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Sökning: WFRF:(Jonsson Stefan Professor)

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1.
  • Byström, Roberth, 1971- (författare)
  • SOD1´s Law : An Investigation of ALS Provoking Properties in SOD1
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Proteins are the most important molecules in the cell since they take care of most of the biological functions which resemble life. To ensure that everything is working properly the cell has a rigorous control system to monitor the proper function of its proteins and sends old or dysfunctional proteins for degradation. Unfortunately, this system sometimes fails and the once so vital proteins start to misbehave or to accumulate and in the worst case scenario these undesired processes cause the death of their host. One example is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); a progressive and always fatal neurodegenerative disorder that is proposed to derive from accumulation of aberrant proteins. Over 140 mutations in the human gene encoding the cytosolic homodimeric enzyme Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) are linked to ALS. The key event in SOD1 associated ALS seems to be the pathological formation of toxic protein aggregates as a result of initially unfolded or partly structured SOD1-mutants. Here, we have compared the folding behaviour of a set of ALS associated SOD1 mutants. Based on our findings we propose that SOD1 mediated ALS can be triggered by a decrease in protein stability but also by mutations which reduce the net charge of the protein. Both findings are in good agreement with the hypothesis for protein aggregation. SOD1 has also been found to be able to interact with mitochondrial membranes and SOD1 inclusions have been detected in the inter-membrane space of mitochondria originating from the spinal cord. The obvious question then arose; does the misfolding and aggregation of SOD1 involve erroneous interactions with membranes? Here, we could show that there is an electrostatically driven interaction between the reduced apo SOD1 protein including ALS associated SOD1-mutants and charged lipid membrane surfaces. This association process changes the secondary structures of these mutants in a way quite different from the situation found in membrane free aqueous environment. However, the result show that mutants interact with charged lipid vesicles to lesser extent than wildtype SOD1. This opposes the correlation between decreased SOD1 stability and disease progression. We therefore suggest that the observed interaction is not a primary cause in the ALS mechanism.
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2.
  • Katz Thor, Rebecka, 1982- (författare)
  • Beyond the Witness : Holocaust Representations and the Testimony of Images
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In a time when the very last Holocaust witnesses will soon be gone, a possible route for commemoration is to ask what testimony images can give. This book seeks to answer the question of how images can bear witness by examining them as multifaceted entities produced, reproduced, and resituated in conflicting political and historical situations. In three archive-based films by Harun Farocki, Yael Hersonski, and Eyal Sivan, the moving image is reactivated and reinterpreted. Footage produced as internal Nazi propaganda and the video recordings of a politically charged trial in the aftermath of the Holocaust have accrued new meaning. The archival status, context, and conditions for production, and the means of representation, offer a framework for an analysis through which the testimony of images can be understood. 
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3.
  • Sebhatu, Abiel, et al. (författare)
  • Explaining the homogeneous diffusion of COVID-19 nonpharmaceutical interventions across heterogeneous countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. - : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - 0097-3157 .- 1938-5293 .- 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 117:35, s. 21201-21208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyze the adoption of nonpharmaceutical interventions in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the complexity associated with pandemic decisions, governments are faced with the dilemma of how to act quickly when their core decision-making processes are based on deliberations balancing political considerations. Our findings show that, in times of severe crisis, governments follow the lead of others and base their decisions on what other countries do. Governments in countries with a stronger democratic structure are slower to react in the face of the pandemic but are more sensitive to the influence of other countries. We provide insights for research on international policy diffusion and research on the political consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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4.
