallel transcriptome sequencing reveals patterns of substitution and selection across 10 bird species
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - 0962-1083 .- 1365-294X. ; 19:Suppl.1, s. 266-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Next-generation sequencing technology provides an attractive means to obtain largescale sequence data necessary for comparative genomic analysis. To analyse the patterns of mutation rate variation and selection intensity across the avian genome, we performed brain transcriptome sequencing using Roche 454 technology of 10 different non-model avian species. Contigs from de novo assemblies were aligned to the two available avian reference genomes, chicken and zebra finch. In total, we identified 6499 different genes across all 10 species, with ∼1000 genes found in each full run per species. We found evidence for a higher mutation rate of the Z chromosome than of autosomes (male-biased mutation) and a negative correlation between the neutral substitution rate (dS) and chromosome size. Analyses of the mean dN/dS ratio (ω) of genes across chromosomes supported the Hill-Robertson effect (the effect of selection at linked loci) and point at stochastic problems with x as an independent measure of selection. Overall, this study demonstrates the usefulness of next-generation sequencing for obtaining genomic resources for comparative genomic analysis of non-model organisms.
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9.
  • Nabholz, Benoit, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamic Evolution of Base Composition : Causes and Consequences in Avian Phylogenomics
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 28:8, s. 2197-2210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Resolving the phylogenetic relationships among birds is a classical problem in systematics, and this is particularly so when it comes to understanding the relationships among Neoaves. Previous phylogenetic inference of birds has been limited to mitochondrial genomes or a few nuclear genes. Here, we apply deep brain transcriptome sequencing of nine bird species (several passerines, hummingbirds, dove, parrot, and emu), using next-generation sequencing technology to understand features of transcriptome evolution in birds and how this affects phylogenetic inference, and combine with data from two bird species using first generation technology. The phylogenomic data matrix comprises 1,995 genes and a total of 0.77 Mb of exonic sequence. First, we find an unexpected heterogeneity in the evolution of base composition among avian lineages. There is a pronounced increase in guanine + cytosine (GC) content in the third codon position in several independent lineages, with the strongest effect seen in passerines. Second, we evaluate the effect of GC content variation on phylogenetic reconstruction. We find important inconsistencies between the topologies obtained with or without taking GC variation into account, each supporting different conclusions of past studies and also influencing hypotheses on the evolution of the trait of vocal learning. Third, we demonstrate a link between GC content evolution and recombination rate and, focusing on the zebra finch lineage, find that recombination seems to drive GC content. Although we cannot reveal the causal relationships, this observation is consistent with the model of GC-biased gene conversion. Finally, we use this unparalleled amount of avian sequence data to study the rate of molecular evolution, calibrated by fossil evidence and augmented with data from alligator transcriptome sequencing. There is a 2- to 3-fold variation in substitution rate among lineages with passerines being the most rapidly evolving and ratites the slowest. This study illustrates the potential of next-generation sequencing for phylogenomic studies but also the pitfalls when using genome-wide data with heterogeneous base composition.
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10.
  • Nabholz, Benoit, et al. (författare)
  • Obtaining mtDNA genomes from next-generation transcriptome sequencing : A case study on the basal Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes) phylogeny
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. - 1055-7903 .- 1095-9513. ; 57:1, s. 466-470
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Classically, the mitochondrial genome is sequenced by a series of amplicons using conserved PCR primers. Here we show how shot-gun transcriptome sequencing can be used to obtain the complete set of protein-coding genes from the mtDNA of four passerine bird species. With these sequences, we address the still unresolved basal Passerida relationships (Ayes: Passeriformes). Our analysis suggests a new hypothesis for the basal relationships of Passerida, namely a clade grouping Sylvioidea and Passeroidea, with Paridae and Muscicapidae as successive sister groups to this clade. This study demonstrates the usefulness of next-generation sequencing transcriptome sequencing for obtaining new mtDNA genomes.
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