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1.
  • Rydberg Sterner, Therese, et al. (författare)
  • The Gothenburg H70 Birth cohort study 2014-16: design, methods and study population.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European journal of epidemiology. - 1573-7284. ; 34:2, s. 191-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To improve health care for older persons, we need to learn more about ageing, e.g. identify protective factors and early markers for diseases. The Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies (the H70 studies) are multidisciplinary epidemiological studies examining representative birth cohorts of older populations in Gothenburg, Sweden. So far, six birth cohorts of 70-year-olds have been examined over time, and examinations have been virtually identical between studies. This paper describes the study procedures for the baseline examination of the Birth cohort 1944, conducted in 2014-16. In this study, all men and women born 1944 on specific dates, and registered as residents in Gothenburg, were eligible for participation (n = 1839). A total of 1203 (response rate 72.2%; 559 men and 644 women; mean age 70.5 years) agreed to participate in the study. The study comprised sampling of blood and cerebrospinal fluid, psychiatric, cognitive, and physical health examinations, examinations of genetics and family history, use of medications, social factors, functional ability and disability, physical fitness and activity, body composition, lung function, audiological and ophthalmological examinations, diet, brain imaging, as well as a close informant interview, and qualitative studies. As in previous examinations, data collection serves as a basis for future longitudinal follow-up examinations. The research gained from the H70 studies has clinical relevance in relation to prevention, early diagnosis, clinical course, experience of illness, understanding pathogenesis and prognosis. Results will increase our understanding of ageing and inform service development, which may lead to enhanced quality of care for older persons.
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2.
  • Zackrisson, Bjorn, et al. (författare)
  • Two-year results from a Swedish study on conventional versus accelerated radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma The ARTSCAN study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1879-0887. ; 100:1, s. 41-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Studies on accelerated fractionation (AF) in head and neck cancer have shown increased local control and survival compared with conventional fractionation (CF), while others have been non-conclusive. In 1998 a national Swedish group decided to perform a randomised controlled clinical study of AF. Materials and methods: Patients with verified squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx (except glottic T1 -T2, N0) and hypopharynx were included. Patients with prior chemotherapy or surgery were excluded. Patients were randomised to either CF (2 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 7 weeks, total dose 68 Gy) or to AF (1.1 Gy + 2.0 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 4.5 weeks, total dose 68 Gy). An extensive quality assurance protocol was followed throughout the study. The primary end point was loco-regional tumour control (LRC) at two years after treatment. Results: The study was closed in 2006 when 750 patients had been randomised. Eighty-three percent of the patients had stages III-IV disease. Forty eight percent had oropharyngeal, 21% laryngeal, 17% hypopharyngeal and 14% oral cancers. There were no significant differences regarding overall survival (OS) or LRC between the two regimens. The OS at two years was 68% for AF and 67% for CF. The corresponding figures for LRC were 71% and 67%, respectively. There was a trend towards improved LRC for oral cancers treated (p = 0.07) and for large tumours (T3-T4) (p = 0.07) treated with AF. The AF group had significantly worse acute reactions, while there was no significant increase in late effects. Conclusion: Overall the AF regimen did not prove to be more efficacious than CF. However, the trend towards improved results in AF for oral cancers needs to be further investigated. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 100 (2011) 41-48
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3.
  • Gaines, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Six-week follow-up after HIV-1 exposure: a position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Infectious Diseases. - Informa Healthcare. - 2374-4243. ; :sep 28, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2014 the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) conducted a review and analysis of the state of knowledge on the duration of follow-up after exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Up until then a follow-up of 12 weeks after exposure had been recommended, but improved tests and new information on early diagnosis motivated a re-evaluation of the national recommendations by experts representing infectious diseases and microbiology, county medical officers, the RAV, the Public Health Agency, and other national authorities. Based on the current state of knowledge the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the RAV recommend, starting in April 2015, a follow-up period of 6 weeks after possible HIV-1 exposure, if HIV testing is performed using laboratory-based combination tests detecting both HIV antibody and antigen. If point-of-care rapid HIV tests are used, a follow-up period of 8 weeks is recommended, because currently available rapid tests have insufficient sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 antigen. A follow-up period of 12 weeks is recommended after a possible exposure for HIV-2, since presently used assays do not include HIV-2 antigens and only limited information is available on the development of HIV antibodies during early HIV-2 infection. If pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis is administered, the follow-up period is recommended to begin after completion of prophylaxis. Even if infection cannot be reliably excluded before the end of the recommended follow-up period, HIV testing should be performed at first contact for persons who seek such testing.
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4.
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5.
  • Rydberg Sterner, Therese, et al. (författare)
  • The Gothenburg H70 Birth cohort study 2014-16 design, methods and study population.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 34:2, s. 191-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To improve health care for older persons, we need to learn more about ageing, e.g. identify protective factors and early markers for diseases. The Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies (the H70 studies) are multidisciplinary epidemiological studies examining representative birth cohorts of older populations in Gothenburg, Sweden. So far, six birth cohorts of 70-year-olds have been examined over time, and examinations have been virtually identical between studies. This paper describes the study procedures for the baseline examination of the Birth cohort 1944, conducted in 2014-16. In this study, all men and women born 1944 on specific dates, and registered as residents in Gothenburg, were eligible for participation (n = 1839). A total of 1203 (response rate 72.2%; 559 men and 644 women; mean age 70.5 years) agreed to participate in the study. The study comprised sampling of blood and cerebrospinal fluid, psychiatric, cognitive, and physical health examinations, examinations of genetics and family history, use of medications, social factors, functional ability and disability, physical fitness and activity, body composition, lung function, audiological and ophthalmological examinations, diet, brain imaging, as well as a close informant interview, and qualitative studies. As in previous examinations, data collection serves as a basis for future longitudinal follow-up examinations. The research gained from the H70 studies has clinical relevance in relation to prevention, early diagnosis, clinical course, experience of illness, understanding pathogenesis and prognosis. Results will increase our understanding of ageing and inform service development, which may lead to enhanced quality of care for older persons.</p>
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6.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
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7.
