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Sökning: WFRF:(Jonsson Philip)

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1.
  • Svensson, Johan, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults: predictors of one-year metabolic and clinical response.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society. - 1096-6374 .- 1532-2238. ; 17:1, s. 67-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether baseline status could predict the responsiveness to one-year growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients. DESIGN: A total of 380 European patients with adult onset GHD due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma that had been enrolled in Pfizer International Metabolic Database (KIMS), and that had completed one year of GH replacement therapy within KIMS, were studied. RESULTS: The mean initial dose of GH was 0.22 (SEM 0.01) mg/day and after one year, the mean dose was 0.36 (0.01) mg/day. The mean insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) SD score increased from -1.75 (0.08) at baseline to 0.47 (0.05) after one year. Quality of life (QoL)-Assessment of GHD in Adults (QoL-AGHDA), waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, and serum lipid pattern improved. Women received a higher dose of GH than men after one year, and demonstrated similar treatment response. In multiple stepwise forward regression analyses, the one-year changes in QoL-AGHDA score, waist:hip ratio, and serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level correlated inversely with the baseline values of the same variable. In addition, the change after one year in QoL-AGHDA score correlated inversely with duration of hypopituitarism and baseline serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and the change in waist:hip ratio correlated inversely, although more weakly, with baseline serum HDL-C level and UK citizenship and positively with baseline waist circumference and the initial GH dose. The change in serum LDL-C level additionally correlated inversely with the mean GH dose and duration of hypopituitarism and positively with UK citizenship. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline status could, with moderate strength, predict the responsiveness in the same variable whereas it could not, or only weakly, predict the response in other variables. Therefore, when the decision to start GH replacement is undertaken, as many outcome variables as possible should be evaluated in order to adequately evaluate the likelihood of clinical benefit. Finally, women have a similar response to GH replacement as men when individualised GH dosing schedules are employed and should therefore be selected for GH therapy to a similar extent.
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2.
  • Wierenga, Lara M., et al. (författare)
  • Greater male than female variability in regional brain structure across the lifespan
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international data spanning nine decades of life. Subcortical volumes, cortical surface area and cortical thickness were assessed in MRI data of 16,683 healthy individuals 1-90 years old (47% females). We observed significant patterns of greater male than female between-subject variance for all subcortical volumetric measures, all cortical surface area measures, and 60% of cortical thickness measures. This pattern was stable across the lifespan for 50% of the subcortical structures, 70% of the regional area measures, and nearly all regions for thickness. Our findings that these sex differences are present in childhood implicate early life genetic or gene-environment interaction mechanisms. The findings highlight the importance of individual differences within the sexes, that may underpin sex-specific vulnerability to disorders.
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3.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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4.
  • Andersson, Sandra, et al. (författare)
  • Insufficient antibody validation challenges oestrogen receptor beta research
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of oestrogen receptor beta (ER beta/ESR2) was a landmark discovery. Its reported expression and homology with breast cancer pharmacological target ER alpha (ESR1) raised hopes for improved endocrine therapies. After 20 years of intense research, this has not materialized. We here perform a rigorous validation of 13 anti-ER beta antibodies, using well-characterized controls and a panel of validation methods. We conclude that only one antibody, the rarely used monoclonal PPZ0506, specifically targets ER beta in immunohistochemistry. Applying this antibody for protein expression profiling in 44 normal and 21 malignant human tissues, we detect ER beta protein in testis, ovary, lymphoid cells, granulosa cell tumours, and a subset of malignant melanoma and thyroid cancers. We do not find evidence of expression in normal or cancerous human breast. This expression pattern aligns well with RNA-seq data, but contradicts a multitude of studies. Our study highlights how inadequately validated antibodies can lead an exciting field astray.
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5.
