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1.
  • Rydberg Sterner, Therese, et al. (författare)
  • The Gothenburg H70 Birth cohort study 2014-16: design, methods and study population.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European journal of epidemiology. - 1573-7284 .- 0393-2990. ; 34:2, s. 191-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To improve health care for older persons, we need to learn more about ageing, e.g. identify protective factors and early markers for diseases. The Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies (the H70 studies) are multidisciplinary epidemiological studies examining representative birth cohorts of older populations in Gothenburg, Sweden. So far, six birth cohorts of 70-year-olds have been examined over time, and examinations have been virtually identical between studies. This paper describes the study procedures for the baseline examination of the Birth cohort 1944, conducted in 2014-16. In this study, all men and women born 1944 on specific dates, and registered as residents in Gothenburg, were eligible for participation (n = 1839). A total of 1203 (response rate 72.2%; 559 men and 644 women; mean age 70.5 years) agreed to participate in the study. The study comprised sampling of blood and cerebrospinal fluid, psychiatric, cognitive, and physical health examinations, examinations of genetics and family history, use of medications, social factors, functional ability and disability, physical fitness and activity, body composition, lung function, audiological and ophthalmological examinations, diet, brain imaging, as well as a close informant interview, and qualitative studies. As in previous examinations, data collection serves as a basis for future longitudinal follow-up examinations. The research gained from the H70 studies has clinical relevance in relation to prevention, early diagnosis, clinical course, experience of illness, understanding pathogenesis and prognosis. Results will increase our understanding of ageing and inform service development, which may lead to enhanced quality of care for older persons.
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2.
  • Gaines, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Six-week follow-up after HIV-1 exposure : a position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: INFECTIOUS DISEASES. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2374-4235 .- 2374-4243. ; 48:2, s. 93-98
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2014 the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) conducted a review and analysis of the state of knowledge on the duration of follow-up after exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Up until then a follow-up of 12 weeks after exposure had been recommended, but improved tests and new information on early diagnosis motivated a re-evaluation of the national recommendations by experts representing infectious diseases and microbiology, county medical officers, the RAV, the Public Health Agency, and other national authorities. Based on the current state of knowledge the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the RAV recommend, starting in April 2015, a follow-up period of 6 weeks after possible HIV-1 exposure, if HIV testing is performed using laboratory-based combination tests detecting both HIV antibody and antigen. If point-of-care rapid HIV tests are used, a follow-up period of 8 weeks is recommended, because currently available rapid tests have insufficient sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 antigen. A follow-up period of 12 weeks is recommended after a possible exposure for HIV-2, since presently used assays do not include HIV-2 antigens and only limited information is available on the development of HIV antibodies during early HIV-2 infection. If pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis is administered, the follow-up period is recommended to begin after completion of prophylaxis. Even if infection cannot be reliably excluded before the end of the recommended follow-up period, HIV testing should be performed at first contact for persons who seek such testing.
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3.
  • Linge, Petrus, et al. (författare)
  • NCF1-339 polymorphism is associated with altered formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, high serum interferon activity and antiphospholipid syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 79:2, s. 254-261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: A single nucleotide polymorphism in the NCF1 gene (NCF1-339, rs201802880), encoding NADPH oxidase type II subunit NCF1/p47phox, reducing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is strongly associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at characterising NCF1-339 effects on neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, type I interferon activity and antibody profile in patients with SLE. Methods: Neutrophil NET-release pathways (n=31), serum interferon (n=141) and finally antibody profiles (n=305) were investigated in SLE subjects from Lund, genotyped for NCF1-339. Then, 1087 SLE subjects from the rheumatology departments of four Swedish SLE centres, genotyped for NCF1-339, were clinically characterised to validate these findings. Results: Compared with patients with normal-ROS NCF1-339 genotypes, neutrophils from patients with SLE with low-ROS NCF1-339 genotypes displayed impaired NET formation (p<0.01) and increased dependence on mitochondrial ROS (p<0.05). Low-ROS patients also had increased frequency of high serum interferon activity (80% vs 21.4%, p<0.05) and positivity for anti-β2 glycoprotein I (p<0.01) and anticardiolipin antibodies (p<0.05) but were not associated with other antibodies. We confirmed an over-representation of having any antiphospholipid antibody, OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.95), anti-β2 glycoprotein I, OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.24) and the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), OR 1.74 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.55) in all four cohorts (n=1087). Conclusions: The NCF1-339 SNP mediated decreased NADPH oxidase function, is associated with high interferon activity and impaired formation of NETs in SLE, allowing dependence on mitochondrial ROS. Unexpectedly, we revealed a striking connection between the ROS deficient NCF1-339 genotypes and the presence of phospholipid antibodies and APS.
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4.
