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1.
  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:11, s. 1345-1345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
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2.
  • Randall, Joshua C., et al. (författare)
  • Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 9:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5x10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.
3.
  • Willer, Cristen J., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:11, s. 1274-1274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 x 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.
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4.
  • Abrahamsson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Mining and Sustainable Development Gender, Diversity and Work Conditions in Mining
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Swedish mining companies and surrounding mining communities face many challenges when it comes to social sustainable development. For example, a strong mining workplace culture and community identity can create both strong cohesion but also lead to exclusion of certain groups, rejection of new ideas and reinforce traditional, masculine values. Other challenges include recruitment, as well as health and safety in relation to an increased use of contractors and automation of mining. The social dimension is relatively underdeveloped in studies of sustainable development in general and the mining industry in particular. This report reviews research on social sustainable development and mining with a special focus on (1) diversity of lifestyles, (2) gender, and (3) work conditions. Swedish and international research is reviewed and knowledge gaps are identified. All three areas of research can be regarded as relatively mature and they give important contributions to ourunderstanding of social sustainable development in relation to the mining sector even if they not always explicitly refer to it as such. There is a lack of research that links attitudes, policies and activities within companies to their impact on the wider society, and vice versa. Future research should also include the development of methods and indicators for social sustainability relevant for mining.</p>
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5.
  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:11, s. 1345-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.</p>
  •  
6.
  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:11, s. 1345-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.</p>
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7.
  • Egeblad, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Structural and functional studies of the human phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing protein 1
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The FEBS Journal. - 1742-464X .- 1742-4658. ; 277:23, s. 4920-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) (EC 2.4.2.8) catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine and guanine to their respective nucleoside monophosphates. Human HPRT deficiency as a result of genetic mutations is linked to both Lesch-Nyhan disease and gout. In the present study, we have characterized phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing protein 1 (PRTFDC1), a human HPRT homolog of unknown function. The PRTFDC1 structure has been determined at 1.7 Å resolution with bound GMP. The overall structure and GMP binding mode are very similar to that observed for HPRT. Using a thermal-melt assay, a nucleotide metabolome library was screened against PRTFDC1 and revealed that hypoxanthine and guanine specifically interacted with the enzyme. It was subsequently confirmed that PRTFDC1 could convert these two bases into their corresponding nucleoside monophosphate. However, the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of PRTFDC1 towards hypoxanthine and guanine was only 0.26% and 0.09%, respectively, of that of HPRT. This low activity could be explained by the fact that PRTFDC1 has a Gly in the position of the proposed catalytic Asp of HPRT. In PRTFDC1, a water molecule at the position of the aspartic acid side chain position in HPRT might be responsible for the low activity observed by acting as a weak base. The data obtained in the present study indicate that PRTFDC1 does not have a direct catalytic role in the nucleotide salvage pathway.</p>
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8.
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9.
  • Heid, Iris M., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 42:11, s. 949-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 x 10(-9) to P = 1.8 x 10(-40)) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 x 10(-3) to P = 1.2 x 10(-13)). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.
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10.
  • Johansson, Karl E., et al. (författare)
  • Shiga toxin signals via ATP and its effect is blocked by purinergic receptor antagonism
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), that cause gastrointestinal infection leading to hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate if Stx signals via ATP and if blockade of purinergic receptors could be protective. Stx induced ATP release from HeLa cells and in a mouse model. Toxin induced rapid calcium influx into HeLa cells, as well as platelets, and a P2X1 receptor antagonist, NF449, abolished this effect. Likewise, the P2X antagonist suramin blocked calcium influx in Hela cells. NF449 did not affect toxin intracellular retrograde transport, however, cells pre-treated with NF449 exhibited significantly higher viability after exposure to Stx for 24 hours, compared to untreated cells. NF449 protected HeLa cells from protein synthesis inhibition and from Stx-induced apoptosis, assayed by caspase 3/7 activity. The latter effect was confirmed by P2X1 receptor silencing. Stx induced the release of toxin-positive HeLa cell- and platelet-derived microvesicles, detected by flow cytometry, an effect significantly reduced by NF449 or suramin. Suramin decreased microvesicle levels in mice injected with Stx or inoculated with Stx-producing EHEC. Taken together, we describe a novel mechanism of Stx-mediated cellular injury associated with ATP signaling and inhibited by P2X receptor blockade.
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