  • Dahlman-Wright, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Interplay between AP-1 and estrogen receptor α in regulating gene expression and proliferation networks in breast cancer cells
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 33:9, s. 1684-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that plays an important role in breast cancer. Estrogen-dependent gene regulation by ERα can be mediated by interaction with other DNA-binding proteins, such as activator protein-1 (AP-1). The nature of such interactions in mediating the estrogen response in breast cancer cells remains unclear. Here we show that knockdown of c-Fos, a component of the transcription factor AP-1, attenuates the expression of 37% of all estrogen-regulated genes, suggesting that c-Fos is a fundamental factor for ERα-mediated transcription. Additionally, knockdown of c-Fos affected the expression of a number of genes that were not regulated by estrogen. Pathway analysis reveals that silencing of c-Fos downregulates an E2F1-dependent proproliferative gene network. Thus, modulation of the E2F1 pathway by c-Fos represents a novel mechanism by which c-Fos enhances breast cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show that c-Fos and ERα can cooperate in regulating E2F1 gene expression by binding to regulatory elements in the E2F1 promoter. To start to dissect the molecular details of the cross talk between AP-1 and estrogen signaling, we identify a novel ERα/AP-1 target, PKIB (cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor-β), which is overexpressed in ERα-positive breast cancer tissues. Knockdown of PKIB results in robust growth suppression of breast cancer cells. Collectively, our findings support c-Fos as a critical factor that governs estrogen-dependent gene expression and breast cancer proliferation programs.
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6.
  • Dey, Prasenjit, et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen receptors β1 and β2 have opposing roles in regulating proliferation and bone metastasis genes in the prostate cancer cell line PC3
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 26:12, s. 1991-2003
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The estrogen receptor (ER)β1 is successively lost during cancer progression, whereas its splice variant, ERβ2, is expressed in advanced prostate cancer. The latter form of cancer often metastasizes to bone, and we wanted to investigate whether the loss of ERβ1 and/or the expression of ERβ2 affect such signaling pathways in prostate cancer. Using PC3 and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cell lines that stably express ERβ1 or ERβ2, we found that the ERβ variants differentially regulate genes known to affect tumor behavior. We found that ERβ1 repressed the expression of the bone metastasis regulator Runx2 in PC3 cells. By contrast, RUNX2 expression was up-regulated at the mRNA level by ERβ2 in PC3 cells, whereas Slug was up-regulated by ERβ2 in both PC3 and 22Rv1 cells. In addition, the expression of Twist1, a factor whose expression strongly correlates with high Gleason grade prostate carcinoma, was increased by ERβ2. In agreement with the increased Twist1 expression, we found increased expression of Dickkopf homolog 1; Dickkopf homolog 1 is a factor that has been shown to increase the RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio and enhance osteoclastogenesis, indicating that the expression of ERβ2 can cause osteolytic cancer. Furthermore, we found that only ERβ1 inhibited proliferation, whereas ERβ2 increased proliferation. The expression of the proliferation markers Cyclin E, c-Myc, and p45(Skp2) was differentially affected by ERβ1 and ERβ2 expression. In addition, nuclear β-catenin protein and its mRNA levels were reduced by ERβ1 expression. In conclusion, we found that ERβ1 inhibited proliferation and factors known to be involved in bone metastasis, whereas ERβ2 increased proliferation and up-regulated factors involved in bone metastasis. Thus, in prostate cancer cells, ERβ2 has oncogenic abilities that are in strong contrast to the tumor-suppressing effects of ERβ1.
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7.
