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  • Gad, Helge, et al. (författare)
  • MTH1 inhibition eradicates cancer by preventing sanitation of the dNTP pool
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 508:7495, s. 215-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancers have dysfunctional redox regulation resulting in reactive oxygen species production, damaging both DNA and free dNTPs. The MTH1 protein sanitizes oxidized dNTP pools to prevent incorporation of damaged bases during DNA replication. Although MTH1 is non-essential in normal cells, we show that cancer cells require MTH1 activity to avoid incorporation of oxidized dNTPs, resulting in DNA damage and cell death. We validate MTH1 as an anticancer target in vivo and describe small molecules TH287 and TH588 as first-in-class nudix hydrolase family inhibitors that potently and selectively engage and inhibit the MTH1 protein in cells. Protein co-crystal structures demonstrate that the inhibitors bindin the active site of MTH1. The inhibitors cause incorporation of oxidized dNTPs in cancer cells, leading to DNA damage, cytotoxicity and therapeutic responses in patient-derived mouse xenografts. This study exemplifies the non-oncogene addiction concept for anticancer treatment and validates MTH1 as being cancer phenotypic lethal.
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  • Ahlsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Is There a Weekend Effect in Surgery for Type A Dissection? : Results From the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Database
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Thoracic Surgery. - : Elsevier. - 0003-4975 .- 1552-6259. ; 108:3, s. 770-776
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Aortic dissection type A requires immediate surgery. In general surgery populations, patients operated on during weekends have higher mortality rates compared with patients whose operations occur on weekdays. The weekend effect in aortic dissection type A has not been studied in detail.Methods: The Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection (NORCAAD) registry includes data for 1,159 patients who underwent type A dissection surgery at 8 Nordic centers during 2005 to 2014. This study is based on data relating to surgery conducted during weekdays versus weekends and starting between 8:00 AM and 8:00 Pm ("daytime") versus from 8:00 Pm to 8:00 AM ("nighttime"), as well as time from symptoms, admittance, and diagnosis to surgery. The influence of timing of surgery on the 30-day mortality rate was assessed using logistic regression analysis.Results: The 30-day mortality was 18% (204 of 1,159), with no difference in mortality between surgery performed on weekdays (17% [150 of 889]) and on weekends (20% [54 of 270], p = 0.45), or during nighttime (19% [87 of 467]) versus daytime (17% [117 of 680], p = 0.54). Time from symptoms to surgery (median 7.0 hours vs 6.5 hours, p = 0.31) did not differ between patients who survived and those who died at 30 days. Multivariable regression analysis of risk factors for 30-day mortality showed no weekend effect (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 60.67 to 1.60; p = 0.875), but nighttime surgery was a risk factor (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 4.56; p = 0.006).Conclusions: The 30-day mortality in surgical repair of aortic dissection type A was not significantly affected by timing of surgery during weekends versus weekdays. Nighttime surgery seems to predict increased 30-day mortality, after correction for other risk factors.
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  • Pan, E., et al. (författare)
  • Low rate of reoperations after acute type A aortic dissection repair from The Nordic Consortium Registry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. - : Elsevier. - 0022-5223 .- 1097-685X. ; 156:3, s. 939-948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To describe the relationship between the extent of primary aortic repair and the incidence of reoperations after surgery for type A aortic dissection. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 1159 patients treated for type A aortic dissection at eight Nordic low-to medium-sized cardiothoracic centers from 2005 to 2014. Data were gathered from patient records and national registries. Patients were separately divided into 3 groups according to the distal anastomoses technique (ascending aorta [n = 791], hemiarch [n = 247], and total arch [n = 66]), and into 2 groups for proximal repair (aortic root replacement [n = 285] and supracoronary repair [n = 832]). Freedom from reoperation was estimated with cumulative incidence survival and Fine-Gray competing risk regression model was used to identify independent risk factors for reoperation. Results: The median follow-up was 2.7 years (range, 0-10 years). Altogether 51 out of 911 patients underwent reoperation. Freedom from distal reoperation at 5 years was 96.9%, with no significant difference between the groups (P = .22). Freedom from proximal reoperation at 5 years was 97.8%, with no difference between the groups (P = .84). Neither DeBakey classification nor the extent of proximal or distal repair predicted freedom from a later reoperation. The only independent risk factor associated with a later proximal reoperation was a history of connective tissue disease. Conclusions: Type A aortic dissection repair in low-to medium-volume centers was associated with a low reoperation rate and satisfactory midterm survival. The extent of the primary repair had no significant influence on reoperation rate or midterm survival.
