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Sökning: WFRF:(Kang YA)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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2.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of e(+)e(-) -> phi chi(c1) and phi chi(c2) at root s=4.600 GeV
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 97:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using a data sample collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage ring at a center-of-mass energy of root s = 4.600 GeV, we search for the production of e(+)e(-) -> phi chi(c0,1,2). A search is also performed for the charmonium-like state X(4140) in the radiative transition e(+)e(-) -> gamma X(4140) with X(4140) subsequently decaying into phi J/psi The processes e(+)e(-) -> phi chi(c1) and phi chi(c2) are observed for the first time, each with a statistical significance of more than 10 sigma, and the Born cross sections are measured to be (4.2(-1.0)(+1.7) +/- 0.3) and (6.7(-1.7)(+3.4) +/- 0.5) pb, respectively, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. No significant signals are observed for e(+)e(-) -> phi chi(c0) and e(+)e(-) -> gamma X(4140) and upper limits on the Born cross sections at 90% C. L. are provided at root s = 4.600 GeV.
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3.
  • Doi, Yasuo, et al. (författare)
  • The JCMT BISTRO Survey: Magnetic Fields Associated with a Network of Filaments in NGC 1333
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 899:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present new observations of the active star formation region NGC 1333 in the Perseus molecular cloud complex from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope B-Fields In Star-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey with the POL-2 instrument. The BISTRO data cover the entire NGC 1333 complex (∼1.5 pc ? 2 pc) at 0.02 pc resolution and spatially resolve the polarized emission from individual filamentary structures for the first time. The inferred magnetic field structure is complex as a whole, with each individual filament aligned at different position angles relative to the local field orientation. We combine the BISTRO data with low- and high- resolution data derived from Planck and interferometers to study the multiscale magnetic field structure in this region. The magnetic field morphology drastically changes below a scale of ∼1 pc and remains continuous from the scales of filaments (∼0.1 pc) to that of protostellar envelopes (∼0.005 pc or ∼1000 au). Finally, we construct simple models in which we assume that the magnetic field is always perpendicular to the long axis of the filaments. We demonstrate that the observed variation of the relative orientation between the filament axes and the magnetic field angles are well reproduced by this model, taking into account the projection effects of the magnetic field and filaments relative to the plane of the sky. These projection effects may explain the apparent complexity of the magnetic field structure observed at the resolution of BISTRO data toward the filament network.
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4.
  • Eswaraiah, Chakali, et al. (författare)
  • The JCMT BISTRO Survey: Revealing the Diverse Magnetic Field Morphologies in Taurus Dense Cores with Sensitive Submillimeter Polarimetry
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 912:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have obtained sensitive dust continuum polarization observations at 850 μm in the B213 region of Taurus using POL-2 on SCUBA-2 at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the B-fields in STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey. These observations allow us to probe magnetic field (B-field) at high spatial resolution (∼2000 au or ∼0.01 pc at 140 pc) in two protostellar cores (K04166 and K04169) and one prestellar core (Miz-8b) that lie within the B213 filament. Using the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method, we estimate the B-field strengths in K04166, K04169, and Miz-8b to be 38 ± 14, 44 ± 16, and 12 ± 5 μG, respectively. These cores show distinct mean B-field orientations. The B-field in K04166 is well ordered and aligned parallel to the orientations of the core minor axis, outflows, core rotation axis, and large-scale uniform B-field, in accordance with magnetically regulated star formation via ambipolar diffusion taking place in K04166. The B-field in K04169 is found to be ordered but oriented nearly perpendicular to the core minor axis and large-scale B-field and not well correlated with other axes. In contrast, Miz-8b exhibits a disordered B-field that shows no preferred alignment with the core minor axis or large-scale field. We found that only one core, K04166, retains a memory of the large-scale uniform B-field. The other two cores, K04169 and Miz-8b, are decoupled from the large-scale field. Such a complex B-field configuration could be caused by gas inflow onto the filament, even in the presence of a substantial magnetic flux.
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5.
  • Ngoc, Nguyen Bich, et al. (författare)
  • Observations of Magnetic Fields Surrounding LkH alpha 101 Taken by the BISTRO Survey with JCMT-POL-2
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 908:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first high spatial resolution measurement of magnetic fields surrounding LkH alpha 101, part of the Auriga-California molecular cloud. The observations were taken with the POL-2 polarimeter on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope within the framework of the B-fields In Star-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey. Observed polarization of thermal dust emission at 850 mu m is found to be mostly associated with the redshifted gas component of the cloud. The magnetic field displays a relatively complex morphology. Two variants of the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method, unsharp masking and structure function, are used to calculate the strength of magnetic fields in the plane of the sky, yielding a similar result of B-POS similar to 115 mu G. The mass-to-magnetic-flux ratio in critical value units, lambda similar to 0.3, is the smallest among the values obtained for other regions surveyed by POL-2. This implies that the LkH alpha 101 region is subcritical, and the magnetic field is strong enough to prevent gravitational collapse. The inferred delta B/B-0 similar to 0.3 implies that the large-scale component of the magnetic field dominates the turbulent one. The variation of the polarization fraction with total emission intensity can be fitted by a power law with an index of alpha = 0.82 0.03, which lies in the range previously reported for molecular clouds. We find that the polarization fraction decreases rapidly with proximity to the only early B star (LkH alpha 101) in the region. Magnetic field tangling and the joint effect of grain alignment and rotational disruption by radiative torques can potentially explain such a decreasing trend.