  • Edvardsson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen receptor β induces antiinflammatory and antitumorigenic networks in colon cancer cells.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 25:6, s. 969-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies suggest estrogen to be protective against the development of colon cancer. Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is the predominant estrogen receptor expressed in colorectal epithelium and is the main candidate to mediate the protective effects. We have previously shown that expression of ERβ reduces growth of colorectal cancer in xenografts. Little is known of the actions of ERβ and its effect on gene transcription in colon cancers. To dissect the processes that ERβ mediates and to investigate cell-specific mechanisms, we reexpressed ERβ in three colorectal cancer cell lines (SW480, HT29, and HCT-116) and conducted genome-wide expression studies in combination with gene-pathway analyses and cross-correlation to ERβ-chromatin-binding sites. Although induced gene regulation was cell specific, overrepresentation analysis of functional classes indicated that the same biological themes, including apoptosis, cell differentiation, and regulation of the cell cycle, were affected in all three cell lines. Novel findings include a strong ERβ-mediated down-regulation of IL-6 and downstream networks with significant implications for inflammatory mechanisms involved in colon carcinogenesis. We also discovered cross talk between the suggested nuclear receptor coregulator PROX1 and ERβ, demonstrating that ERβ both regulates and shares target genes with PROX1. The influence of ERβ on apoptosis was further explored using functional studies, which suggested an increased DNA-repair capacity. We conclude that reexpression of ERβ induces transcriptome changes that, through several parallel pathways, converge into antitumorigenic capabilities in all three cell lines. We propose that enhancing ERβ action has potential as a novel therapeutic approach for prevention and/or treatment of colon cancer.
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8.
  • Ehrlund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Knockdown of SF-1 and RNF31 affects components of steroidogenesis, TGFβ, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 7:3, s. e32080-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The orphan nuclear receptor Steroidogenic Factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a critical regulator of development and homeostasis of the adrenal cortex and gonads. We recently showed that a complex containing E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF31 and the known SF-1 corepressor DAX-1 (NR0B1) interacts with SF-1 on target promoters and represses transcription of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) genes. To further evaluate the role of SF-1 in the adrenal cortex and the involvement of RNF31 in SF-1-dependent pathways, we performed genome-wide gene-expression analysis of adrenocortical NCI-H295R cells where SF-1 or RNF31 had been knocked down using RNA interference. We find RNF31 to be deeply connected to cholesterol metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis, strengthening its role as an SF-1 coregulator. We also find intriguing evidence of negative crosstalk between SF-1 and both transforming growth factor (TGF) β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This crosstalk could be of importance for adrenogonadal development, maintenance of adrenocortical progenitor cells and the development of adrenocortical carcinoma. Finally, the SF-1 gene profile can be used to distinguish malignant from benign adrenocortical tumors, a finding that implicates SF-1 in the development of malignant adrenocortical carcinoma.
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9.
  • Engelborghs, Sebastiaan, et al. (författare)
  • Consensus guidelines for lumbar puncture in patients with neurological diseases
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring. - : Elsevier. - 2352-8729. ; 8, s. 111-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Cerebrospinal fluid collection by lumbar puncture (LP) is performed in the diagnostic workup of several neurological brain diseases. Reluctance to perform the procedure is among others due to a lack of standards and guidelines to minimize the risk of complications, such as post-LP headache or back pain. Methods We provide consensus guidelines for the LP procedure to minimize the risk of complications. The recommendations are based on (1) data from a large multicenter LP feasibility study (evidence level II-2), (2) systematic literature review on LP needle characteristics and post-LP complications (evidence level II-2), (3) discussion of best practice within the Joint Programme Neurodegenerative Disease Research Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's Disease and Biomarkers for Multiple Sclerosis consortia (evidence level III). Results Our consensus guidelines address contraindications, as well as patient-related and procedure-related risk factors that can influence the development of post-LP complications. Discussion When an LP is performed correctly, the procedure is well tolerated and accepted with a low complication rate.
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10.
  • Escott-Price, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-Wide Analysis Detects Two New Susceptibility Genes for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:6, s. e94661-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls. Principal Findings: In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 8 (TP53INP1, p = 1.4x10(-6)) and 14 (IGHV1-67 p = 7.9x10(-8)) which indexed novel susceptibility loci. Significance: The additional genes identified in this study, have an array of functions previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including aspects of energy metabolism, protein degradation and the immune system and add further weight to these pathways as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.
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