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  • Neumann, J. T., et al. (författare)
  • Application of High-Sensitivity Troponin in Suspected Myocardial Infarction
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 380:26, s. 2529-2540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundData regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. MethodsIn 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. ResultsAmong 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. ConclusionsA risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes.
  • Hofmann, R., et al. (författare)
  • Routine Oxygen Therapy Does Not Improve Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction—Insights From the Randomized DETO2X-AMI Trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 2297-055X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: After decades of ubiquitous oxygen therapy in all patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), recent guidelines are more restrictive based on lack of efficacy in contemporary trials evaluating hard clinical outcomes in patients without hypoxemia at baseline. However, no evidence regarding treatment effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) exists. In this study, we investigated the impact of routine oxygen supplementation on HRQoL 6–8 weeks after hospitalization with acute MI. Secondary objectives included analyses of MI subtypes, further adjustment for infarct size, and oxygen saturation at baseline and 1-year follow-up.Methods: In the DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial, 6,629 normoxemic patients with suspected MI were randomized to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6–12 h or ambient air. In this prespecified analysis, patients younger than 75 years of age with confirmed MI who had available HRQoL data by European Quality of Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) in the national registry were included. Primary endpoint was the EQ-5D index assessed by multivariate linear regression at 6–10 weeks after MI occurrence.Results: A total of 3,086 patients (median age 64, 22% female) were eligible, 1,518 allocated to oxygen and 1,568 to ambient air. We found no statistically significant effect of oxygen therapy on EQ-5D index (−0.01; 95% CI: −0.03–0.01; p = 0.23) or EQ-VAS score (−0.57; 95% CI: −1.88–0.75; p = 0.40) compared to ambient air after 6–10 weeks. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the treatment groups in EQ-5D dimensions. Results remained consistent across MI subtypes and at 1-year follow-up, including further adjustment for infarct size or oxygen saturation at baseline.Conclusions: Routine oxygen therapy provided to normoxemic patients with acute MI did not improve HRQoL up to 1 year after MI occurrence. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01787110. 
  • Jernberg, T., et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term Effects of Oxygen Therapy on Death or Hospitalization for Heart Failure in Patients With Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 138:24, s. 2754-2762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In the DETO2X-AMI trial (Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction), we compared supplemental oxygen with ambient air in normoxemic patients presenting with suspected myocardial infarction and found no significant survival benefit at 1 year. However, important secondary end points were not yet available. We now report the prespecified secondary end points cardiovascular death and the composite of all-cause death and hospitalization for heart failure. METHODS: In this pragmatic, registry-based randomized clinical trial, we used a nationwide quality registry for coronary care for trial procedures and evaluated end points through the Swedish population registry (mortality), the Swedish inpatient registry (heart failure), and cause of death registry (cardiovascular death). Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction and oxygen saturation of >= 90% were randomly assigned to receive either supplemental oxygen at 6 L/min for 6 to 12 hours delivered by open face mask or ambient air. RESULTS: A total of 6629 patients were enrolled. Acute heart failure treatment, left ventricular systolic function assessed by echocardiography, and infarct size measured by high-sensitive cardiac troponin T were similar in the 2 groups during the hospitalization period. All-cause death or hospitalization for heart failure within 1 year after randomization occurred in 8.0% of patients assigned to oxygen and in 7.9% of patients assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.84-1.18; P=0.92). During long-term follow-up (median [range], 2.1 [1.0-3.7] years), the composite end point occurred in 11.2% of patients assigned to oxygen and in 10.8% of patients assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88-1.17; P=0.84), and cardiovascular death occurred in 5.2% of patients assigned to oxygen and in 4.8% assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87-1.33; P=0.52). The results were consistent across all predefined subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Routine use of supplemental oxygen in normoxemic patients with suspected myocardial infarction was not found to reduce the composite of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, or cardiovascular death within 1 year or during long-term follow-up.
  • Lindahl, B., et al. (författare)
  • Poor long-term prognosis in patients admitted with strong suspicion of acute myocardial infarction but discharged with another diagnosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 290:2, s. 359-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Characteristics and prognosis of patients admitted with strong suspicion of myocardial infarction (MI) but discharged without an MI diagnosis are not well-described. Objectives: To compare background characteristics and cardiovascular outcomes in patients discharged with or without MI diagnosis. Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial compared 6629 patients with strong suspicion of MI randomized to oxygen or ambient air. The main composite end-point of this subgroup analysis was the incidence of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, heart failure (HF) or stroke during a follow-up of 2.1 years (median; range: 1–3.7 years) irrespective of randomized treatment. Results: 1619 (24%) received a non-MI discharge diagnosis, and 5010 patients (76%) were diagnosed with MI. Groups were similar in age, but non-MI patients were more commonly female and had more comorbidities. At thirty days, the incidence of the composite end-point was 2.8% (45 of 1619) in non-MI patients, compared to 5.0% (250 of 5010) in MI patients with lower incidences in all individual end-points. However, for the long-term follow-up, the incidence of the composite end-point increased in the non-MI patients to 17.7% (286 of 1619) as compared to 16.0% (804 of 5010) in MI patients, mainly driven by a higher incidence of all-cause death, stroke and HF. Conclusions: Patients admitted with a strong suspicion of MI but discharged with another diagnosis had more favourable outcomes in the short-term perspective, but from one year onwards, cardiovascular outcomes and death deteriorated to a worse long-term prognosis.