  • Zackrisson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Mature results from a Swedish comparison study of conventional versus accelerated radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma - The ARTSCAN trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 0167-8140 .- 1879-0887. ; 117:1, s. 99-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: This report contains the mature five-year data from the Swedish ARTSCAN trial including information on the influence of p16 positivity (p16+) for oropharyngeal cancers. Material and methods: Patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx (except T1-2, NO glottic cancers) and hypopharynx were included. Patients were randomised between accelerated fractionation (AF) (1.1 Gy + 2 Gy per day, 5 days/week for 4.5 weeks, total dose 68 Gy) and conventional fractionation (CF) (2 Gy per day, 5 days/week for 7 weeks, total dose 68 Gy). Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated p16-expression was assessed retrospectively in tumour tissues from patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma. Results: There was no significant difference in loco-regional control (LRC) between AF and CF (log-rank test p = 0.75). LRC at 5 years was 65.5% for AF and 64.9% for CF. Overall survival (OS) was similar in both arms (p = 0.99). The estimated cancer specific survival (CSS) at 5 years was 62.2% (AF) and 63.3% (CF) (p = 0.99). 206 specimens were analysed for p16 with 153 specimens (74%) identified as p16+. P16 status did not discriminate for response to AF vs. CF with regard to LRC, OS or CSS. Patients with p16+ tumours had a statistically significant better overall prognosis compared with p16 tumours. Conclusion: This update confirms the results of the 2-year report. We failed to identify a positive effect resulting from AF with regards to LRC, OS and CSS. The addition of information on the HPV-associated p16 overexpression did not explain this lack of effect.
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5.
  • Zackrisson, Bjorn, et al. (författare)
  • Two-year results from a Swedish study on conventional versus accelerated radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma The ARTSCAN study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0887 .- 0167-8140. ; 100:1, s. 41-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Studies on accelerated fractionation (AF) in head and neck cancer have shown increased local control and survival compared with conventional fractionation (CF), while others have been non-conclusive. In 1998 a national Swedish group decided to perform a randomised controlled clinical study of AF. Materials and methods: Patients with verified squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx (except glottic T1 -T2, N0) and hypopharynx were included. Patients with prior chemotherapy or surgery were excluded. Patients were randomised to either CF (2 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 7 weeks, total dose 68 Gy) or to AF (1.1 Gy + 2.0 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 4.5 weeks, total dose 68 Gy). An extensive quality assurance protocol was followed throughout the study. The primary end point was loco-regional tumour control (LRC) at two years after treatment. Results: The study was closed in 2006 when 750 patients had been randomised. Eighty-three percent of the patients had stages III-IV disease. Forty eight percent had oropharyngeal, 21% laryngeal, 17% hypopharyngeal and 14% oral cancers. There were no significant differences regarding overall survival (OS) or LRC between the two regimens. The OS at two years was 68% for AF and 67% for CF. The corresponding figures for LRC were 71% and 67%, respectively. There was a trend towards improved LRC for oral cancers treated (p = 0.07) and for large tumours (T3-T4) (p = 0.07) treated with AF. The AF group had significantly worse acute reactions, while there was no significant increase in late effects. Conclusion: Overall the AF regimen did not prove to be more efficacious than CF. However, the trend towards improved results in AF for oral cancers needs to be further investigated. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 100 (2011) 41-48
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6.
  • Stern, Natalia, et al. (författare)
  • Subchronic toxicity of Baltic herring oil and its fractions in the rat II : Clinical observations and toxicological parameters.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Pharmacology and Toxicology. - 0901-9928 .- 1600-0773. ; 91:5, s. 232-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed to increase the knowledge about the toxicity of fish-derived organohalogen pollutants in mammals. The strategy chosen was to separate organohalogen pollutants derived from Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) fillet, in order to obtain fractions with differing proportions of identified and unidentified halogenated pollutants, and to perform a subchronic toxicity study in rats, essentially according to the OECD guidelines, at three dose levels. Nordic Sea lodda (Mallotus villosus) oil, with low levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants, was used as an additional control diet. The toxicological examination showed that exposure to Baltic herring oil and its fractions at dose levels corresponding to a human intake in the range of 1.6 to 34.4 kg Baltic herring per week resulted in minimal effects. The spectrum of effects was similar to that, which is observed after low-level exposure to pollutants such as chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDD/F) and chlorinated biphenyls, despite the fact that these contaminants contribute to a minor part of the extractable organically bound chlorine (EOCl). The study confirmed previous findings that induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin deethylase (EROD) activity takes place at daily intake levels 0.15 ng fish-derived CDD/F-TEQs/kg body weight. The study also demonstrated that hepatic vitamin A reduction takes place at somewhat higher daily exposure levels, i.e. 0.16–0.30 ng fish-derived CDD/F-TEQs/kg body weight. Halogenated fatty acids, the major component of EOCl, could not be linked to any of the measured effects. From a risk management point of view, the study provides important new information of effect levels for Ah-receptor mediated responses following low level exposure to organohalogen compounds from a matrix relevant for human exposure.
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7.
