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Sökning: WFRF:(Johannsen Peter)

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1.
  • Konradsson, K., et al. (författare)
  • Stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice in relation to dental caries, dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity: A systematic review
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Dentistry. - : Mosher & Linder. - 0894-8275. ; 33:2, s. 95-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To review the scientific evidence for the efficacy of stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice in relation to dental caries, dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity. Methods: Medline OVID, Embase.com, and the Cochrane Library were searched until January 2018. Two researchers independently selected studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, data were extracted, the risk of bias in eligible studies was assessed and a meta-analysis was performed wherever feasible. Results: Three studies on dental caries, eight studies on dental erosion and 11 on dentin hypersensitivity were included. Risk of bias was judged as high for most of the caries and erosion studies and low or medium for the hypersensitivity studies. A similar or slightly higher anti-caries activity compared with nonstannous fluoride dentifrices was observed. Stannous fluoride showed a greater anti-erosive potential in seven of the eight studies. A mean difference score in favor of stannous fluoride dentifrices compared with controls was found in a meta-analysis including six 8-week hypersensitivity studies.
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2.
  • Johannsen, A., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice on dental calculus, dental plaque, gingivitis, halitosis and stain: A systematic review
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Heliyon. - : Elsevier. - 2405-8440. ; 5:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the scientific evidence for the efficacy of stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice in relation to dental calculus, dental plaque, gingivitis, halitosis and staining. Data and sources: Medline OVID, Embase.com, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception until June 2017. Six researchers independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. A meta-analysis of the 6-month gingivitis studies was done. Risk of bias was estimated using a checklist from the Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment (SBU, 2018). Study selection: Two studies on dental calculus, 21 on dental plaque and gingivitis, 4 on halitosis, and 5 on stain met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was high for the studies on dental calculus, halitosis, and stain, and varied for the dental plaque and gingivitis studies. Significant reductions in dental calculus and in halitosis were reported for the SnF2 dentifrice; no differences in stain reduction were noted. A meta-analysis on gingivitis found better results for the SnF2 dentifrice compared to other dentifrices, though the results of the individual trials in the metaanalysesshowed a substantial heterogeneity. Conclusions: The present review found that stabilized SnF2 toothpaste had a positive effect on the reduction of dental calculus build-up, dental plaque, gingivitis, stain and halitosis. A tendency towards a more pronounced effect than using toothpastes not containing SnF2 was found. However, a new generation of well conducted randomized trials are needed to further support these findings. Clinical relevance: Adding a SnF2 toothpaste to the daily oral care routine is an easy strategy that may have multiple oral health benefits.
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3.
  • Bos, I., et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurodegeneration, synaptic integrity, and astroglial activation across the clinical Alzheimer's disease spectrum
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers & Dementia. - : Elsevier. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 15:5, s. 644-654
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We investigated relations between amyloid-beta (A beta) status, apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4, and cognition, with cerebrospinal fluid markers of neurogranin (Ng), neurofilament light (NFL), YKL-40, and total tau (T-tau). Methods: We included 770 individuals with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type dementia from the EMIF-AD Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study. We tested the association of Ng, NFL, YKL-40, and T-tau with A beta status (Ab beta- vs. A beta+), clinical diagnosis APOE epsilon 4 carriership, baseline cognition, and change in cognition. Results: Ng and T-tau distinguished between A beta+ from A beta- individuals in each clinical group, whereas NFL and YKL-40 were associated with A beta+ in nondemented individuals only. APOE epsilon 4 carriership did not influence NFL, Ng, and YKL-40 in A beta+ individuals. NFL was the best predictor of cognitive decline in A beta+ individuals across the cognitive spectrum. Discussion: Axonal degeneration, synaptic dysfunction, astroglial activation, and altered tau metabolism are involved already in preclinical AD. NFL may be a useful prognostic marker. (C) 2019 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Bos, Isabelle, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-β, Tau, and Cognition in Cognitively Normal Older Individuals : Examining the Necessity to Adjust for Biomarker Status in Normative Data.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1663-4365 .- 1663-4365. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated whether amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau affected cognition in cognitively normal (CN) individuals, and whether norms for neuropsychological tests based on biomarker-negative individuals would improve early detection of dementia. We included 907 CN individuals from 8 European cohorts and from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative. All individuals were aged above 40, had Aβ status and neuropsychological data available. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations of Aβ and tau with five neuropsychological tests assessing memory (immediate and delayed recall of Auditory Verbal Learning Test, AVLT), verbal fluency (Verbal Fluency Test, VFT), attention and executive functioning (Trail Making Test, TMT, part A and B). All test except the VFT were associated with Aβ status and this influence was augmented by age. We found no influence of tau on any of the cognitive tests. For the AVLT Immediate and Delayed recall and the TMT part A and B, we calculated norms in individuals without Aβ pathology (Aβ- norms), which we validated in an independent memory-clinic cohort by comparing their predictive accuracy to published norms. For memory tests, the Aβ- norms rightfully identified an additional group of individuals at risk of dementia. For non-memory test we found no difference. We confirmed the relationship between Aβ and cognition in cognitively normal individuals. The Aβ- norms for memory tests in combination with published norms improve prognostic accuracy of dementia.
