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Sökning: WFRF:(Kahane C.)

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1.
  • Lis, D. C., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel/HIFI discovery of interstellar chloronium (H2Cl+)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521:1, s. L9+-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first detection of chloronium, H_2Cl^+, in the interstellar medium, using the HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The 2_12-1_01 lines of ortho-H\_2^35Cl^+ and ortho-H\_2^37Cl^+ are detected in absorption towards NGC 6334I, and the 1_11-0_00 transition of para-H\_2^35Cl^+ is detected in absorption towards NGC 6334I and Sgr B2(S). The H_2Cl^+ column densities are compared to those of the chemically-related species HCl. The derived HCl/H_2Cl^+ column density ratios, ~1-10, are within the range predicted by models of diffuse and dense photon dominated regions (PDRs). However, the observed H_2Cl^+ column densities, in excess of 10^13 cm^-2, are significantly higher than the model predictions. Our observations demonstrate the outstanding spectroscopic capabilities of HIFI for detecting new interstellar molecules and providing key constraints for astrochemical models.
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2.
  • Codella, C., et al. (författare)
  • The CHESS spectral survey of star forming regions : Peering into the protostellar shock L1157-B1. I. Shock chemical complexity
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518, s. L112-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first results of the unbiased survey of the L1157-B1 bow shock, obtained with HIFI in the framework of the key program Chemical HErschel Survey of Star forming regions (CHESS). The L1157 outflow is driven by a low-mass Class 0 protostar and is considered the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The bright blue-shifted bow shock B1 is the ideal laboratory for studying the link between the hot (~1000-2000 K) component traced by H2 IR-emission and the cold (~10-20 K) swept-up material. The main aim is to trace the warm gas chemically enriched by the passage of a shock and to infer the excitation conditions in L1157-B1. A total of 27 lines are identified in the 555-636 GHz region, down to an average 3σ level of 30 mK. The emission is dominated by CO(5-4) and H2O(110-101) transitions, as discussed by Lefloch et al. in this volume. Here we report on the identification of lines from NH3, H2CO, CH3OH, CS, HCN, and HCO+. The comparison between the profiles produced by molecules released from dust mantles (NH3, H2CO, CH3OH) and that of H2O is consistent with a scenario in which water is also formed in the gas-phase in high-temperature regions where sputtering or grain-grain collisions are not efficient. The high excitation range of the observed tracers allows us to infer, for the first time for these species, the existence of a warm (≥200 K) gas component coexisting in the B1 bow structure with the cold and hot gas detected from ground. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
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3.
  • Lefloch, B., et al. (författare)
  • The CHESS spectral survey of star forming regions : Peering into the protostellar shock L1157-B1. II. Shock dynamics
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518, s. L113-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The outflow driven by the low-mass class 0 protostar L1157 is the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The bright bowshock B1 in the southern outflow lobe is a privileged testbed of magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) shock models, for which dynamical and chemical processes are strongly interdependent. Aims: We present the first results of the unbiased spectral survey of the L1157-B1 bowshock, obtained in the framework of the key program “Chemical HErschel Surveys of star forming regions” (CHESS). The main aim is to trace the warm and chemically enriched gas and to infer the excitation conditions in the shock region. Methods: The CO 5-4 and o-H2O 110-101 lines have been detected at high-spectral resolution in the unbiased spectral survey of the HIFI-band 1b spectral window (555-636 GHz), presented by Codella et al. in this volume. Complementary ground-based observations in the submm window help establish the origin of the emission detected in the main-beam of HIFI and the physical conditions in the shock. Results: Both lines exhibit broad wings, which extend to velocities much higher than reported up to now. We find that the molecular emission arises from two regions with distinct physical conditions : an extended, warm (100 K), dense (3 × 105 cm-3) component at low-velocity, which dominates the water line flux in Band 1; a secondary component in a small region of B1 (a few arcsec) associated with high-velocity, hot (>400 K) gas of moderate density ((1.0-3.0) × 104 cm-3), which appears to dominate the flux of the water line at 179μm observed with PACS. The water abundance is enhanced by two orders of magnitude between the low- and the high-velocity component, from 8 × 10-7 up to 8 × 10-5. The properties of the high-velocity component agree well with the predictions of steady-state C-shock models. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
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4.