  • Ekström, Madeleine, 1984- (författare)
  • Oxidation and corrosion fatigue aspects of cast exhaust manifolds
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Emission regulations for heavy-duty diesel engines are becoming increasingly restrictive to limit the environmental impacts of exhaust gases and particles. Increasing the specific power output of diesel engines would improve fuel efficiency and greatly reduce emissions, but these changes could lead to increased exhaust gas temperature, increasing demands on the exhaust manifold material. This is currently the ferritic ductile cast iron alloy SiMo51, containing about 4 wt% Si and ~1 wt% Mo, which operates close to its fatigue and oxidation resistance limits at peak temperature (750C). To ensure high durability at higher temperatures, three different approaches to improving the life of exhaust manifolds were developed in this thesis.The first approach was to modify SiMo51 by adding different combinations of Cr and Ni to improve its high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance, or by applying a thermal barrier coating (TBC) to reduce the material temperature and thereby improve fatigue life. In the second approach, new materials for engine components, e.g. austenitic ductile iron and cast stainless steel, were investigated for their high-temperature fatigue and oxidation properties. In order to identify the most suitable alloys for this application, in the third the environmental effects of the corrosive diesel exhaust gas on the fatigue life of SiMo51 were investigated.The high-temperature oxidation resistance of SiMo51 at 700 and 800C in air was found to be improved by adding Cr, whereas Ni showed adverse effects. The effects of solid-solution hardening from Ni and precipitation hardening from Cr were low at 700C, with improvements only at lower temperatures. Applying a TBC system, providing thermal protection from a ceramic topcoat and oxidation protection from a metallic bond coat, resulted in only small reductions in material temperature, but according to finite element calculations still effectively improved the fatigue life of a turbo manifold. Possible alternative materials to SiMo51 identified were austenitic cast ductile iron Ni-resistant D5S and austenitic cast stainless steel HK30, which provided high durability of exhaust manifolds up to 800 and 900C, respectively. Corrosion fatigue testing of SiMo51 at 700C in diesel exhaust gas demonstrated that the corrosive gas reduced fatigue life by 30-50% compared with air and by 60-75% compared with an inert environment. The reduced fatigue life was associated with a mechanism whereby the crack tip oxidized, followed by crack growth. Thus another potential benefit of TBC systems is that the bond coat may reduce oxidation interactions and further improve fatigue life.These results can be used for selecting materials for exhaust applications. They also reveal many new research questions for future studies. Combining the different approaches of alloy modification, new material testing and improving the performance using coatings widened the scope of how component life in exhaust manifolds can be improved. Moreover, the findings on environmental interactions on SiMo51 fatigue provide a completely new understanding of these processes in ductile irons, important knowledge when designing components exposed to corrosive environments. The novel facility developed for high-temperature corrosion fatigue testing can be useful to other researchers working in this field. 
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5.
  • Fahlkrans, Johan, 1980- (författare)
  • Effects of manufacturing chain on mechanical performance : Study on heat treatment of powertrain components
  • 2015
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The increasing demands for lightweight designs with high strength call for improved manufacturing processes regarding heat treatment of steel. The manufacturing process has considerable potential to improve the mechanical performance and to obtain more reliable results with less variation.The goal of this thesis is to establish new knowledge regarding improved manufacturing processes in industrial heat treatment applications. Three research questions with associated hypotheses are formulated. Process experiments, evaluation of the mechanical performance, and modelling of the fatigue behaviour assist in answering the questions.The gas quenching procedure following low-pressure carburising differs from the conventional procedure of gas carburising and oil quenching. It is shown that the introduction of a holding time during the low-temperature part of the quench has a positive effect on mechanical properties, with some 20 percent increase in fatigue strength. This is attributed to increased compressive surface residual stress and stabilisation of austenite.Tempering is a common manufacturing process step following hardening in order to increase the toughness of the steel. However, the research shows that the higher hardness from eliminating tempering from the manufacturing process is beneficial for contact fatigue resistance. The untempered steel showed not only less contact fatigue damage but also a different contact fatigue mechanism.Straightening of elongated components is made after heat treatment in order to compensate for distortions. The research shows that straightening of induction hardened shafts may lead to lowering of the fatigue strength of up to 20 percent. A fracture mechanics based model is developed to estimate the effects of straightening on fatigue strength.
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6.
