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Sökning: WFRF:(Karikari Thomas)

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1.
  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • An update on blood-based biomarkers for non-Alzheimer neurodegenerative disorders.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Reviews Neurology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1759-4766. ; 16:5, s. 265-284
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid analyses and neuroimaging can identify the underlying pathophysiology at the earliest stage of some neurodegenerative disorders, but do not have the scalability needed for population screening. Therefore, a blood-based marker for such pathophysiology would have greater utility in a primary care setting and in eligibility screening for clinical trials. Rapid advances in ultra-sensitive assays have enabled the levels of pathological proteins to be measured in blood samples, but research has been predominantly focused on Alzheimer disease (AD). Nonetheless, proteins that were identified as potential blood-based biomarkers for AD, for example, amyloid-β, tau, phosphorylated tau and neurofilament light chain, are likely to be relevant to other neurodegenerative disorders that involve similar pathological processes and could also be useful for the differential diagnosis of clinical symptoms. This Review outlines the neuropathological, clinical, molecular imaging and cerebrospinal fluid features of the most common neurodegenerative disorders outside the AD continuum and gives an overview of the current status of blood-based biomarkers for these disorders.
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2.
  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • The validation status of blood biomarkers of amyloid and phospho-tau assessed with the 5-phase development framework for AD biomarkers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070. ; 48:127, s. 2140-2156
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The development of blood biomarkers that reflect Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology (phosphorylated tau and amyloid-beta) has offered potential as scalable tests for dementia differential diagnosis and early detection. In 2019, the Geneva AD Biomarker Roadmap Initiative included blood biomarkers in the systematic validation of AD biomarkers. Methods A panel of experts convened in November 2019 at a two-day workshop in Geneva. The level of maturity (fully achieved, partly achieved, preliminary evidence, not achieved, unsuccessful) of blood biomarkers was assessed based on the Biomarker Roadmap methodology and discussed fully during the workshop which also evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers. Results Plasma p-tau has shown analytical validity (phase 2 primary aim 1) and first evidence of clinical validity (phase 3 primary aim 1), whereas the maturity level for A beta remains to be partially achieved. Full and partial achievement has been assigned to p-tau and A beta, respectively, in their associations to ante-mortem measures (phase 2 secondary aim 2). However, only preliminary evidence exists for the influence of covariates, assay comparison and cut-off criteria. Conclusions Despite the relative infancy of blood biomarkers, in comparison to CSF biomarkers, much has already been achieved for phases 1 through 3 - with p-tau having greater success in detecting AD and predicting disease progression. However, sufficient data about the effect of covariates on the biomarker measurement is lacking. No phase 4 (real-world performance) or phase 5 (assessment of impact/cost) aim has been tested, thus not achieved.
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3.
  • Karikari, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Blood phosphorylated tau 181 as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: a diagnostic performance and prediction modelling study using data from four prospective cohorts.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465 .- 1474-4422. ; 19:5, s. 422-433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CSF and PET biomarkers of amyloid β and tau accurately detect Alzheimer's disease pathology, but the invasiveness, high cost, and poor availability of these detection methods restrict their widespread use as clinical diagnostic tools. CSF tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau181) is a highly specific biomarker for Alzheimer's disease pathology. We aimed to assess whether blood p-tau181 could be used as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease and for prediction of cognitive decline and hippocampal atrophy.We developed and validated an ultrasensitive blood immunoassay for p-tau181. Assay performance was evaluated in four clinic-based prospective cohorts. The discovery cohort comprised patients with Alzheimer's disease and age-matched controls. Two validation cohorts (TRIAD and BioFINDER-2) included cognitively unimpaired older adults (mean age 63-69 years), participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease, and frontotemporal dementia. In addition, TRIAD included healthy young adults (mean age 23 years) and BioFINDER-2 included patients with other neurodegenerative disorders. The primary care cohort, which recruited participants in Montreal, Canada, comprised control participants from the community without a diagnosis of a neurological condition and patients referred from primary care physicians of the Canadian National Health Service for specialist care. Concentrations of plasma p-tau181 were compared with established CSF and PET biomarkers and longitudinal measurements using Spearman correlation, area under the curve (AUC), and linear regression analyses.We studied 37 individuals in the discovery cohort, 226 in the first validation cohort (TRIAD), 763 in the second validation cohort (BioFINDER-2), and 105 in the primary care cohort (n=1131 individuals). In all cohorts, plasma p-tau181 showed gradual increases along the Alzheimer's disease continuum, from the lowest concentrations in amyloid β-negative young adults and cognitively unimpaired older adults, through higher concentrations in the amyloid β-positive cognitively unimpaired older adults and MCI groups, to the highest concentrations in the amyloid β-positive MCI and Alzheimer's disease groups (p<0·001, Alzheimer's disease vs all other groups). Plasma p-tau181 distinguished Alzheimer's disease dementia from amyloid β-negative young adults (AUC=99·40%) and cognitively unimpaired older adults (AUC=90·21-98·24% across cohorts), as well as other neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal dementia (AUC=82·76-100% across cohorts), vascular dementia (AUC=92·13%), progressive supranuclear palsy or corticobasal syndrome (AUC=88·47%), and Parkinson's disease or multiple systems atrophy (AUC=81·90%). Plasma p-tau181 was associated with PET-measured cerebral tau (AUC=83·08-93·11% across cohorts) and amyloid β (AUC=76·14-88·09% across cohorts) pathologies, and 1-year cognitive decline (p=0·0015) and hippocampal atrophy (p=0·015). In the primary care cohort, plasma p-tau181 discriminated Alzheimer's disease from young adults (AUC=100%) and cognitively unimpaired older adults (AUC=84·44%), but not from MCI (AUC=55·00%).Blood p-tau181 can predict tau and amyloid β pathologies, differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other neurodegenerative disorders, and identify Alzheimer's disease across the clinical continuum. Blood p-tau181 could be used as a simple, accessible, and scalable test for screening and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.Alzheimer Drug Discovery Foundation, European Research Council, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Alzheimer Foundation, Swedish Dementia Foundation, Alzheimer Society Research Program.