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6.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Amplitude analysis of the chi(c1) -> eta pi(+)pi(-) decays
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 95:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using 448.0 x 10(6) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector, an amplitude analysis is performed for psi(3686) -> gamma chi(c1), chi(c1) ->eta pi(+)pi(-) decays. The most dominant two- body structure observed is a(0)(980)(+/-) pi(-/+); a(0)(980)(+/-) -> eta pi(+/-.) line shape is modeled using a dispersion relation, and a significant nonzero a(0) (980) coupling to the eta'pi channel is measured. We observe chi(c1) -> a(2)(1700)pi production for the first time, with a significance larger than 17 sigma. The production of mesons with exotic quantum numbers, J(PC) = 1(-+), is investigated, and upper limits for the branching fractions chi(c1) -> pi(1)(1400)(+/-)pi(-/+) , chi(c1) -> pi(1)(1600)(+/-)pi(-/+) and chi(c1) -> pi 1(2015)(+/-)pi(-/+) with subsequent pi(1)(X)(+/-) -> eta pi(+/-) decay, are determined.
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7.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of branching fractions for psi(3686) -> gamma eta ', gamma eta, and gamma pi(0)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 96:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using a data sample of 448 x 10(6) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage ring, the decays psi(3686) -> gamma eta and psi(3686) -> gamma pi(0) are observed with a statistical significance of 7.3 sigma and 6.7 sigma, respectively. The branching fractions are measured to be B(psi(3686) -> gamma eta) = (0.85 +/- 0.18 +/- 0.05) x 10(-6) and B(psi(3686) ->gamma pi(0)) = (0.95 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.05) x 10(-6). In addition, we measure the branching fraction of psi(3686) -> gamma eta' to be B(psi(3686) -> gamma eta') = (125.1 +/- 2.2 +/- 6.2)x10(-6), which represents an improvement of precision over previous results.
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8.
  • Ehret, Georg B., et al. (författare)
  • The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:10, s. 1171-1184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66 blood pressure-associated loci, of which 17 were new; 15 harbored multiple distinct association signals. The 66 index SNPs were enriched for cis-regulatory elements, particularly in vascular endothelial cells, consistent with a primary role in blood pressure control through modulation of vascular tone across multiple tissues. The 66 index SNPs combined in a risk score showed comparable effects in 64,421 individuals of non-European descent. The 66-SNP blood pressure risk score was significantly associated with target organ damage in multiple tissues but with minor effects in the kidney. Our findings expand current knowledge of blood pressure-related pathways and highlight tissues beyond the classical renal system in blood pressure regulation.
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9.
  • Hoshino, Ayuko, et al. (författare)
  • Extracellular Vesicle and Particle Biomarkers Define Multiple Human Cancers
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cell. - : CELL PRESS. - 0092-8674 .- 1097-4172. ; 182:4, s. 1044-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is an unmet clinical need for improved tissue and liquid biopsy tools for cancer detection. We investigated the proteomic profile of extracellular vesicles and particles (EVPs) in 426 human samples from tissue explants (TEs), plasma, and other bodily fluids. Among traditional exosome markers, CD9, HSPA8, ALIX, and HSP90AB1 represent pan-EVP markers, while ACTB, MSN, and RAP1B are novel pan-EVP markers. To confirm that EVPs are ideal diagnostic tools, we analyzed proteomes of TE- (n =151) and plasma-derived (n =120) EVPs. Comparison of TE EVPs identified proteins (e.g., VCAN, TNC, and THBS2) that distinguish tumors from normal tissues with 90% sensitivity/94% specificity. Machine-learning classification of plasma-derived EVP cargo, including immunoglobulins, revealed 95% sensitivity/90% specificity in detecting cancer Finally, we defined a panel of tumor-type-specific EVP proteins in TEs and plasma, which can classify tumors of unknown primary origin. Thus, EVP proteins can serve as reliable biomarkers for cancer detection and determining cancer type.
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10.
  • Lyo, A-Ran, et al. (författare)
  • The JCMT BISTRO Survey: An 850/450 mu m Polarization Study of NGC 2071IR in Orion B
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 918:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of simultaneous 450 mu m and 850 mu m polarization observations toward the massive star-forming region NGC 2071IR, a target of the BISTRO (B-fields in STar-forming Region Observations) Survey, using the POL-2 polarimeter and SCUBA-2 camera mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find a pinched magnetic field morphology in the central dense core region, which could be due to a rotating toroidal disklike structure and a bipolar outflow originating from the central young stellar object IRS 3. Using the modified Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method, we obtain a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength of 563 +/- 421 mu G in the central similar to 0.12 pc region from 850 mu m polarization data. The corresponding magnetic energy density of 2.04 x 10(-8) erg cm(-3) is comparable to the turbulent and gravitational energy densities in the region. We find that the magnetic field direction is very well aligned with the whole of the IRS 3 bipolar outflow structure. We find that the median value of polarization fractions is 3.0% at 450 mu m in the central 3 ' region, which is larger than the median value of 1.2% at 850 mu m. The trend could be due to the better alignment of warmer dust in the strong radiation environment. We also find that polarization fractions decrease with intensity at both wavelengths, with slopes, determined by fitting a Rician noise model of 0.59 +/- 0.03 at 450 mu m and 0.36 +/- 0.04 at 850 mu m, respectively. We think that the shallow slope at 850 mu m is due to grain alignment at the center being assisted by strong radiation from the central young stellar objects.
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