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  • Zackrisson, Bjorn, et al. (författare)
  • Two-year results from a Swedish study on conventional versus accelerated radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma The ARTSCAN study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1879-0887. ; 100:1, s. 41-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Studies on accelerated fractionation (AF) in head and neck cancer have shown increased local control and survival compared with conventional fractionation (CF), while others have been non-conclusive. In 1998 a national Swedish group decided to perform a randomised controlled clinical study of AF. Materials and methods: Patients with verified squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx (except glottic T1 -T2, N0) and hypopharynx were included. Patients with prior chemotherapy or surgery were excluded. Patients were randomised to either CF (2 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 7 weeks, total dose 68 Gy) or to AF (1.1 Gy + 2.0 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 4.5 weeks, total dose 68 Gy). An extensive quality assurance protocol was followed throughout the study. The primary end point was loco-regional tumour control (LRC) at two years after treatment. Results: The study was closed in 2006 when 750 patients had been randomised. Eighty-three percent of the patients had stages III-IV disease. Forty eight percent had oropharyngeal, 21% laryngeal, 17% hypopharyngeal and 14% oral cancers. There were no significant differences regarding overall survival (OS) or LRC between the two regimens. The OS at two years was 68% for AF and 67% for CF. The corresponding figures for LRC were 71% and 67%, respectively. There was a trend towards improved LRC for oral cancers treated (p = 0.07) and for large tumours (T3-T4) (p = 0.07) treated with AF. The AF group had significantly worse acute reactions, while there was no significant increase in late effects. Conclusion: Overall the AF regimen did not prove to be more efficacious than CF. However, the trend towards improved results in AF for oral cancers needs to be further investigated. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 100 (2011) 41-48
  • Cerdas, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Development of job demands, decision authority and social support in industries with different gender composition-Sweden, 1991-2013
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 14712458. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 The Author(s). Background: This study aims to explore the development of job demands, decision authority and social support within and between industries with different gender composition in Sweden between 1991 and 2013. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 12 waves of the Swedish Work Environment Surveys (1991 to 2013), comprising in total 109,698 respondents, were used. Industries were classified in 7 categories according to its gender composition and main activity, comprising two female-dominated, three gender-mixed and two male-dominated industries. Proportions of workers reporting high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support between 1991 and 2013 were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate variation across time, using 1991 as the reference category, and between industries, using knowledge intensive services as the reference category. Estimates for high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support were presented as average marginal effects (AMEs). Results: The probabilities of reporting low decision authority were higher in education and health and social care during the whole study period, for both genders, compared with the reference category of knowledge intensive services. The probability of having high job demands were higher for men and women in education, and women in health and social care, compared with the reference category. Men in the male dominated industries had increased job demands over time, compared to the beginning of the study period (1991). The probability of reporting poor social support was higher in the later than in the earliest time period for women in the female-dominated industry health and social care as well as in the gender-mixed labour intensive services industry. Conclusions: There has been a negative development of job demands and decision authority in the female-dominated industries education and health and social care in Sweden, whereas social support has developed more negatively for women in health and social care and in labour intensive services.
