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1.
  • Hallmans, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort : evaluation of risk factors and their interactions.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. Supplement Links. - 1403-4956. ; 61, s. 18-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is, first, to describe the organization, sampling procedures, availability of samples/database, ethical considerations, and quality control program of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort. Secondly, some examples are given of studies on cardiovascular disease and diabetes with a focus on the biomarker programme. The cohort has been positioned as a national and international resource for scientific research.
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2.
  • Al-Delaimy, W K, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: ecological-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 59:12, s. 1397-1408
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) and food questionnaires (FQ) to predict plasma carotenoid levels at the ecological level by assessing the relationship between mean plasma carotenoid levels and mean intake of fruit and vegetables measured by 24HDR and FQ across 16 European regions. Design: A random subsample of 3089 subjects was included, stratified by age and gender. They provided blood samples and dietary information between 1992 and 2000 as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Results: Using Spearman's correlation coefficients, the correlations between mean regional 24HDR fruit and vegetable variables and corresponding mean plasma carotenoid levels were generally higher than the correlations using FQ means. The highest correlation was between the 24HDR citrus fruit variable and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.90). For 24HDR, total fruits and vegetables were highly correlated with lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.83-0.87), while vegetables were more closely related with lutein (r = 0.69) and zeaxanthin (r = 0.68), and fruits correlated with zeaxanthin (r = 0.87) and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.84). Root vegetables (r = 0.81) and total carrots (r = 0.71) were well correlated with alpha-carotene. In the multivariate models adjusting for age, body mass index, and season, and using observations of means stratified by sex and region, the association was generally higher for 24HDR compared to FQ. Conclusion: Mean regional intakes of fruits and vegetables in several European countries were closely correlated with corresponding mean plasma levels of individual carotenoids. Fruits and vegetables measured by 24HDR were generally better able to predict plasma carotenoids at the ecological level.
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3.
  • Bamia, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary patterns and survival of older Europeans : the EPIC-Elderly Study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition).
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - 1368-9800. ; 10:6, s. 590-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the association of a posteriori dietary patterns with overall survival of older Europeans. Design and setting: This is a multi-centre cohort study. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association of the prevailing, a posteriori-derived, plant-based dietary pattern with all-cause mortality in a population of subjects who were 60 years or older at recruitment to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort). Analyses controlled for all known potential risk factors. Subjects: in total, 74 607 men and women, 60 years or older at enrolment and without previous coronary heart disease, stroke or cancer, with complete information about dietary intakes and potentially confounding variables, and with known survival status as of December 2003, were included in the analysis. Results: An increase in the score which measures the adherence to the plant-based diet was associated with a lower overall mortality, a one standard deviation increment corresponding to a statistically significant reduction of 14% (95% confidence interval 5-23%). In country-specific analyses the apparent association was stronger in Greece, Spain, Denmark and The Netherlands, and absent in the UK and Germany. Conclusions: Greater adherence to the plant-based diet that was defined a posteriori in this population of European elders is associated with lower all-cause mortality. This dietary score is moderately positively correlated with the Modified Mediterranean Diet Score that has been constructed a priori and was also shown to be beneficial for the Survival of the same EPIC-Elderly cohort.
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4.
  • Duell, Eric J, et al. (författare)
  • Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 136:4, s. 880-893
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related to GC risk in a European population. The authors conducted an investigation of 32 variants at ABO and FUT1-7 loci and GC risk in a case-control study of 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the EPIC cohort (the EPIC-Eurgast study). Four variants (including rs505922) in ABO, and allelic blood group A (AO+AA, odds ratio = 1.84, 95%CI = 1.20-2.80) were associated with diffuse-type GC; however, conditional models with other ABO variants indicated that the associations were largely due to allelic blood group A. One variant in FUT5 was also associated with diffuse-type GC, and four variants (and haplotypes) in FUT2 (Se), FUT3 (Le) and FUT6 with intestinal-type GC. Further, one variant in ABO, two in FUT3 and two in FUT6 were associated with H. pylori infection status in controls, and two of these (in FUT3 and FUT6) were weakly associated with intestinal-type GC risk. None of the individual variants surpassed a Bonferroni corrected p-value cutoff of 0.0016; however, after a gene-based permutation test, two loci [FUT3(Le)/FUT5/FUT6 and FUT2(Se)] were significantly associated with diffuse- and intestinal-type GC, respectively. Replication and functional studies are therefore recommended to clarify the role of ABO and FUT alleles in H. pylori infection and subtype-specific gastric carcinogenesis.
