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1.
  • Nordmark, Gunnel, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Genes in the NF-κB Pathway with Antibody-Positive Primary Sjögren's Syndrome
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0300-9475 .- 1365-3083. ; 78:5, s. 447-454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary Sjogrens syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltrates in the lachrymal and salivary glands and autoantibodies against the SSA/Ro and SSB/La antigens. Experimental studies have shown an activation of NF-B in primary SS. NF-B activation results in inflammation and autoimmunity and is regulated by inhibitory and activating proteins. Genetic studies have shown an association between multiple autoimmune diseases and TNFAIP3 (A20) and TNIP1 (ABIN1), both repressors of NF-B and of IKBKE (IKK epsilon), which is an NF-B activator. The aim of this study was to analyse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IKBKE, NFKB1, TNIP1 and TNFAIP3 genes for association with primary SS. A total of 12 SNPs were genotyped in 1105 patients from Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway, n=684) and the UK (n=421) and 4460 controls (Scandinavia, n=1662, UK, n=2798). When patients were stratified for the presence of anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies (n=868), case-control meta-analysis found an association between antibody-positive primary SS and two SNPs in TNIP1 (P=3.4x10(-5), OR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.16-1.52 for rs3792783 and P=1.3x10(-3), OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.08-1.36 for rs7708392). A TNIP1 risk haplotype was associated with antibody-positive primary SS (P=5.7x10(-3), OR=1.47, 95%CI: 1.12-1.92). There were no significant associations with IKBKE, NFKB1 or TNFAIP3 in the meta-analysis of the Scandinavian and UK cohorts. We conclude that polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with antibody-positive primary SS.
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2.
  • Thorlacius, Guðný Ella, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and clinical basis for two distinct subtypes of primary Sjögren's syndrome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology. - : oxford university press. - 1462-0324 .- 1462-0332. ; 60:2, s. 837-848
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivesClinical presentation of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) varies considerably. A shortage of evidence-based objective markers hinders efficient drug development and most clinical trials have failed to reach primary endpoints.MethodsWe performed a multicentre study to identify patient subgroups based on clinical, immunological and genetic features. Targeted DNA sequencing of 1853 autoimmune-related loci was performed. After quality control, 918 patients with pSS, 1264 controls and 107 045 single nucleotide variants remained for analysis. Replication was performed in 177 patients with pSS and 7672 controls.ResultsWe found strong signals of association with pSS in the HLA region. Principal component analysis of clinical data distinguished two patient subgroups defined by the presence of SSA/SSB antibodies. We observed an unprecedented high risk of pSS for an association in the HLA-DQA1 locus of odds ratio 6.10 (95% CI: 4.93, 7.54, P=2.2×10−62) in the SSA/SSB-positive subgroup, while absent in the antibody negative group. Three independent signals within the MHC were observed. The two most significant variants in MHC class I and II respectively, identified patients with a higher risk of hypergammaglobulinaemia, leukopenia, anaemia, purpura, major salivary gland swelling and lymphadenopathy. Replication confirmed the association with both MHC class I and II signals confined to SSA/SSB antibody positive pSS.ConclusionTwo subgroups of patients with pSS with distinct clinical manifestations can be defined by the presence or absence of SSA/SSB antibodies and genetic markers in the HLA locus. These subgroups should be considered in clinical follow-up, drug development and trial outcomes, for the benefit of both subgroups.
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3.
  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0924-977X .- 1873-7862. ; 21:10, s. 718-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.AIMS: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country.METHODS: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.RESULTS: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477 billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US.DISCUSSION: This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges.RECOMMENDATIONS: Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.
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4.
  • Nordmark, G., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Genes in the NF-kappa B Pathway with Antibody-Positive Primary Sjogren's Syndrome
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0300-9475 .- 1365-3083. ; 78:5, s. 447-454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltrates in the lachrymal and salivary glands and autoantibodies against the SSA/Ro and SSB/La antigens. Experimental studies have shown an activation of NF-B in primary SS. NF-B activation results in inflammation and autoimmunity and is regulated by inhibitory and activating proteins. Genetic studies have shown an association between multiple autoimmune diseases and TNFAIP3 (A20) and TNIP1 (ABIN1), both repressors of NF-B and of IKBKE (IKK epsilon), which is an NF-B activator. The aim of this study was to analyse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IKBKE, NFKB1, TNIP1 and TNFAIP3 genes for association with primary SS. A total of 12 SNPs were genotyped in 1105 patients from Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway, n=684) and the UK (n=421) and 4460 controls (Scandinavia, n=1662, UK, n=2798). When patients were stratified for the presence of anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies (n=868), case-control meta-analysis found an association between antibody-positive primary SS and two SNPs in TNIP1 (P=3.4x10(-5), OR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.16-1.52 for rs3792783 and P=1.3x10(-3), OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.08-1.36 for rs7708392). A TNIP1 risk haplotype was associated with antibody-positive primary SS (P=5.7x10(-3), OR=1.47, 95%CI: 1.12-1.92). There were no significant associations with IKBKE, NFKB1 or TNFAIP3 in the meta-analysis of the Scandinavian and UK cohorts. We conclude that polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with antibody-positive primary SS.
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5.
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6.
