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  • Gaines, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Six-week follow-up after HIV-1 exposure: a position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Infectious Diseases. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2374-4235 .- 2374-4243. ; 48:2, s. 93-98
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2014 the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) conducted a review and analysis of the state of knowledge on the duration of follow-up after exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Up until then a follow-up of 12 weeks after exposure had been recommended, but improved tests and new information on early diagnosis motivated a re-evaluation of the national recommendations by experts representing infectious diseases and microbiology, county medical officers, the RAV, the Public Health Agency, and other national authorities. Based on the current state of knowledge the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the RAV recommend, starting in April 2015, a follow-up period of 6 weeks after possible HIV-1 exposure, if HIV testing is performed using laboratory-based combination tests detecting both HIV antibody and antigen. If point-of-care rapid HIV tests are used, a follow-up period of 8 weeks is recommended, because currently available rapid tests have insufficient sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 antigen. A follow-up period of 12 weeks is recommended after a possible exposure for HIV-2, since presently used assays do not include HIV-2 antigens and only limited information is available on the development of HIV antibodies during early HIV-2 infection. If pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis is administered, the follow-up period is recommended to begin after completion of prophylaxis. Even if infection cannot be reliably excluded before the end of the recommended follow-up period, HIV testing should be performed at first contact for persons who seek such testing.
  • Johansson, Dongni, 1988, et al. (författare)
  • Individualization of levodopa treatment using a microtablet dispenser and ambulatory accelerometry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics. - 1755-5930 .- 1755-5949. ; 24, s. 439-447
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Aim: This 4-week open-label observational study describes the effect of introducing a microtablet dose dispenser and adjusting doses based on objective free-living motor symptom monitoring in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Twenty-eight outpatients with PD on stable levodopa treatment with dose intervals of ≤4 hour had their daytime doses of levodopa replaced with levodopa/carbidopa microtablets, 5/1.25 mg (LC-5) delivered from a dose dispenser device with programmable reminders. After 2 weeks, doses were adjusted based on ambulatory accelerometry and clinical monitoring. Results: Twenty-four participants completed the study per protocol. The daily levodopa dose was increased by 15% (112 mg, P  <  0.001) from period 1 to 2, and the dose interval was reduced by 12% (22 minutes, P = 0.003). The treatment adherence to LC-5 was high in both periods. The MDS-UPDRS parts II and III, disease-specific quality of life (PDQ-8), wearing-off symptoms (WOQ-19), and nonmotor symptoms (NMS Quest) improved after dose titration, but the generic quality-of-life measure EQ-5D-5L did not. Blinded expert evaluation of accelerometry results demonstrated improvement in 60% of subjects and worsening in 25%. Conclusions: The introduction of a levodopa microtablet dispenser and accelerometry aided dose adjustments improve PD symptoms and quality of life in the short term.
  • Albert, J., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of HIV transmission from patients on antiretroviral therapy: A position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Informa Healthcare. - 0036-5548 .- 1651-1980. ; 46:10, s. 673-677
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The modern medical treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality in patients infected with this virus. ART has also been shown to reduce the transmission risk from individual patients as well as the spread of the infection at the population level. This position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy is based on a workshop organized in the fall of 2012. It summarizes the latest research and knowledge on the risk of HIV transmission from patients on ART, with a focus on the risk of sexual transmission. The risk of transmission via shared injection equipment among intravenous drug users is also examined, as is the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Based on current knowledge, the risk of transmission through vaginal or anal intercourse involving the use of a condom has been judged to be minimal, provided that the person infected with HIV fulfils the criteria for effective ART. This probably also applies to unprotected intercourse, provided that no other sexually transmitted infections are present, although it is not currently possible to fully support this conclusion with direct scientific evidence. ART is judged to markedly reduce the risk of blood-borne transmission between people who share injection equipment. Finally, the risk of transmission from mother to child is very low, provided that ART is started well in advance of delivery.