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5.
  • Bos, Isabelle, et al. (författare)
  • The frequency and influence of dementia risk factors in prodromal Alzheimer's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 56, s. 33-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated whether dementia risk factors were associated with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the International Working Group-2 and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria, and with cognitive decline. A total of 1394 subjects with mild cognitive impairment from 14 different studies were classified according to these research criteria, based on cognitive performance and biomarkers. We compared the frequency of 10 risk factors between the subgroups, and used Cox-regression to examine the effect of risk factors on cognitive decline. Depression, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia occurred more often in individuals with low-AD-likelihood, compared with those with a high-AD-likelihood. Only alcohol use increased the risk of cognitive decline, regardless of AD pathology. These results suggest that traditional risk factors for AD are not associated with prodromal AD or with progression to dementia, among subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Future studies should validate these findings and determine whether risk factors might be of influence at an earlier stage (i.e., preclinical) of AD.
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6.
  • Buerger, Katharina, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of Alzheimer's disease CSF and plasma biological markers: the multicentre reliability study of the pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (E-ADNI).
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Experimental gerontology. - 1873-6815. ; 44:9, s. 579-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiatives ("ADNI") aim to validate neuroimaging and biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data of the pilot European-ADNI (E-ADNI) biological marker programme of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma candidate biomarkers are reported. METHODS: Six academic EADC centres recruited 49 subjects (healthy controls, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD). We measured CSF beta-amyloid 42 (CSF Abeta42), total tau-protein (t-tau), phosphorylated tau-proteins (P-tau181, P-tau231), plasma beta-amyloid 40 and 42 (Abeta40/Abeta42). Immediate fresh shipment was compared to freezing and later shipment on dry ice. RESULTS: CSF T-tau (fresh samples) was increased in AD versus controls (p=0.049), CSF Abeta42 (frozen samples) was decreased in MCI and AD (p=0.02), as well as plasma Abeta40 (fresh and frozen samples) in AD (p=0.049 and p=0.016). Pooled values of neurochemical parameters and ratios thereof were different between centres (p<0.005). Analysis of frozen samples yielded higher diagnostic accuracy than immediate fresh shipment with 100% (fresh: 100%) correctly classified in control subjects, 100% (78%) in MCI, 91% (91%) in AD. CONCLUSION: The use of frozen rather than fresh samples renders higher diagnostic accuracy within a multicentre context. We confirmed the feasibility of a multicentre AD biomarker programme for future clinical trials.
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7.