  • Reksten, Tove Ragna, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic associations to germinal centre formation in primary Sjogren's syndrome
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-2060 .- 0003-4967. ; 73:6, s. 1253-1258
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune rheumatic disease mainly characterised by focal mononuclear cell infiltration in the salivary and lacrimal glands, and by the symptoms xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Germinal centre-like structures (GC) are found in the minor salivary glands of approximately 25% of patients. In this study, we aimed to assess genetic variations in pSS patients with GC-like formations (GC+) compared with patients without such formations (GC-). Methods Minor salivary gland biopsies from Swedish and Norwegian pSS patients (n=320) were evaluated for GC-like formations, identifying 76 GC+ and 244 GC-patients. A panel of 1536 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 107 genes was genotyped. Minor allele frequencies in GC+ and GC- patients were compared using Fisher's exact test, and associations were considered significant when p<4.7x10(-4) and suggestive when p<0.01. Results In this case-only analysis, we identified two SNPs in CCL11 (eotaxin) associated with GC-like structures (p<4.7x10(-4), OR 0.45 and 0.41, respectively). A haplotype of the two minor alleles was associated with GC status with p=2.6x10(-4,) OR 0.40. Suggestive associations (p<0.01) were found in SNPs in the B cell activation and/or GC-formation related genes AICDA, BANK1 and BCL2. Furthermore, SNPs in IL17A, ICA1, PKN1 and SNPs in the NF-kappa B pathway genes CARD8, IKBKE and TANK were found suggestively associated with GC-like structures. Conclusions Our findings suggest that genetic variations may explain why ectopic GC-like structures are present in some pSS patients, and support the hypothesis that GC+ and GC- patients represent distinct disease phenotypes.
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7.
  • Sepulveda, Jorge I. Ramirez, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term follow-up in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals differences in clinical presentation between female and male patients
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biology of Sex Differences. - : BioMed Central. - 2042-6410. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate differences in the clinical presentation of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) between the sexes and establish whether male sex is associated with a more severe form of long-term pSS. Methods: Our study population included 967 patients with pSS (899 females and 68 males) from Scandinavian clinical centers. The mean follow-up time (years) was 8.8 +/- 7.6 for women and 8.5 +/- 6.2 for men (ns). Clinical data including serological and hematological parameters and glandular and extraglandular manifestations were compared between men and women. Results: Male patient serology was characterized by more frequent positivity for anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB (p = 0. 02), and ANA (p = 0.02). Further, men with pSS were more frequently diagnosed with interstitial lung disease (p = 0. 008), lymphadenopathy (p = 0.04) and lymphoma (p = 0.007). Conversely, concomitant hypothyroidism was more common among female patients (p = 0.009). Conclusions: We observe enhanced serological responses and higher frequencies of lymphoma-related extraglandular manifestations in men with pSS. Notably, lymphoma itself was also significantly more common in men. These observations may reflect an aggravated immune activation and a more severe pathophysiological state in male patients with pSS and indicate a personalized managing of the disease due to the influence of the sex of patients with pSS.
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8.
  • Appel, Silke, et al. (författare)
  • Potential association of muscarinic receptor 3 gene variants with primary Sjogren's syndrome
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-2060 .- 0003-4967. ; 70:7, s. 1327-1329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is characterised by a chronic inflammation of exocrine glands. Salivary gland infiltrates, however, do not correlate well with disease symptoms, and a primary role for the salivary gland parenchyma in disease development has been suggested. Specifically, dysfunction of exocrine pathways involving the muscarinic receptor 3 (CHRM3) has been indicated. Objective To investigate possible genetic divergence in the CHRM3 gene in patients with pSS. Methods 530 patients with pSS and 532 controls from a combined Swedish and Norwegian cohort were genotyped for 84 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout CHRM3. Results Genetic association was observed with five SNPs localised in intron 3 and 4 of CHRM3, the strongest being rs7548522 (minor allele frequency = 0.06, OR=1.93, 95% CI (1.24 to 3.01); p=0.0033). In addition, clinical parameters, including focus score, abnormal Schirmer's test and presence of autoantibodies, were associated with different SNPs in CHRM3. Conclusion The study demonstrates a novel association of CHRM3 polymorphisms with pSS, suggesting a functional role for CHRM3 and the salivary gland parenchyma in the pathogenesis of pSS.
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9.
  • Bolstad, Anne Isine, et al. (författare)
  • Association between genetic variants in the tumour necrosis factor/lymphotoxin α/lymphotoxin β locus and primary Sjogren's syndrome in Scandinavian samples
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 71:6, s. 981-988
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Lymphotoxin β (LTB) has been found to be upregulated in salivary glands of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). An animal model of pSS also showed ablation of the lymphoid organisation and a marked improvement in salivary gland function on blocking the LTB receptor pathway. This study aimed to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the lymphotoxin α (LTA)/LTB/tumour necrosis factor (TNF) gene clusters are associated with pSS.METHODS:527 pSS patients and 532 controls participated in the study, all of Caucasian origin from Sweden and Norway. 14 SNP markers were genotyped and after quality control filtering, 12 SNP were analysed for their association with pSS using single marker and haplotype tests, and corrected by permutation testing.RESULTS:Nine markers showed significant association with pSS at the p=0.05 level. Markers rs1800629 and rs909253 showed the strongest genotype association (p=1.64E-11 and p=4.42E-08, respectively, after correcting for sex and country of origin). When the analysis was conditioned for the effect of rs1800629, only the association with rs909253 remained nominally significant (p=0.027). In haplotype analyses the strongest effect was observed for the haplotype rs909253G_rs1800629A (p=9.14E-17). The associations were mainly due to anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibody-positive pSS.CONCLUSIONS:A strong association was found between several SNP in the LTA/LTB/TNFα locus and pSS, some of which led to amino acid changes. These data suggest a role for this locus in the development of pSS. Further studies are needed to examine if the genetic effect described here is independent of the known genetic association between HLA and pSS.
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