  • Johansson, Dongni, 1988, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of a sensor algorithm for motor state rating in Parkinson's disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - : Elsevier Ltd. - 1353-8020 .- 1873-5126. ; 64:July, s. 112-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: A treatment response objective index (TRIS) was previously developed based on sensor data from pronation-supination tests. This study aimed to examine the performance of TRIS for medication effects in a new population sample with Parkinson's disease (PD) and its usefulness for constructing individual dose-response models. Methods: Twenty-five patients with PD performed a series of tasks throughout a levodopa challenge while wearing sensors. TRIS was used to determine motor changes in pronation-supination tests following a single levodopa dose, and was compared to clinical ratings including the Treatment Response Scale (TRS) and six sub-items of the UPDRS part III. Results: As expected, correlations between TRIS and clinical ratings were lower in the new population than in the initial study. TRIS was still significantly correlated to TRS (r(s) = 0.23, P < 0.001) with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.33. For the patients (n = 17) with a good levodopa response and clear motor fluctuations, a stronger correlation was found (r(s) = 0.38, RMSE = 1.29, P < 0.001). The mean TRIS increased significantly when patients went from the practically defined off to their best on state (P = 0.024). Individual dose-response models could be fitted for more participants when TRIS was used for modelling than when TRS ratings were used. Conclusion: The objective sensor index shows promise for constructing individual dose-response models, but further evaluations and retraining of the TRIS algorithm are desirable to improve its performance and to ensure its clinical effectiveness.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A measurement of the ratio of the production cross sections for W and Z bosons in association with jets with the ATLAS detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 74:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ratio of the production cross sections for W and Z bosons in association with jets has been measured in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is based on the entire 2011 dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). Inclusive and differential cross-section ratios for massive vector bosons decaying to electrons and muons are measured in association with jets with transverse momentum p(T) > 30 GeV and jet rapidity vertical bar y vertical bar < 4.4. The measurements are compared to next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations and to predictions from different Monte Carlo generators implementing leading-order matrix elements supplemented by parton showers.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A search for t(t)over-bar resonances in lepton plus jets events with highly boosted top quarks collected in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for resonant production of high-mass top-quark pairs is performed on 2.05 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV collected in 2011 with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. This analysis of the lepton+jets final state is specifically designed for the particular topology that arises from the decay of highly boosted top quarks. The observed t (t) over bar invariant mass spectrum is found to be compatible with the Standard Model prediction and 95% credibility level upper limits are derived on the t (t) over bar production rate through new massive states. An upper limit of 0.7 pb is set on the production cross section times branching fraction of a narrow 1 TeV resonance. A Kaluza-Klein gluon with a mass smaller than 1.5 TeV is excluded.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in root(NN)-N-S=5.02 TeV proton-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 748, s. 392-413
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of the centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in root(NN)-N-S = 5.02 TeV proton-lead (p + Pb) collisions and the jet cross-section in root s = 2.76 TeV proton-proton collisions are presented. These quantities are measured in datasets corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 27.8 nb(-1) and 4.0 pb(-1), respectively, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2013. The p + Pb collision centrality was characterised using the total transverse energy measured in the pseudorapidity interval -4.9 < eta < -3.2 in the direction of the lead beam. Results are presented for the double-differential per-collision yields as a function of jet rapidity and transverse momentum (p(T)) for minimum-bias and centrality-selected p + Pb collisions, and are compared to the jet rate from the geometric expectation. The total jet yield in minimum-bias events is slightly enhanced above the expectation in a p(T)-dependent manner but is consistent with the expectation within uncertainties. The ratios of jet spectra from different centrality selections show a strong modification of jet production at all p(T) at forward rapidities and for large pT at mid-rapidity, which manifests as a suppression of the jet yield in central events and an enhancement in peripheral events. These effects imply that the factorisation between hard and soft processes is violated at an unexpected level in proton-nucleus collisions. Furthermore, the modifications at forward rapidities are found to be a function of the total jet energy only, implying that the violations may have a simple dependence on the hard parton-parton kinematics. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Characterisation and mitigation of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the 2011 proton-proton run
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a summary of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector and discusses methods to tag and remove background contaminated events in data. Trigger-rate based monitoring of beam-related backgrounds is presented. The correlations of backgrounds with machine conditions, such as residual pressure in the beam-pipe, are discussed. Results from dedicated beam-background simulations are shown, and their qualitative agreement with data is evaluated. Data taken during the passage of unpaired, i.e. non-colliding, proton bunches is used to obtain background-enriched data samples. These are used to identify characteristic features of beam-induced backgrounds, which then are exploited to develop dedicated background tagging tools. These tools, based on observables in the Pixel detector, the muon spectrometer and the calorimeters, are described in detail and their efficiencies are evaluated. Finally an example of an application of these techniques to a monojet analysis is given, which demonstrates the importance of such event cleaning techniques for some new physics searches.
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