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1.
  • Gaines, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Six-week follow-up after HIV-1 exposure: a position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Infectious Diseases. - Informa Healthcare. - 2374-4243. ; :sep 28, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2014 the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) conducted a review and analysis of the state of knowledge on the duration of follow-up after exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Up until then a follow-up of 12 weeks after exposure had been recommended, but improved tests and new information on early diagnosis motivated a re-evaluation of the national recommendations by experts representing infectious diseases and microbiology, county medical officers, the RAV, the Public Health Agency, and other national authorities. Based on the current state of knowledge the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the RAV recommend, starting in April 2015, a follow-up period of 6 weeks after possible HIV-1 exposure, if HIV testing is performed using laboratory-based combination tests detecting both HIV antibody and antigen. If point-of-care rapid HIV tests are used, a follow-up period of 8 weeks is recommended, because currently available rapid tests have insufficient sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 antigen. A follow-up period of 12 weeks is recommended after a possible exposure for HIV-2, since presently used assays do not include HIV-2 antigens and only limited information is available on the development of HIV antibodies during early HIV-2 infection. If pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis is administered, the follow-up period is recommended to begin after completion of prophylaxis. Even if infection cannot be reliably excluded before the end of the recommended follow-up period, HIV testing should be performed at first contact for persons who seek such testing.
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2.
  • Johansson, Dongni, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Individualization of levodopa treatment using a microtablet dispenser and ambulatory accelerometry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics. - 17555930 .- 17555949. ; 24, s. 439-447
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Aim: This 4-week open-label observational study describes the effect of introducing a microtablet dose dispenser and adjusting doses based on objective free-living motor symptom monitoring in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Twenty-eight outpatients with PD on stable levodopa treatment with dose intervals of ≤4 hour had their daytime doses of levodopa replaced with levodopa/carbidopa microtablets, 5/1.25 mg (LC-5) delivered from a dose dispenser device with programmable reminders. After 2 weeks, doses were adjusted based on ambulatory accelerometry and clinical monitoring. Results: Twenty-four participants completed the study per protocol. The daily levodopa dose was increased by 15% (112 mg, P  <  0.001) from period 1 to 2, and the dose interval was reduced by 12% (22 minutes, P = 0.003). The treatment adherence to LC-5 was high in both periods. The MDS-UPDRS parts II and III, disease-specific quality of life (PDQ-8), wearing-off symptoms (WOQ-19), and nonmotor symptoms (NMS Quest) improved after dose titration, but the generic quality-of-life measure EQ-5D-5L did not. Blinded expert evaluation of accelerometry results demonstrated improvement in 60% of subjects and worsening in 25%. Conclusions: The introduction of a levodopa microtablet dispenser and accelerometry aided dose adjustments improve PD symptoms and quality of life in the short term.
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3.
  • Albert, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of HIV transmission from patients on antiretroviral therapy : A position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - 0036-5548 .- 1651-1980. ; 46:10, s. 673-677
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The modern medical treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality in patients infected with this virus. ART has also been shown to reduce the transmission risk from individual patients as well as the spread of the infection at the population level. This position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy is based on a workshop organized in the fall of 2012. It summarizes the latest research and knowledge on the risk of HIV transmission from patients on ART, with a focus on the risk of sexual transmission. The risk of transmission via shared injection equipment among intravenous drug users is also examined, as is the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Based on current knowledge, the risk of transmission through vaginal or anal intercourse involving the use of a condom has been judged to be minimal, provided that the person infected with HIV fulfils the criteria for effective ART. This probably also applies to unprotected intercourse, provided that no other sexually transmitted infections are present, although it is not currently possible to fully support this conclusion with direct scientific evidence. ART is judged to markedly reduce the risk of blood-borne transmission between people who share injection equipment. Finally, the risk of transmission from mother to child is very low, provided that ART is started well in advance of delivery.</p>
  •  
4.
  • Albert, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of HIV transmission from patients on antiretroviral therapy: A position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - Informa Healthcare. - 1651-1980. ; 46:10, s. 673-677
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The modern medical treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality in patients infected with this virus. ART has also been shown to reduce the transmission risk from individual patients as well as the spread of the infection at the population level. This position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy is based on a workshop organized in the fall of 2012. It summarizes the latest research and knowledge on the risk of HIV transmission from patients on ART, with a focus on the risk of sexual transmission. The risk of transmission via shared injection equipment among intravenous drug users is also examined, as is the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Based on current knowledge, the risk of transmission through vaginal or anal intercourse involving the use of a condom has been judged to be minimal, provided that the person infected with HIV fulfils the criteria for effective ART. This probably also applies to unprotected intercourse, provided that no other sexually transmitted infections are present, although it is not currently possible to fully support this conclusion with direct scientific evidence. ART is judged to markedly reduce the risk of blood-borne transmission between people who share injection equipment. Finally, the risk of transmission from mother to child is very low, provided that ART is started well in advance of delivery.
  •  
5.
  • Andersson, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • Malmbanan Diaries
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This booklet is a report for a case study visit during four day field trip, a group of nine PhD students and their supervisors – all part of the National Research School for Architecture and Planning in the Urban Landscape, APULA – set out to explore what may be considered the outback of Western Europe’s conurbations, the transnational region of Kiruna -Narvik.Both “remote” and “resourceful”, “threatened” and “thriving” (equally relative notions), this region seemed to offer possibilities to reflect upon many of the current tendencies influencing contemporary planning practice and research.