  • Alevronta, Eleftheria, et al. (författare)
  • Dose-response relationships for an atomized symptom of fecal incontinence after gynecological radiotherapy.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 1651-226X. ; 52:4, s. 719-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate what bowel organ and delivered dose levels are most relevant for the development of 'emptying of all stools into clothing without forewarning' so that the related dose-responses could be derived as an aid in avoiding this distressing symptom in the future. Material and methods. Of the 77 gynecological cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer, 13 developed the symptom. The survivors were treated between 1991 and 2003. The anal-sphincter region, the rectum, the sigmoid and the small intestines were all delineated and the dose-volume histograms were exported for each patient. The dose-volume parameters were estimated fitting the data to the Relative Seriality (RS), the Lyman and the generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose (gEUD) model. Results. The dose-response parameters for all three models and four organs at risk (OARs) were estimated. The data from the sigmoid fits the studied models best: D50 was 58.8 and 59.5 Gy (RS, Lyman), γ50 was 1.60 and 1.57 (RS, Lyman), s was 0.32, n was 0.13 and a was 7.7 (RS, Lyman, gEUD). The estimated volume parameters indicate that the investigated OARs behave serially for this endpoint. Our results for the three models studied indicate that they have the same predictive power (similar LL values) for the symptom as a function of the dose for all investigated OARs. Conclusions. In our study, the anal-sphincter region and sigmoid fit our data best, but all OARs were found to have steep dose-responses for 'emptying of all stools into clothing without forewarning' and thus, the outcome can be predicted with an NTCP model. In addition, the dose to the four studied OARs may be considered when minimizing the risk of the symptom.
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8.
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9.
  • Borgstrom, F, et al. (författare)
  • The cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate in the UK for the management of osteoporosis.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 21:2, s. 339-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate was compared to no treatment in UK women using the FRAX algorithm for fracture risk assessment. At a willingness-to-pay of pound 30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), strontium ranelate was generally cost-effective in women with prior fracture at the threshold of osteoporosis from an age of 65 years. INTRODUCTION: The objectives of the study were to estimate the cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate in the UK for the treatment of osteoporosis and to establish intervention thresholds for treatment using the FRAX tool. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate was compared to no treatment in postmenopausal women with clinical risk factors for fracture using a lifetime simulation model based on Markov cohort methodology that incorporated the features of FRAX. RESULTS: At a threshold of pound 30,000 per QALY, strontium ranelate was generally cost-effective in women from an age of 65 years with prior fracture at the threshold of osteoporosis (i.e., a T-score of -2.5 SD) and in women with a prior fracture (and no information on bone mineral density) from the age of 65 years. At a threshold of pound 20,000, strontium ranelate became cost-effective at a 10-year fracture probability of 25.7% and at 16.9% with a threshold of pound 30,000 for a QALY. CONCLUSIONS: Strontium ranelate is a cost-effective agent for the treatment of established osteoporosis in women over the age of 65 years. Cost-effective scenarios were also found for the prevention and treatment of fractures associated with osteoporosis, in younger women with additional clinical risk factors.
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10.
  • Borgström, F, et al. (författare)
  • The cost-effectiveness of risedronate in the UK for the management of osteoporosis using the FRAX(R).
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - 0937-941X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study estimated the cost-effectiveness of risedronate compared to no treatment in UK women using the FRAX algorithm for fracture risk assessment. A Markov cohort model was used to estimate the cost-effectiveness. Risedronate was found cost-effective from the age of 65 years, assuming a willingness to pay for a QALY of pound30,000. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of risedronate for the prevention and treatment in a UK setting using the FRAX(R) algorithm for fracture risk assessment. A further aim was to establish intervention thresholds with risedronate treatment. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of risedronate was compared to no treatment in post-menopausal women with clinical risk factors for fracture using a Markov cohort model populated with data relevant for the UK. The model incorporated the features of FRAX(R) (the WHO risk assessment tool). The analysis had a health care perspective and quality adjusted life years was used as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: Treatment was cost-effective from the age of 65 years, assuming a willingness to pay for a QALY of pound30,000. Treatment was also cost-effective at all ages in women who had previously sustained a fragility fracture or in women with a parental history of hip fracture with a bone mineral density set at the threshold of osteoporosis. At the pound30,000 threshold value for a QALY, risedronate was on average found to cost-effective below the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fractures of 13.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Risedronate is a cost-effective agent for the treatment of established osteoporosis (osteoporosis and a prior fragility fracture) in women from the age of 50 years and older and above 65 years in women with osteoporosis alone. The results support the treatment recommendations in recent UK guidelines for osteoporosis.
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