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5.
  • Duell, Eric J, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin C transporter gene (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2) polymorphisms, plasma vitamin C levels, and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Genes & Nutrition. - Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 1555-8932. ; 8:6, s. 549-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vitamin C is known to protect mucosal tissues from oxidative stress and inhibit nitrosamine formation in the stomach. High consumption of fruits, particularly citrus, and higher circulating vitamin C concentrations may be inversely associated with gastric cancer (GC) risk. We investigated 20 polymorphisms in vitamin C transporter genes SCL23A1 and SCL23A2 and GC risk in 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. We also evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and baseline plasma vitamin C levels in a subset of participants. Four SNPs were predictors of plasma vitamin C levels (SLC23A1 rs11950646 and rs33972313; SLC23A2 rs6053005 and rs6133175) in multivariable linear regression models. One SNP (SLC23A2 rs6116569) was associated with GC risk, in particular non-cardia GC (OR = 1.63, 95 % CI = 1.11-2.39, based on 178 non-cardia cases), but this association was attenuated when plasma vitamin C was included in the logistic regression model. Haplotype analysis of SLC23A1 yielded no associations with GC. In SLC23A2, one haplotype was associated with both overall and non-cardia GC, another haplotype was associated with GC overall, and a third was associated with intestinal-type GC. Common variants in SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 may influence plasma vitamin C concentration independent of dietary intake, and variation in SLC23A2 may influence GC risk. Additional prospective studies in large populations and consortia are recommended. Investigation of variation in vitamin C transporter genes may shed light on the preventative properties of vitamin C in gastric carcinogenesis.
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6.
  • Ekblom, Kim, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Iron stores and HFE genotypes are not related to increased risk of ischemic stroke. : a prospective nested case-referent study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular Diseases. - 1015-9770. ; 24:5, s. 405-411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: High iron levels can increase the formation of noxious oxygen radicals, which are thought to contribute to cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine if iron status and HFE genotypes constitute risk factors for stroke. Methods: First-ever stroke cases (231 ischemic and 42 hemorrhagic) and matched double referents from the population-based Northern Sweden cohorts were studied in a nested case-referent setting. Results: For total iron binding capacity, an increased risk of ischemic stroke was seen in the highest quartile (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.14-2.83; p for trend 0.012). The highest quartile of transferrin iron saturation showed a decreased risk of ischemic stroke in men (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.22-0.87; p for trend 0.028), but not in women. There was an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke in the second (OR 4.07; 95% CI 1.09-15.20) and third quartile (OR 4.22; 95% CI 1.08-16.42) of ferritin. Neither quartiles of plasma iron concentrations nor the HFE C282Y and H63D genotypes were associated with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions: Iron stores were not positively related to increased risk of ischemic stroke. Furthermore, HFE genotypes did not influence the risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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7.
  • Jenab, M, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma and dietary carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels and the risk of gastric adenocarcinomas in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 95:3, s. 406-415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite declining incidence rates, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Its aetiology may involve dietary antioxidant micronutrients such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma levels of seven common carotenoids, their total plasma concentration, retinol and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large cohort involving 10 countries. A secondary objective was to determine the association of total sum of carotenoids, retinol and alpha-tocopherol on GCs by anatomical subsite (cardia/noncardia) and histological subtype (diffuse/intestinal). Analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in prediagnostic plasma from 244 GC cases and 645 controls matched by age, gender, study centre and date of blood donation. Conditional logistic regression models adjusted by body mass index, total energy intake, smoking and Helicobacter pylori infection status were used to estimate relative cancer risks. After an average 3.2 years of follow-up, a negative association with GC risk was observed in the highest vs the lowest quartiles of plasma beta-cryptoxanthin (odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.30-0.94, P(trend) = 0.006), zeaxanthin (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.22-0.69, P(trend) = 0.005), retinol (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.33-0.93, P(trend) = 0.005) and lipid-unadjusted alpha-tocopherol (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37-0.94, P(trend) = 0.022). For all analytes, no heterogeneity of risk estimates or significant associations were observed by anatomical subsite. In the diffuse histological subtype, an inverse association was observed with the highest vs lowest quartile of lipid-unadjusted alpha-tocopherol (OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.11-0.65, P(trend) = 0.003). These results show that higher plasma concentrations of some carotenoids, retinol and alpha-tocopherol are associated with reduced risk of GC.