  • Hariz, Marwan I, et al. (författare)
  • Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in a parkinsonian patient with preoperative deficits in speech and cognition : persistent improvement in mobility but increased dependency
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - 0885-3185 .- 1531-8257. ; 15:1, s. 136-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease, including severe and frequent off periods with freezing of gait, moderate dysphonia, and some cognitive impairment, who underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. The patient was followed for 1 year after surgery, showing persistent good mobility without off periods and without freezing, which reverted completely when stopping the stimulation. There was deterioration of cognition as well as increased aphonia and drooling, all of which remained when the stimulation was turned off. The striking improvement in motor symptoms following STN stimulation was not paralleled by improvement in disability, probably as a result of a cognitive decline, suggesting a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease with dementia. We conclude that chronic STN stimulation is efficient in alleviating akinetic motor symptoms including gait freezing; this surgery should be offered before patients start to exhibit speech or cognitive disturbances.</p>
  • Johansson, Gun-Britt, 1956- (författare)
  • Synderskan och lagen: Barnamord i tre Norrlandslän 1830-1870
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>ABSTRACT</p><p>Many studies have been conducted on infanticide and child homicide. Researchers have approached the subject with different theoretical frameworks and explored it from different dimensions, geographical areas, and time periods. As much as the questions have varied so have the answers. This study contributes to greater clarity on the causes of infanticide. Despite numerous studies on the subject, there is still no consensus its causes. My aim has been to combine different strategies for understanding the subject. I have used material both from an aggregated level and from an individual level. The main question I sought to answer was whether social causes rather than individual factors force or trigger women to kill their newborn child? Court material also provides for an in-depth understanding of our history. The social sciences have frequently drawn sketches of the social world with big lines. These lines have been necessary and useful to point at large-scale transformations of civilisation and modernisation but, in terms of understanding real life, they can provide us with a foggy and even mistaken picture. When social scientists enter the historical archives and similar sources, we often blunder in its richness and variation. Society may, in any case, have always been complicated and the every day life for each person as well.</p><p>My findings show that infanticide signals low tolerance. In general, the women did not want to kill their own children. Moreover, my findings, like the results of other studies before mine, demonstrate that women who carry out infanticide represent normal women. To my knowledge, there isn’t one study on infanticide that claims the women were not normal. Women who committed infanticide did so out of fear: fear of losing their social bonds. They killed their children if the existence of the bonds was endangered or threatened. Often social bonds were related to their work situation as maids in farming households. If they couldn’t stay in the household after having the baby, many women had no where else to go. Their parents – poor, elderly or deceased – were unable to help. Sometimes the social bonds were threatened by other factors, often related to the child’s father. If he was already married or had a close relation with the woman’s family, their relationship could in fact, break her bonds to her own family and other relatives. Some women already had an illegitimate child. With a child out of wedlock, they had a difficult time getting work and housing. If they got pregnant again and the father to the new child refused to marry her or to support the child, she could in fact lack any resources for handling the situation.</p><p>Finally: the findings talk about honour and infanticide. It was always shameful to get a child out of wedlock. But demographic research from North of Sweden has shown that these children had almost the same chances of survival during their first year as legitimate children. Sexuality outside marriage was not respected but much discussion around honour was more related to how the women would manage with the child. In my findings, shame seems to be related to having no support. Extramarital relations were not accepted but people probably didn’t care to much about it as far as they managed on their own. Being rejected, helpless, not able to work and not able to take care of the child that was what shame was about.</p><p>Keywords: Infanticide, child homicide, illegitimacy, social bonds, shame</p>
  • Johansson, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Conditioned openings and restraints: The meaning‐making of women professionals breaking into the male‐dominated sector of forestry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Gender, Work and Organization. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0968-6673 .- 1468-0432.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This article addresses how women forestry professionals articulate and interpret their experiences of being a woman and a professional in the male‐dominated context of forestry. The findings suggest that the entrance of women into forestry has created openings as well as restraints within the dominant discourses of forestry organizations. Gendered constructions of skills and a workplace culture described as built on homosocial values cause women to feel questioned and disadvantaged. At the same time, women are valued for their perceived capacity to perform relational‐based aspects of forestry work and as a means to reduce gender segregation. We conclude that while these openings are conditioned by discourses of gender differences and masculine privileges, they provide women, to some extent, with subjectivity and organizational space that, with time, may challenge the dominant and gendered discourses of forestry organizations.</p>
  • Johansson, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • The Discursive Resistance of Men to Gender-equality Interventions : Negotiating “Unjustness”and “Unnecessity”in Swedish Forestry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Men and Masculinities. - Sage Publications. - 1097-184X .- 1552-6828. ; 22:2, s. 177-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This article adds to the understanding of men’s discursive resistance in relation to gender-equality interventions at work. Using Swedish men forestry professionals as the empirical base, the result shows how discursive resistance were performative acts, part of the construction of the same gender-equality interventions and organizational contexts that they were perceived to describe. In this case, direct opposition to gender equality provided a limited discursive position and sets of logics available in practice. Instead, the possibilities to renegotiate gender-equality interventions as unjust and unnecessary required, we conclude that the industry’s ambition to hire and promote more women was perceived to have led to the use of affirmative action and the disruption of meritocratic principles and that the problems of gender equality were placed in the traditional forestry and among “prejudiced old men,” as oppose to the more “modern” and “women friendly” forestry of today.</p>
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