  • Edfors, R., et al. (författare)
  • Use of proteomics to identify biomarkers associated with chronic kidney disease and long-term outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 288:5, s. 581-592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have poor outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI). We performed an untargeted examination of 175 biomarkers to identify those with the strongest association with CKD and to examine the association of those biomarkers with long-term outcomes. Methods: A total of 175 different biomarkers from MI patients enrolled in the Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) registry were analysed either by a multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assay or by a multiplex assay (proximity extension assay). Random forests statistical models were used to assess the predictor importance of biomarkers, CKD and outcomes. Results: A total of 1098 MI patients with a median estimated glomerular filtration rate of 85 mL min−1/1.73 m2 were followed for a median of 3.2 years. The random forests analyses, without and with adjustment for differences in demography, comorbidities and severity of disease, identified six biomarkers (adrenomedullin, TNF receptor-1, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein-4, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2, growth differentiation factor-15 and TNF receptor-2) to be strongly associated with CKD. All six biomarkers were also amongst the 15 strongest predictors for death, and four of them were amongst the strongest predictors of subsequent MI and heart failure hospitalization. Conclusion: In patients with MI, a proteomic approach could identify six biomarkers that best predicted CKD. These biomarkers were also amongst the most important predictors of long-term outcomes. Thus, these biomarkers indicate underlying mechanisms that may contribute to the poor prognosis seen in patients with MI and CKD.
  • Mohammad, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Intravenous beta-blocker therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention is not associated with benefit regarding short-term mortality: a Swedish nationwide observational study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Eurointervention. - : Europa Edition. - 1774-024X .- 1969-6213. ; 13:2, s. E210-E218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Our aim was to investigate the impact of intravenous (IV) beta-blocker therapy on short-term mortality and other in-hospital events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results: Using the nationwide Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) registry, we identified all patients with STEMI undergoing PCI between 2006 and 2013. Patients with cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest at presentation were excluded. The primary endpoint was mortality within 30 days. Secondary endpoints were in-hospital events (mortality, cardiogenic shock and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <40% at discharge). We adjusted for confounders with a multivariable model and propensity score matching. Out of 16,909 patients, 2,876 (17.0%) were treated with an IV beta-blocker. After adjusting for confounders, the IV beta-blocker group had higher 30-day all-cause mortality (HR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.14-1.83), more in-hospital cardiogenic shock (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16) and were more often discharged with an LVEF <40% (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.51-1.92). Conclusions: In this large nationwide observational study, the use of IV beta-blockers in patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI was associated with higher short-term mortality, lower LVEF at discharge, as well as a higher risk of in-hospital cardiogenic shock.
  • Nordenskjold, A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Randomized evaluation of beta blocker and ACE-inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker treatment in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA-BAT): Rationale and design
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 231, s. 96-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is common and occurs in 6-8% of all patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This paper describes the rationale behind the trial 'Randomized Evaluation of Beta Blocker and ACE-Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Treatment (ACEI/ARB) of MINOCA patients' (MINOCA-BAT) and the need to improve the secondary preventive treatment of MINOCA patients. Methods MINOCA-BAT is a registry-based, randomized, parallel, open-label, multicenter trial with 2:2 factorial design. The primary aim is to determine whether oral beta blockade compared with no oral beta blockade, and ACEI/ARB compared with no ACEI/ARB, reduce the composite endpoint of death of any cause, readmission because of AMI, ischemic stroke or heart failure in patients discharged after MINOCA without clinical signs of heart failure and with left ventricular ejection fraction >= 40%. A total of 3500 patients will be randomized into four groups; e.g. ACEI/ARB and beta blocker, beta blocker only, ACEI/ARB only and neither ACEI/ARB nor beta blocker, and followed for a mean of 4 years. Summary While patients with MINOCA have an increased risk of serious cardiovascular events and death, whether conventional secondary preventive therapies are beneficial has not been assessed in randomized trials. There is a limited basis for guideline recommendations in MINOCA. Furthermore, studies of routine clinical practice suggest that use of secondary prevention therapies in MINOCA varies considerably. Thus results from this trial may influence future treatment strategies and guidelines specific to MINOCA patients.