6.
  • Björkelund, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • On the Integration of Skilled Robot Motions for Productivity in Manufacturing
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: 2011 IEEE/CIRP International Symposium on Assembly and Manufacturing (ISAM),Tampere, Finland,2011-05-25. - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc..
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Robots used in manufacturing today are tailored to their tasks by system integration based on expert knowledge concerning both production and machine control. For upcoming new generations of even more flexible robot solutions, in applications such as dexterous assembly, the robot setup and programming gets even more challenging. Reuse of solutions in terms of parameters, controls, process tuning, and of software modules in general then gets increasingly important. There has been valuable progress within reuse of automation solutions when machines comply with standards and behave according to nominal models. However, more flexible robots with sensor-based manipulation skills and congnitive functions for human inteaction are far too complex to manage, and solutions are rarely reusable since knowledge is either implicit in imperative software or not captured in machine readable form. We propose techniques that build on existing knowledge by converting structured data into an RDF-based knowledge base. By enhancements of industrial control systems and available engineering tools, such knowledge can be gradually extended as part of the interaction during the definition of the robot task.
7.
  • Deloukas, Panos, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:1, s. 25-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) < 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.
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8.
  • Gaines, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Six-week follow-up after HIV-1 exposure : a position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: INFECTIOUS DISEASES. - Taylor & Francis. - 2374-4235. ; 48:2, s. 93-98
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In 2014 the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) conducted a review and analysis of the state of knowledge on the duration of follow-up after exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Up until then a follow-up of 12 weeks after exposure had been recommended, but improved tests and new information on early diagnosis motivated a re-evaluation of the national recommendations by experts representing infectious diseases and microbiology, county medical officers, the RAV, the Public Health Agency, and other national authorities. Based on the current state of knowledge the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the RAV recommend, starting in April 2015, a follow-up period of 6 weeks after possible HIV-1 exposure, if HIV testing is performed using laboratory-based combination tests detecting both HIV antibody and antigen. If point-of-care rapid HIV tests are used, a follow-up period of 8 weeks is recommended, because currently available rapid tests have insufficient sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 antigen. A follow-up period of 12 weeks is recommended after a possible exposure for HIV-2, since presently used assays do not include HIV-2 antigens and only limited information is available on the development of HIV antibodies during early HIV-2 infection. If pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis is administered, the follow-up period is recommended to begin after completion of prophylaxis. Even if infection cannot be reliably excluded before the end of the recommended follow-up period, HIV testing should be performed at first contact for persons who seek such testing.</p>
  •  
9.
  • Johansson, Ann-Katrin, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Eating disorders and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. A matched case-control study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal. - 0347-9994. ; 34:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to examine signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients with eating disorders (ED) and to compare the prevalence with that in sex- and age-matched controls. During a 12-month period, all patients (n=65) who accepted and initiated psychiatric/medical outpatient treatment in an Eating Disorder Clinic/Erikbergsgården, Örebro, Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Of the ED patients, 54 (83 %) accepted participation. ED patients and controls underwent a comprehensive TMD questionnaire and clinical examination. Reported symptoms such as headache, facial pain, jaw tiredness, tongue thrusting, and lump feeling in the throat as well as dizziness, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances were all significantly more prevalent among ED patients compared to controls. There was also a significantly higher prevalence of clinical TMD signs in the ED patients. Analyses within the ED group showed that those who reported self-induced vomiting reported significantly more heavy feeling in the head, nausea and snoring. Those with binge eating reported significantly more heavy feeling in the head, facial pain, dizzy feeling and concentration difficulties. No significant differences regarding subjective symptoms and clinical signs of TMD were found within the ED group with respect to duration of ED. In conclusion, orofacial pain and TMD related signs and symptoms are significantly more common in ED patients than in matched control subjects. Special emphasis should be made to those who reports vomiting and/or binge eating behaviors.
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10.
  • Michaud, Dominique S., et al. (författare)
  • Lifestyle, dietary factors, and antibody levels to oral bacteria in cancer-free participants of a European cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Springer. - 1573-7225. ; 24:11, s. 1901-1909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing evidence suggests that oral microbiota play a pivotal role in chronic diseases, in addition to the well-established role in periodontal disease. Moreover, recent studies suggest that oral bacteria may also be involved in carcinogenesis; periodontal disease has been linked to several cancers. In this study, we examined whether lifestyle factors have an impact on antibody levels to oral bacteria. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions were obtained at the time of blood sample collection. For the current analysis, we measured antibody levels to 25 oral bacteria in 395 cancer-free individuals using an immunoblot array. Combined total immunoglobin G (IgG) levels were obtained by summing concentrations for all oral bacteria measured. IgG antibody levels were substantially lower among current and former smokers (1,697 and 1,677 ng/mL, respectively) than never smokers (1,960 ng/mL; p trend = 0.01), but did not vary by other factors, including body mass index, diabetes, physical activity, or by dietary factors, after adjusting for age, sex, education, country, and smoking status. The highest levels of total IgG were found among individuals with low education (2,419 ng/mL). Our findings on smoking are consistent with previous studies and support the notion that smokers have a compromised humoral immune response. Moreover, other major factors known to be associated with inflammatory markers, including obesity, were not associated with antibody levels to a large number of oral bacteria.
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