  • Ceccarelli, C., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel spectral surveys of star- forming regions Overview of the 555-636 GHz range
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521, s. L22-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High resolution line spectra of star-forming regions are mines of information: they provide unique clues to reconstruct the chemical, dynamical, and physical structure of the observed source. We present the first results from the Herschel key project " Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions", CHESS. We report and discuss observations towards five CHESS targets, one outflow shock spot and four protostars with luminosities bewteen 20 and 2 x 105 L similar to : L1157-B1, IRAS 16293-2422, OMC2-FIR4, AFGL 2591, and NGC 6334I. The observations were obtained with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board Herschel, with a spectral resolution of 1 MHz. They cover the frequency range 555-636 GHz, a range largely unexplored before the launch of the Herschel satellite. A comparison of the five spectra highlights spectacular differences in the five sources, for example in the density of methanol lines, or the presence./absence of lines from S-bearing molecules or deuterated species. We discuss how these differences can be attributed to the different star-forming mass or evolutionary status.
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5.
  • Vastel, C., et al. (författare)
  • Ortho-to-para ratio of interstellar heavy water
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521:1, s. Article Number: L31 -
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular D/H ratios have been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions, and in particular the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims. The CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) key program aims to study the molecular complexity of the interstellar medium. The high sensitivity and spectral resolution of the Herschel/HIFI instrument provide a unique opportunity to observe the fundamental 1(1,1)-0(0,0) transition of the ortho-D2O molecule, which is inaccessible from the ground, and determine the ortho-to-para D2O ratio. Methods. We detected the fundamental transition of the ortho-D2O molecule at 607.35 GHz towards IRAS 16293-2422. The line is seen in absorption with a line opacity of 0.62 +/- 0.11 (1 sigma). From the previous ground-based observations of the fundamental 1(1,0)-1(0,1) transition of para-D2O seen in absorption at 316.80 GHz, we estimate a line opacity of 0.26 +/- 0.05 (1 sigma). Results. We show that the observed absorption is caused by the cold gas in the envelope of the protostar. Using these new observations, we estimate for the first time the ortho-to-para D2O ratio to be lower than 2.6 at a 3 sigma level of uncertainty, which should be compared with the thermal equilibrium value of 2:1.
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6.
  • Taquet, V, et al. (författare)
  • Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) VI. Chemical evolution of sulfuretted species along the outflows driven by the low-mass protostellar binary NGC1333-IRAS4A
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims. The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the outflows driven by the NGC1333-IRAS4A protobinary system located in the Perseus cloud to constrain the physical and chemical processes at work in shocks. Methods. We observed various transitions from OCS, CS, SO, and SO2 towards NGC1333-IRAS4A in the 1.3, 2, and 3mm bands using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array and we interpreted the observations through the use of the Paris-Durham shock model. Results. The targeted species clearly show different spatial emission along the two outflows driven by IRAS4A. OCS is brighter on small and large scales along the south outflow driven by IRAS4A1, whereas SO2 is detected rather along the outflow driven by IRAS4A2 that is extended along the north east-south west direction. SO is detected at extremely high radial velocity up to +25 km s 1 relative to the source velocity, clearly allowing us to distinguish the two outflows on small scales. Column density ratio maps estimated from a rotational diagram analysis allowed us to confirm a clear gradient of the OCS/SO2 column density ratio between the IRAS4A1 and IRAS4A2 outflows. Analysis assuming non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium of four SO2 transitions towards several SiO emission peaks suggests that the observed gas should be associated with densities higher than 105 cm 3 and relatively warm (T > 100 K) temperatures in most cases. Conclusions. The observed chemical differentiation between the two outflows of the IRAS4A system could be explained by a different chemical history. The outflow driven by IRAS4A1 is likely younger and more enriched in species initially formed in interstellar ices, such as OCS, and recently sputtered into the shock gas. In contrast, the longer and likely older outflow triggered by IRAS4A2 is more enriched in species that have a gas phase origin, such as SO2.
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7.