  • Sodergren, A., et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics and outcome of a first acute myocardial infarction in patients with ankylosing spondylitis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Rheumatology. - : Springer. - 0770-3198 .- 1434-9949. ; 40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To study clinical characteristics, mortality, and secondary prevention, after a first incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with the general population. Methods In total, 292 subjects with AS and a first AMI between Jan 2006 and Dec 2014 were identified using the Swedish national patient register. Each subject was matched with up to 5 general population comparators per AS-patient (n = 1276). Follow-up started at the date of admission for AMI and extended until death or 365 days of follow-up. Cox regression was used to assess mortality in two time intervals: days 0-30 and days 31-365. For a subgroup with available data, clinical presentation at admission, course, treatment for AMI, and secondary prevention were compared. Results During the 365-day follow-up, 56/292 (19%) AS patients and 184/1276 (14%) comparators died. There were no difference in mortality due to cardiovascular-related causes, although the overall mortality day 31-365 was increased among patients with AS compared with comparators (HR [95% CI] = 2.0 [1.3;3.0]). At admission, AS patients had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities compared with comparators. At discharge, patients with AS were less often prescribed lipid-lowering drugs and non-aspirin antiplatelet therapy. Conclusions Patients with AS tend to have a higher comorbidity burden at admission for first AMI. The mortality after a first AMI due to cardiovascular-related causes does not seem to be elevated, despite an increased overall mortality during days 31-365 among patients with AS compared with the general population.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Morbidity and cause-specific mortality in first-time myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 285:4, s. 419-428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundMyocardial infarction (MI) with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is receiving increasing interest as a prognostically adverse entity distinct from myocardial infarction with significant coronary artery disease (MI-CAD). However, data are still limited regarding long-term cardiovascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality in MINOCA.MethodsThis is a registry-based cohort study using data from patients admitted to Swedish coronary care units. We investigated various nonfatal outcomes (recurrent MI, hospitalization for heart failure or stroke) and fatal outcomes (cardiovascular, respiratory or cancer-related mortality) in 4069 patients without apparent acute cardiovascular disease, used as non-MI controls, 7266 patients with first-time MINOCA and 69267 patients with first-time MI-CAD.ResultsAlmost all event rates (median follow-up 3.8years) increased in a stepwise fashion across the three cohorts [rates of major adverse events (MAE; composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent MI, hospitalization for heart failure or stroke): n=268 (6.6%), n=1563 (21.5%), n=17777 (25.7%), respectively]. Compared to non-MI controls, MINOCA patients had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.43) regarding MAE. MINOCA patients had a substantial risk of cardiovascular mortality and the highest numerical risks of respiratory and cancer-related mortality. Male sex, previous heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had a stronger prognostic impact in MINOCA than in MI-CAD. Female MINOCA patients with atrial fibrillation were at particular risk.ConclusionsPatients with first-time MINOCA have a considerable risk of adverse events. This stresses the need for a comprehensive search of the cause of MINOCA, thorough treatment of underlying disease triggers and close follow-up.
  • Nordenskjöld, A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of adverse outcome in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary artery (MINOCA) disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 261, s. 18-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCAs) is an increasingly recognized entity. No previous study has evaluated predictors for new major adverse cardiacvascular events (MACEs) and death in patients with MINOCA.Methods: We conducted an observational study of MINOCA patients recorded between July 2003 and June 2013 and followed until December 2013 for outcome events. Out of 199,163 MI admissions, 9092 consecutive unique patients with MINOCA were identified. The mean age was 65.5 years and 62% were women. MACE was defined as all-cause mortality, rehospitalization for acute MI, ischemic stroke and heart failure. Hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (HR; 95% CI) was calculated using Cox-regression.Results: A total of 2147 patients (24%) experienced a new MACE and 1254 patients (14%) died during the mean follow-up of 4.5 years. Independent predictors for MACE after adjustment, were older age (1.05; 1.04–1.06), diabetes (1.44; 1.21–1.70), hypertension (1.25; 1.09–1.43), current smoking (1.38; 1.15–1.66), previous myocardial infarction (1.38; 1.04–2.82), previous stroke (1.69; 1.35–2.11), peripheral vascular disease (1.55; 1.97–2.23), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.63; 1.32–2.00), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (2.00; 1.54–2.60), lower level of total cholesterol (0.88; 0.83–0.94) and higher level of creatinine (1.01; 1.00–1.03). Independent predictors for all cause death were age, current smoking, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, previous stroke, reduced left ventricular fraction, lower level of total cholesterol and higher levels of creatinine and CRP.Conclusions: The clinical factors predicting new MACE and death of MINOCA patients seem to be strikingly similar to factors previously shown to predict new cardiovascular events in patients with MI and obstructive coronary artery disease.
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