  • Foultier, Christophe, 1972- (författare)
  • Regimes of Hospitality : Urban Citizenship between Participation and Securitization – the Case of the Multiethnic French Banlieue
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis analyzes various local development policies in Europe’s big urban areas. Striving to understand the respective places accorded to the measures to increase the participation of the inhabitants on the one hand, and to improve for security and public peace in the context of social and territorial policies on the other, I examine how urban policies define models of urban citizenship. The empirical work concerns two sites in the greater metropolitan area of Paris, Le Franc-Moisin–Bel-Air in Saint-Denis and Les Cinq Quartiers in Les Mureaux. It consists of an analysis of public documents as well as a series of interviews and observations. This methodological approach serves to gain an understanding of how participative and security procedures emerge in the history of French urban policy and how these norms interact locally.By investigating the overlap of security politics and participatory devices, I demonstrate that deprived areas do not have access to an adequate form of intervention to meet the expectations and needs of its inhabitants, who are squeezed between a logic of development reluctantly accepted by, but rarely negotiated with its inhabitants, and a logic of security that often leads to the confinement of residents to their respective areas. The thesis thus demonstrates how institutional interventions in multiethnic areas can fuel feelings of suspicion be-tween local stakeholders and civic distrust. Indeed, the participatory procedures that are developed in urban strategies influence the conduct of participants on matters of identity and belonging and can intensify socio-ethnic stigmatization. This effect provides me with a critical standpoint on new techniques of government. The local partners of the state develop daily routines in urban strategies that contribute to articulating participatory devices and security procedures. I claim that the results from this process are “regimes of hospitality”.
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7.
  • Grafström, Maria, 1978- (författare)
  • The Development of Swedish Business Journalism : Historical Roots of an Organisational Field
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Contemporary Swedish business journalism is an established organisational field with shared practice within and across organisations. Using a historical perspective, this dissertation investigates the early formation of this field and the formation of a shared meaning system for business journalism. Addressing the question of how and why the field emerged, the study contributes to institutional approaches in organisational analysis and theories about field development. Drawing on a qualitative longitudinal study, the analysis explores the source of today’s field of business journalism and examines the individuals, organisations, and activities that, during the 1960s and 1970s, laid the groundwork for subsequent field development. Five Swedish newspaper organisations are examined in detail: two business weeklies, Affärsvärlden and Veckans Affärer; the business daily, Dagens industri; and two general dailies, Dagens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet. In particular, the study analyses the competencies that was considered necessary for producing business news; the models that functioned as positive examples for business journalists; and the accepted ways of selecting and presenting business news. The study concludes that nascent field formation developed through institutional entrepreneurial processes in the interplay among individuals, organisations, and societal developments. As individuals carried institutional logics from their previous affiliations in business or journalism, they contributed to the nascent field formation – not by breaking with their past, but by continuing, in a new setting, previous ways of approaching their work. The two institutional logics of business and journalism also permeated the newspaper organisations in which these individuals were active. The organisations functioned as platforms that enabled the early practice while setting boundaries for its development. The results suggest that fields develop incrementally and that institutional entrepreneurial processes embody greater continuity and stability than previous research in the area has suggested.
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8.
  • Guyard, Carina (författare)
  • Kommunikationsarbete på distans
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This research thesis analyzes the characteristics of communication work in a call centre, by examining the communication work at a Swedish call centre which is outsourced to Latvia. The thesis studies the ways in which communication with the customers is organized, carried out and assigned meaning. Theoretically, the thesis draws on both critical and management-oriented perspectives of work. The empirical investigation combines participant observations at the call centre with individual interviews, mainly conducted with operators and management staff.The communication work is analyzed both as labour and as communicative activity. The concept of labour focuses upon the relation between employer and employee. Therefore, the analysis is placed within the framework of a capitalistic production system, through a survey of the economic and the organisational working conditions. The communicative activity deals with how the telephone conversations with the customers are enacted. In that part of the analyses, the working routines and the meaning making practices are illuminated.As examined in the current research, the communication work is indeed constructed in an alienated manner, through high levels of standardization, immobility, and estrangement from both customers and the customers’ culture. Nonetheless, merely being employed has meant significant economic security for the operators of the Latvian call centre. The operators are incumbents of a society affected by deep economic crises with high unemployment rates. In relation to their broader society, the employees have found meaning within their immediate social situation. This may explain why they endure the monotonous work with few opportunities for development.