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8.
  • Johansson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of systemic immunoreactivity to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in relation to the incidence of myocardial infarction
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2334. ; 11:1, s. 55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chronic infections and associated inflammatory markers are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1, is suggested to play a role in the regulation of local inflammatory responses in both CVD and periodontitis. The leukotoxin from the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has recently been shown to cause abundant secretion of IL-1 from macrophages. The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of systemic immunoreactivity to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in myocardial infarction (MI) cases (n=532) and matched controls (n=1000) in a population-based case and referents study in northern Sweden. Methods: Capacity to neutralize A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was analyzed in a bioassay with leukocytes, purified leukotoxin, and plasma. Plasma samples that inhibited lactate-dehydrogenase release from leukotoxin-lysed cells by 50 % were classified as positive. Results: Neutralizing capacity against A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was detected in 53.3% of the plasma samples. The ability to neutralize leukotoxin correlated to increasing age in men (n=1082) but not in women (n=450). There was no correlation between presence of systemic leukotoxin neutralization capacity and the incidence of MI, except for women (n=146). Women with a low neutralizing capacity had a significantly higher incidence of MI than those who had a high neutralizing capacity. Conclusions: Systemic immunoreactivity against A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was found at a high prevalence in the analyzed population of adults from northern Sweden. The results from the present study do not support the hypothesis that systemic leukotoxin-neutralizing capacity can decrease the risk for MI.
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9.
  • Johansson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Systemic antibodies to the leukotoxin of the oral pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans correlate negatively with stroke in women
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular Diseases. - Basel : Karger. - 1015-9770. ; 20:4, s. 226-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chronic infections and associated inflammatory markers are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and stroke. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β is suggested to play a role in the regulation of local inflammatory responses in both CVD and periodontitis. The leukotoxin from the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has recently been shown to cause abundant secretion of IL-1β  from macrophages. The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of systemic antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitansleukotoxin in stroke cases (n = 273) and matched controls (n = 546) in an incident case-control study nested within the Northern Sweden MONICA and Västerbotten Intervention cohorts. Methods: Antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin were analyzed in a bioassay with HL-60 cells (leukocytes), purified A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin, and plasma. Plasma samples which inhibited lactate dehydrogenase release from leukotoxin-lysed cells by ≥50% were classified as antibody positive. Results: Antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin were detected in 18.8% of the women and 15.2% of the men. Women with those antibodies had a significantly decreased risk for stroke (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.13–0.59), but not men (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.52–1.51). Conclusion: The immunoreactivity to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin correlates negatively with a future stroke in woman, but not in men. Further studies are needed to explain the underlying mechanisms, as well as the biological relevance of this finding.
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10.
  • Johansson, G, et al. (författare)
  • Underreporting of energy intake in repeated 24-hour recalls related to gender, age, weight status, day of interview, educational level, reported food intake, smoking habits and area of living.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - 1368-9800. ; 4:4, s. 919-927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the degree to which underreporting of energy intake by repeated 24-hour recalls was related to gender, age, weight status, day of interview, educational level, smoking habits and area of living, and (2) to compare the dietary characteristics of underreporters with those of others. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Ten 24-hour recalls were performed during a one-year period. SETTING: The Västerbotten intervention programme of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Northern Sweden. SUBJECTS: Ninety-four men and 99 women in four age groups: 30, 40, 50 and 60 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of men and women with a food intake level (FIL; reported energy intake divided by estimated basal metabolic rate) below 1.2 was 44% and 47%, respectively. The youngest age group had higher FIL values than the oldest age group for both men (1.5 versus 1.1) and women (1.4 versus 1.1). The prevalence and magnitude of underreporting were directly related to body mass index (BMI; correlation coefficient: -0.47 (men) and -0.55 (women)). Smokers had a lower FIL value (1.1) than non-smokers (1.3). The nutrient density was lower for the group with high FIL values for protein and calcium and higher for fat and sucrose. The upper FIL group often had higher intake frequencies and larger portion sizes than the lower FIL group. CONCLUSIONS: Underreporting of energy intake is prevalent when 24-hour recalls are used, but the prevalence differs between sub-groups in the population. BMI was the main predictor of underreporting but also old age and smoking seem to contribute in this aspect. Socially desirable food items were not underreported to the same extent as socially undesirable food items. The intake frequencies and portion sizes partly explained the differences in FIL.
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