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1.
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2.
  • Backlund, Per, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Sim2020.
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this.  </p><p>Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.</p>
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3.
  • Backlund, Per, et al. (författare)
  • The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment : Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: SAREK. - Skövde.
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this. Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.</p>
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4.
  • Burström, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Swedish experience-based value sets for EQ-5D health states
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Quality of Life Research. - Springer. - 1573-2649. ; 23:2, s. 431-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposeTo estimate Swedish experience-based value sets for EQ-5D health states using general population health survey data.MethodsApproximately 45,000 individuals valued their current health status by means of time trade off (TTO) and visual analogue scale (VAS) methods and answered the EQ-5D questionnaire, making it possible to model the association between the experience-based TTO and VAS values and the EQ-5D dimensions and severity levels. The association between TTO and VAS values and the different severity levels of respondents’ answers on a self-rated health (SRH) question was assessed.ResultsAlmost all dimensions (except usual activity) and severity levels had less impact on TTO valuations compared with the UK study based on hypothetical values. Anxiety/depression had the greatest impact on both TTO and VAS values. TTO and VAS values were consistently related to SRH. The inclusion of age, sex, education and socioeconomic group affected the main effect coefficients and the explanatory power modestly.ConclusionsA value set for EQ-5D health states based on Swedish valuations has been lacking. Several authors have recently advocated the normative standpoint of using experience-based values. Guidelines of economic evaluation for reimbursement decisions in Sweden recommend the use of experience-based values for QALY calculations. Our results that anxiety/depression had the greatest impact on both TTO and VAS values underline the importance of mental health for individuals’ overall HRQoL. Using population surveys is in line with recent thinking on valuing health states and could reduce some of the focusing effects potentially appearing in hypothetical valuation studies.
5.
  • Gustavsson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Master level writing in Engineering and productive vocabulary: What does measuring academic vocabulary levels tell us?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Of butterflies and birds, of dialects and genres. Essays in honour of Philip Shaw. - Stockholm Studies in English. - 987-91-87235-34-4 ; s. 123-140
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigates the development of productive knowledge of English academic vocabulary in the writing ofMSc students from different engineering discipline areas at a technical university in Sweden. The purpose is to estab-lish (i) the extent to which Swedish and internationalMaster of Science (MSc)students employ English academic words (from the Academic Word List [AWL],Coxhead 2000) in their writing duringthe first and second year of a two-year MSc program, (ii) if there is any development in the frequency of English academic words from one year to the next, and (iii) whether or not AWL frequency is a usefulindicator of progression. Results suggest that students come to the MSc level with relatively advanced productive knowledge of AWL-vocabulary and that there are small differences between discipline areas and groups of authors. The proportion of AWL-vocabulary found in the students’ writing at the end of the second year is only marginally higher or even lower than that found in the first year writing, suggesting that vocabulary development during the two years is oriented at the discipline specific vocabulary rather than general academic vocabulary.
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6.
  • Lee, James J, et al. (författare)
  • Gene discovery and polygenic prediction from a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in 1.1 million individuals.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 50:8, s. 1112-1121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.
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7.
8.
  • Panova, Marina, et al. (författare)
  • Species and gene divergence in Littorina snails detected by array comparative genomic hybridization
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2164. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is commonly used to screen different types of genetic variation in humans and model species. Here, we performed aCGH using an oligonucleotide gene-expression array for a non-model species, the intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis. First, we tested what types of genetic variation can be detected by this method using direct re-sequencing and comparison to the Littorina genome draft. Secondly, we performed a genome-wide comparison of four closely related Littorina species: L. fabalis, L. compressa, L. arcana and L. saxatilis and of populations of L. saxatilis found in Spain, Britain and Sweden. Finally, we tested whether we could identify genetic variation underlying "Crab" and "Wave" ecotypes of L. saxatilis. Results: We could reliably detect copy number variations, deletions and high sequence divergence (i.e. above 3%), but not single nucleotide polymorphisms. The overall hybridization pattern and number of significantly diverged genes were in close agreement with earlier phylogenetic reconstructions based on single genes. The trichotomy of L. arcana, L. compressa and L. saxatilis could not be resolved and we argue that these divergence events have occurred recently and very close in time. We found evidence for high levels of segmental duplication in the Littorina genome (10% of the transcripts represented on the array and up to 23% of the analyzed genomic fragments); duplicated genes and regions were mostly the same in all analyzed species. Finally, this method discriminated geographically distant populations of L. saxatilis, but we did not detect any significant genome divergence associated with ecotypes of L. saxatilis. Conclusions: The present study provides new information on the sensitivity and the potential use of oligonucleotide arrays for genotyping of non-model organisms. Applying this method to Littorina species yields insights into genome evolution following the recent species radiation and supports earlier single-gene based phylogenies. Genetic differentiation of L. saxatilis ecotypes was not detected in this study, despite pronounced innate phenotypic differences. The reason may be that these differences are due to single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
9.
  • Parslow, Elle, et al. (författare)
  • The digit ratio (2D:4D) and economic preferences: no robust associations in a sample of 330 women
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Economic Science Association. - 2199-6784. ; 5:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many studies report on the association between 2D:4D, a putative marker for prenatal testosterone exposure, and economic preferences. However, most of these studies have limited sample sizes and test multiple hypotheses (without preregistration). In this study we mainly replicate the common specifications found in the literature for the association between the 2D:4D ratio and risk taking, the willingness to compete, and dictator game giving separately. In a sample of 330 women we find no robust associations between any of these economic preferences and 2D:4D. We find no evidence of an effect for sixteen of the eighteen total regressions we run. The two regression specifications which are significant have not previously been reported and the associations are not in the expected direction, and therefore they are unlikely to represent a real effect.
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10.
  • Sun, Sun, et al. (författare)
  • Population health status in China: EQ-5D results, by age, sex and socio-economic status, from the National Health Services Survey 2008
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Quality of Life Research. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics. - 1573-2649.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To measure and analyse national EQ-5D data and to provide norms for the Chinese general population by age, sex, educational level, income and employment status. Methods: The EQ-5D instrument was included in the National Health Services Survey 2008 (n = 120,703) to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL). All descriptive analyses by socio-economic status (educational level, income and employment status) and by clinical characteristics (discomfort during the past 2 weeks, diagnosed with chronic diseases during the past 6 months and hospitalised during the past 12 months) were stratified by sex and age group. Results: Health status declines with advancing age, and women reported worse health status than men, which is in line with EQ-5D population health studies in other countries and previous population health studies in China. The EQ-5D instrument distinguished well for the known groups: positive association between socio-economic status and HRQoL was observed among the Chinese population. Persons with clinical characteristics had worse HRQoL than those without. Conclusions: This study provides Chinese population HRQoL data measured by the EQ-5D instrument, based on a national representative sample. The main findings for different subgroups are consistent with results from EQ-5D population studies in other countries, and discriminative validity was supported.
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