  • Decin, L., et al. (författare)
  • Warm water vapour in the sooty outflow from a luminous carbon star
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 467:7311, s. 64-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The detection(1) of circumstellar water vapour around the ageing carbon star IRC + 10216 challenged the current understanding of chemistry in old stars, because water was predicted(2) to be almost absent in carbon-rich stars. Several explanations for the water were postulated, including the vaporization of icy bodies (comets or dwarf planets) in orbit around the star(1), grain surface reactions(3), and photochemistry in the outer circumstellar envelope(4). With a single water line detected so far from this one carbon-rich evolved star, it is difficult to discriminate between the different mechanisms proposed. Here we report the detection of dozens of water vapour lines in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre spectrum of IRC + 10216 using the Herschel satellite(5). This includes some high-excitation lines with energies corresponding to similar to 1,000 K, which can be explained only if water is present in the warm inner sooty region of the envelope. A plausible explanation for the warm water appears to be the penetration of ultraviolet photons deep into a clumpy circumstellar envelope. This mechanism also triggers the formation of other molecules, such as ammonia, whose observed abundances(6) are much higher than hitherto predicted(7).
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8.
  • Taquet, V., et al. (författare)
  • Interferometric observations of warm deuterated methanol in the inner regions of low-mass protostars
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 632
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methanol is a key species in astrochemistry because it is the most abundant organic molecule in the interstellar medium and is thought to be the mother molecule of many complex organic species. Estimating the deuteration of methanol around young protostars is of crucial importance because it highly depends on its formation mechanisms and the physical conditions during its moment of formation. We analyse several dozen transitions from deuterated methanol isotopologues coming from various existing observational datasets obtained with the IRAM-PdBI and ALMA sub-millimeter interferometers to estimate the methanol deuteration surrounding three low-mass protostars on Solar System scales. A population diagram analysis allows us to derive a [CH2DOH]/[CH3OH] abundance ratio of 3-6% and a [CH3OD]/[CH3OH] ratio of 0.4-1.6%in the warm inner (≤100-200 AU) protostellar regions. These values are typically ten times lower than those derived with previous single-dish observations towards these sources, but they are one to two orders of magnitude higher than the methanol deuteration measured in massive hot cores. Dust temperature maps obtained from Herschel and Planck observations show that massive hot cores are located in warmer molecular clouds than low-mass sources, with temperature differences of ∼10 K. The comparison of our measured values with the predictions of the gas-grain astrochemical model GRAINOBLE shows that such a temperature difference is sufficient to explain the different deuteration observed in low- to high-mass sources. This suggests that the physical conditions of the molecular cloud at the origin of the protostars mostly govern the present-day observed deuteration of methanol and therefore of more complex organic molecules. Finally, the methanol deuteration measured towards young solar-type protostars on Solar System scales seems to be higher by a factor of ∼5 than the upper limit in methanol deuteration estimated in comet Hale-Bopp. If this result is confirmed by subsequent observations of other comets, it would imply that an important reprocessing of the organic material likely occurred in the solar nebula during the formation of the Solar System.
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9.
  • Bartolini Bussi, M G, et al. (författare)
  • Mathematics in context: focusing on students
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Challenging Mathematics In and Beyond the Classroom – The 16th ICMI Study. - New York : Springer Science+Business Media B.V.. - 9780387096032 ; , s. 171-203
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This chapter presents nine case studies in which school students engage in challenging mathematics outside their immediate classroom environment. In each case, students are encouraged to collaborate in investigations that go beyond the standard curriculum and creatively use the ingredients of the particular context. In Italy, students visit a mathematical laboratory to understand and utilize mathematical machines. Morning assembly at an Indian school brings students from many classes together in the solution of mathematical problems. Four of the projects are from France: students analyze the configuration of a heap of sand, pursue astronomical investigations with software, obtain a flavor of research by having secondary school teams investigate interesting problems, and are presented at all levels with open-ended research problems. There are three programs from the United States, the first, an advanced geometry sequence for secondary students completing the regular syllabus early, the second, activities arising from exhibits in an art museum, and the third, using the school lawn to deepen student understanding of geometric constructions. All such activities need to be evaluated for their effectiveness, so that they move from just being initiatives of dynamic individuals to serve as the foundation for systemic improvements in the way in which students learn, understand and use mathematics. In the early part of this chapter, we briefly mention how research into such activities might be approached.
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10.
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