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9.
  • Hjort, Elisabeth, 1975- (författare)
  • Förtvivlade läsningar : Litteratur som motstånd och läsning som etik
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study has two aims and addresses two areas of investigation. The first aim is to examine, in four novels and their textual worlds, what role is played by collective self-images and essentialist identities in maintaining power structures in regard to gender, class, norms for mental functions, and ethnicity. Whether, and if so, how, the novel’s deconstruction of language and images can function as resistance to hegemonic oppression? What does the encounter between the privileged collective and the marginalized look like in the novel, and what happens in this encounter?The project’s second aim is to probe what criticism of, and what strategies for resistance to, various power structures reading can provide. To what extent is it possible to speak of responsibility for, and in, the reading of fictional works? What role is played by the (un)expected and the conditionality in the poetical novel’s ethical demands on the reader? What might reading as an ethical practice mean and entail? The dual aim situates this dissertation in an interdisciplinary field between ethics, literary studies and aesthetics.In this study despair is the fundament on which the ethical reader stands to approach literature. Rather than discovering meanings, finding examples, or experiencing empathy, it is being engaged in the conditions determined by suffering and injustice that constitutes ethical reading.The novels Drömfakulteten (The Dream Faculty) by Sara Stridsberg, Hevonen häst (Hevonen Horse) by Annika Korpi, Montecore by Jonas Hassen Khemiri, and Personliga pronomen (Personal Pronouns) by Daniel Sjölin comprise the material for the study. They are analysed in terms of deconstructive hermeneutics. Theories brought to bear are primarily Gayatri Spivak’s post-colonial and Emmanuel Levinas’ phenomenological thinking about ethics, together with ideas from, among others, Derek Attridge, Judith Butler, and Sara Ahmed.The readings of the novels are done via four points of entry: identity, the body, the human, and the post-political, as part of the project’s work process, with each reading leading to new questions and critical interventions.The analysis points to a responsibility in relation to identity, a practice where oneself is shifted and transformed. This responsibility also encompasses accountability for the normative orders that need to be changed. Literary projects per se cannot achieve this, but they can be read as a stab at resistance, material for the reader to elaborate upon. This responsibility is an ethical practice that is not completed, that has uncertainty inscribed in its very essence, and that is reinvigorated with each new reading.
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10.
  • Jonsson, Kristina, 1967- (författare)
  • Practices for the Living and the Dead : Medieval and Post-Reformation Burials in Scandinavia
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main themes of the thesis are burial customs and social identities, and how medieval and post-Reformation graves can provide information on such as age structures, phases in life, gender relations and social organization. The study is based on nine groups of Scandinavian material, and it comprises four case studies. The first one deals with social zoning in medieval cemeteries and how age and gender structures varied within and between different social strata. The second concerns ‘atypical’ medieval burials, such as graves in which individuals have been buried in a deviant or peripheral position; and it also focusses on burials of the sick and the impaired. The third case study examines two mainly medieval burial practices: the use of charcoal and burial rods, and possible interpretations of their inclusion in graves. The fourth study deals with post-Reformation burial customs; how they differ from the medieval ones and what notions may have caused the changes in practice.  It is concluded that in the Early Middle Ages, social identity was to a large extent intermingled with group identity. Towards the twelfth century, the social boundaries were sharpened and burial customs emphasizing personal aspects such as gender, age and body developed. A person’s biological status was a major factor in determining gender and social identities, and thereby also social status. In the Late Middle Ages the inner burial customs became more homogeneous, probably as a result of new religious beliefs and ecclesiastical restrictions. After the Reformation, social differences in burial prevailed, and above all the memorials displayed and shaped social identities. The inner burial customs became more varied again, displaying a ‘revival’ of old customs. This was most likely caused by changes in religious practices: since the Church no longer provided comforting and protective ritualistic practices they were instead performed before the funeral by the next of kin.
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