  • Abrahamsson, M. L. A., et al. (författare)
  • Ruthenium-manganese complexes for artificial photosynthesis : Factors controlling intramolecular electron transfer and excited-state quenching reactions
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Inorganic Chemistry. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0020-1669 .- 1520-510X. ; 41:6, s. 1534-1544
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Continuing our work toward a system mimicking the electron-transfer steps from manganese to P-680(+) in photosystem II (PS II), we report a series of ruthenium(II)-manganese(II) complexes that display intramolecular electron transfer from manganese(II) to photooxidized ruthenium(III). The electron-transfer rate constant (k(ET)) values span a large range, 1 X 10(5)-2 x 10(7) s(-1), and we have investigated different factors that are responsible for the variation. The reorganization energies determined experimentally (lambda = 1.5-2.0 eV) are larger than expected for solvent reorganization in complexes of similar size in polar solvents (typically lambda approximate to 1.0 eV). This result indicates that the inner reorganization energy is relatively large and, consequently, that at moderate driving force values manganese complexes are not fast donors. Both the type of manganese ligand and the link between the two metals are shown to be of great importance to the electron-transfer rate. In contrast, we show that the quenching of the excited state of the ruthenium(II) moiety by manganese(II) in this series of complexes mainly depends on the distance between the metals. However, by synthetically modifying the sensitizer so that the lowest metal-to-ligand charge transfer state was localized on the nonbridging ruthenium(II) ligands, we could reduce the quenching rate constant in one complex by a factor of 700 without changing the bridging ligand. Still, the manganese(II)-ruthenium (III) electrontransfer rate constant was not reduced. Consequently, the modification resulted in a complex with very favorable properties.
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8.
  • Bzhalava, Davit, et al. (författare)
  • Unbiased Approach for Virus Detection in Skin Lesions
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 8:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To assess presence of virus DNA in skin lesions, swab samples from 82 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin (SCCs), 60 actinic keratoses (AKs), paraffin-embedded biopsies from 28 SCCs and 72 kerathoacanthomas (KAs) and fresh-frozen biopsies from 92 KAs, 85 SCCs and 92 AKs were analyzed by high throughput sequencing (HTS) using 454 or Ion Torrent technology. We found total of 4,284 viral reads, out of which 4,168 were Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related, belonging to 15 known (HPV8, HPV12, HPV20, HPV36, HPV38, HPV45, HPV57, HPV59, HPV104, HPV105, HPV107, HPV109, HPV124, HPV138, HPV147), four previously described putative (HPV 915 F 06 007 FD1, FA73, FA101, SE42) and two putatively new HPV types (SE46, SE47). SE42 was cloned, sequenced, designated as HPV155 and found to have 76% similarity to the most closely related known HPV type. In conclusion, an unbiased approach for viral DNA detection in skin tumors has found that, although some new putative HPVs were found, known HPV types constituted most of the viral DNA.
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9.
  • Gavilán, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Colloidal Flower-Shaped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles : Synthesis Strategies and Coatings
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Particle & particle systems characterization. - 0934-0866 .- 1521-4117. ; 34:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The assembly of magnetic cores into regular structures may notably influence the properties displayed by a magnetic colloid. Here, key synthesis parameters driving the self-assembly process capable of organizing colloidal magnetic cores into highly regular and reproducible multi-core nanoparticles are determined. In addition, a self-consistent picture that explains the collective magnetic properties exhibited by these complex assemblies is achieved through structural, colloidal, and magnetic means. For this purpose, different strategies to obtain flower-shaped iron oxide assemblies in the size range 25–100 nm are examined. The routes are based on the partial oxidation of Fe(OH)2, polyol-mediated synthesis or the reduction of iron acetylacetonate. The nanoparticles are functionalized either with dextran, citric acid, or alternatively embedded in polystyrene and their long-term stability is assessed. The core size is measured, calculated, and modeled using both structural and magnetic means, while the Debye model and multi-core extended model are used to study interparticle interactions. This is the first step toward standardized protocols of synthesis and characterization of flower-shaped nanoparticles.
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10.
  • Hansson, A., et al. (författare)
  • The direction of human mesenchymal stem cells into the chondrogenic lineage is influenced by the features of hydrogel carriers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Tissue and Cell. - 0040-8166 .- 1532-3072. ; 49:1, s. 35-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low back pain is a major public health issue in the Western world, one main cause is believed to be intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. To halt/diminish IVD degeneration, cell therapy using different biomaterials e.g. hydrogels as cell carriers has been suggested. In this study, two different hydrogels were examined (in vitro) as potential cell carriers for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) intended for IVD transplantation. The aim was to investigate cell- survival and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs when cultured in hydrogels Puramatrix((R)) or Hydromatrix((R)) and potential effects of stimulation with growth hormone (GH). hMSCs/hydrogel cultures were investigated for cell-viability, attachment, gene expressionof chondrogenic markers SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). In both hydrogel types, hMSCs were viable for 28 days, expressed integrin beta 1 which indicates adhesion of hMSCs. Differentiation was observed into chondrocyte-like cells, in a higher extent in hMSCs/Hydromatrix((R)) cultures when compared to hMSCs/Puramatrix ((R)) hydrogel cultures. Gene expression analyses of chondrogenic markers verified results. hMSCs/hydrogel cultures stimulated with GH displayed no significant effects on chondrogenesis. In conclusion, both hydrogels, especially Hydromatrix((R)) was demonstrated as a promising cell carrier in vitro for hMSCs, when directed into chondrogenesis. This knowledge could be useful in biological approaches for regeneration of degenerated human IVDs.
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