  • Clayton, Emma L., et al. (författare)
  • Early microgliosis precedes neuronal loss and behavioural impairment in mice with a frontotemporal dementia-causing CHMP2B mutation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 26:5, s. 873-887
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-causing mutations in the CHMP2B gene lead to the generation of mutant C-terminally truncated CHMP2B. We report that transgenic mice expressing endogenous levels of mutant CHMP2B developed late-onset brain volume loss associated with frank neuronal loss and FTD-like changes in social behaviour. These data are the first to show neurodegeneration in mice expressing mutant CHMP2B and indicate that our mouse model is able to recapitulate neurodegenerative changes observed in FTD. Neuroinflammation has been increasingly implicated in neurodegeneration, including FTD. Therefore, we investigated neuroinflammation in our CHMP2B mutant mice. We observed very early microglial proliferation that develops into a clear pro-inflammatory phenotype at late stages. Importantly, we also observed a similar inflammatory profile in CHMP2B patient frontal cortex. Aberrant microglial function has also been implicated in FTD caused by GRN, MAPT and C9orf72 mutations. The presence of early microglial changes in our CHMP2B mutant mice indicates neuroinflammation may be a contributing factor to the neurodegeneration observed in FTD.
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8.
  • Frisoni, Giovanni B, et al. (författare)
  • The pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 4:4, s. 255-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In North America, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has established a platform to track the brain changes of Alzheimer's disease. A pilot study has been carried out in Europe to test the feasibility of the adoption of the ADNI platform (pilot E-ADNI). METHODS: Seven academic sites of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) enrolled 19 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 22 with AD, and 18 older healthy persons by using the ADNI clinical and neuropsychological battery. ADNI compliant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood samples were shipped to central repositories. Medial temporal atrophy (MTA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed by a single rater by using visual rating scales. RESULTS: Recruitment rate was 3.5 subjects per month per site. The cognitive, behavioral, and neuropsychological features of the European subjects were very similar to their U.S. counterparts. Three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI sequences were successfully performed on all subjects, and cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from 77%, 68%, and 83% of AD patients, MCI patients, and controls, respectively. Mean MTA score showed a significant increase from controls (left, right: 0.4, 0.3) to MCI patients (0.9, 0.8) to AD patients (2.3, 2.0), whereas mean WMH score did not differ among the three diagnostic groups (between 0.7 and 0.9). The distribution of both MRI markers was comparable to matched US-ADNI subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Academic EADC centers can adopt the ADNI platform to enroll MCI and AD patients and older controls with global cognitive and structural imaging features remarkably similar to those of the US-ADNI.
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9.
  • Kim, Min, et al. (författare)
  • Primary fatty amides in plasma associated with brain amyloid burden, hippocampal volume, and memory in the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's Disease biomarker discovery cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - : Elsevier. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 15:6, s. 817-827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: A critical and as-yet unmet need in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the discovery of peripheral small molecule biomarkers. Given that brain pathology precedes clinical symptom onset, we set out to test whether metabolites in blood associated with pathology as indexed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers.METHODS: This study analyzed 593 plasma samples selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's Disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study, of individuals who were cognitively healthy (n = 242), had mild cognitive impairment (n = 236), or had AD-type dementia (n = 115). Logistic regressions were carried out between plasma metabolites (n = 883) and CSF markers, magnetic resonance imaging, cognition, and clinical diagnosis.RESULTS: Eight metabolites were associated with amyloid β and one with t-tau in CSF, these were primary fatty acid amides (PFAMs), lipokines, and amino acids. From these, PFAMs, glutamate, and aspartate also associated with hippocampal volume and memory.DISCUSSION: PFAMs have been found increased and associated with amyloid β burden in CSF and clinical measures.
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10.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in amyloid β positive subjects across the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 14:7, s. 913-924
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its prevalence is unclear because earlier studies did not require biomarker evidence of amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. Methods: We included 3451 Aβ+ subjects (853 AD-type dementia, 1810 mild cognitive impairment, and 788 cognitively normal). Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess APOE ε4 prevalence in relation to age, sex, education, and geographical location. Results: The APOE ε4 prevalence was 66% in AD-type dementia, 64% in mild cognitive impairment, and 51% in cognitively normal, and it decreased with advancing age in Aβ+ cognitively normal and Aβ+ mild cognitive impairment (P <.05) but not in Aβ+ AD dementia (P =.66). The prevalence was highest in Northern Europe but did not vary by sex or education. Discussion: The APOE ε4 prevalence in AD was higher than that in previous studies, which did not require presence of Aβ pathology. Furthermore, our results highlight disease heterogeneity related to age and geographical location.
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