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  • Chemtob, Raphaelle A., et al. (författare)
  • Stroke in acute type A aortic dissection : the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection (NORCAAD)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 58:5, s. 1027-1034
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Stroke is a serious complication in patients with acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). Previous studies investigating stroke in ATAAD patients have been limited by small cohorts and have shown diverging results. We sought to identify risk factors for stroke and to evaluate the effect of stroke on outcomes in surgical ATAAD patients. METHODS: The Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection database included patients operated for ATAAD at 8 Scandinavian Hospitals between 2005 and 2014. RESULTS: Stroke occurred in 177 (15.7%) out of 1128 patients. Patients with stroke presented more frequently with cerebral malperfusion (20.6% vs 6.3%, P < 0.001), syncope (30.6% vs 17.6%, P < 0.001), cardiogenic shock (33.1% vs 20.7%, P < 0.001) and pericardial tamponade (25.9% vs 14.7%, P < 0.001) and more often underwent total aortic arch replacement (10.7% vs 4.7%, P = 0.016), compared to patients without stroke. In the 86 patients presenting with cerebral malperfusion, 38.4% developed stroke. Thirty-day and 5-year mortality in patients with and without stroke were 27.1% vs 13.6% and 42.9% vs 25.6%, respectively. Stroke was an independent predictor of early- [odds ratio 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-3.05; P < 0.001] and midterm mortality (hazard ratio 1.68, 95% CI 1.27-2.23; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke in ATAAD patients is associated with increased early- and midterm mortality. Preoperative cerebral malperfusion and impaired haemodynamics, as well as total aortic arch replacement, were more frequent among patients who developed stroke. Importantly, a large proportion of patients presenting with cerebral malperfusion did not develop a permanent stroke, indicating that signs of cerebral malperfusion should not be considered a contraindication for surgery.
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  • Michaud, Dominique S., et al. (författare)
  • Lifestyle, dietary factors, and antibody levels to oral bacteria in cancer-free participants of a European cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer Netherlands. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 24:11, s. 1901-1909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that oral microbiota play a pivotal role in chronic diseases, in addition to the well-established role in periodontal disease. Moreover, recent studies suggest that oral bacteria may also be involved in carcinogenesis; periodontal disease has been linked to several cancers. In this study, we examined whether lifestyle factors have an impact on antibody levels to oral bacteria.METHODS: Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions were obtained at the time of blood sample collection. For the current analysis, we measured antibody levels to 25 oral bacteria in 395 cancer-free individuals using an immunoblot array. Combined total immunoglobin G (IgG) levels were obtained by summing concentrations for all oral bacteria measured.RESULTS: IgG antibody levels were substantially lower among current and former smokers (1,697 and 1,677 ng/mL, respectively) than never smokers (1,960 ng/mL; p trend = 0.01), but did not vary by other factors, including body mass index, diabetes, physical activity, or by dietary factors, after adjusting for age, sex, education, country, and smoking status. The highest levels of total IgG were found among individuals with low education (2,419 ng/mL).CONCLUSIONS: Our findings on smoking are consistent with previous studies and support the notion that smokers have a compromised humoral immune response. Moreover, other major factors known to be associated with inflammatory markers, including obesity, were not associated with antibody levels to a large number of oral bacteria.
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  • Chemtob, Raphaelle A., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Sex on Early Outcome following Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection : Results from the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection (NORCAAD)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: AORTA. - : Thieme Medical Publishers. - 2325-4637. ; 7:1, s. 7-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Female sex is known to have increased perioperative mortality in cardiac surgery. Studies reporting effects of sex on outcome following surgical repair for acute Type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) have been limited by small cohorts of heterogeneous patient populations and have shown diverging results. This study aimed to compare perioperative characteristics, operative management, and postoperative outcome between sexes in a large and well-defined cohort of patients operated for ATAAD. Methods The Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection study included patients with surgical repair of ATAAD at eight Nordic centers between January 2005 and December 2014. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results Females represented 373 (32%) out of 1,154 patients and were significantly older (65 ± 11 vs. 60 ± 12 years, p < 0.001), had lower body mass index (25.8 ± 5.4 vs. 27.2 ± 4.3 kg/m 2, p < 0.001), and had more often a history of hypertension (59% vs. 48%, p = 0.001) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (8% vs. 4%, p = 0.033) compared with males. More females presented with DeBakey class II as compared with males with dissection of the ascending aorta alone (33.4% vs. 23.1%, p = 0.003). Hypothermic cardiac arrest time (28 ± 16 vs. 31 ± 19 minutes, p = 0.026) and operation time (345 ± 133 vs. 374 ± 135 minutes, p < 0.001) were shorter among females. There was no difference between the sexes in unadjusted intraoperative death (9.1% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.17) or 30-day mortality (17.7% vs. 17.4%, p = 0.99). In a multivariable analysis including perioperative factors influencing mortality, no difference was found between females and males in 30-day mortality (odds ratio: 0.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-1.38, p = 0.69). Conclusions This study found no association between sex and early mortality following surgery for ATAAD, despite females being older and having more comorbidities, yet also presenting with a less widespread dissection than males.
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  • Gudbjartsson, T., et al. (författare)
  • Acute type-A aortic dissection - a review
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1401-7431 .- 1651-2006. ; 54:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. Acute type-A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is still one of the most challenging diseases that cardiac surgeons encounter. Design. This review is based on the current literature and includes the results from the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type-A Aortic Dissection (NORCAAD) database. It covers different aspects of ATAAD and concentrates on the outcome of surgical repair. Results and conclusions. The diagnosis is occasionally delayed, and ATAAD is usually lethal if prompt repair is not performed. The dynamic nature of the disease, the variation in presentation and clinical course, and the urgency of treatment require significant attentiveness. Many surgical techniques and perfusion strategies of varying complexity have been described, ranging from simple interposition graft to total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk and valve-sparing root reconstruction. Although more complex techniques may provide long-term benefit in selected patients, they require significant surgical expertise and experience. Short-term survival is first priority so an expedited operation that fits in with the surgeon's level of expertise is in most cases appropriate.
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