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4.
  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • A multicentre validation study of the diagnostic value of plasma neurofilament light.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature communications. - 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light (NfL) is a recognized biomarker for neurodegeneration that can also be assessed in blood. Here, we investigate plasma NfL as a marker of neurodegeneration in 13 neurodegenerative disorders, Down syndrome, depression and cognitively unimpaired controls from two multicenter cohorts: King's College London (n = 805) and the Swedish BioFINDER study (n = 1,464). Plasma NfL was significantly increased in all cortical neurodegenerative disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and atypical parkinsonian disorders. We demonstrate that plasma NfL is clinically useful in identifying atypical parkinsonian disorders in patients with parkinsonism, dementia in individuals with Down syndrome, dementia among psychiatric disorders, and frontotemporal dementia in patients with cognitive impairment. Data-driven cut-offs highlighted the fundamental importance of age-related clinical cut-offs for disorders with a younger age of onset. Finally, plasma NfL performs best when applied to indicate no underlying neurodegeneration, with low false positives, in all age-related cut-offs.
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5.
  • Karikari, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The C291R Tau Variant Forms Different Types of Protofibrils
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. - 1662-5099. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the MAPT gene can lead to disease-associated variants of tau. However, the pathological mechanisms behind these genetic tauopathies are poorly understood. Here, we characterized the aggregation stages and conformational changes of tau C291R, a recently described MAPT mutation with potential pathogenic functions. The C291R variant of the tau four-repeat domain (tau-K18; a functional fragment with increased aggregation propensity compared with the full-length protein), aggregated into a mix of granular oligomers, amorphous and annular pore-like aggregates, in native-state and heparin-treated reactions as observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and negative-stained electron microscopy. On extended incubation in the native-state, tau-K18 C291R oligomers, unlike wild type (WT) tau-K18, aggregated to form protofibrils of four different phenotypes: (1) spherical annular; (2) spherical annular encapsulating granular oligomers; (3) ring-like annular but non-spherical; and (4) linear protofibrils. The ring-like tau-K18 C291R aggregates shared key properties of annular protofibrils previously described for other amyloidogenic proteins, in addition to two unique features: irregular/non-spherical-shaped annular protofibrils, and spherical protofibrils encapsulating granular oligomers. Tau-K18 C291R monomers had a circular dichroism (CD) peak at similar to 210 nm compared with similar to 199 nm for tau-K18 WT. These data suggest mutation-enhanced beta-sheet propensity. Together, we describe the characterization of tau-K18 C291R, the first genetic mutation substituting a cysteine residue. The aggregation mechanism of tau-K18 C291R appears to involve beta-sheet-rich granular oligomers which rearrange to form unique protofibrillar structures.
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6.
  • Keshavan, Ashvini, et al. (författare)
  • Population-based blood screening for preclinical Alzheimer's disease in a British birth cohort at age 70.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Brain : a journal of neurology. - 1460-2156. ; 144:2, s. 434-449
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease has a preclinical stage when cerebral amyloid-β deposition occurs before symptoms emerge, and when amyloid-β-targeted therapies may have maximum benefits. Existing amyloid-β status measurement techniques, including amyloid PET and CSF testing, are difficult to deploy at scale, so blood biomarkers are increasingly considered for screening. We compared three different blood-based techniques-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measures of plasma amyloid-β, and single molecule array (Simoa) measures of plasma amyloid-β and phospho-tau181-to detect cortical 18F-florbetapir amyloid PET positivity (defined as a standardized uptake value ratio of >0.61 between a predefined cortical region of interest and eroded subcortical white matter) in dementia-free members of Insight 46, a substudy of the population-based British 1946 birth cohort. We used logistic regression models with blood biomarkers as predictors of amyloid PET status, with or without age, sex and APOE ε4 carrier status as covariates. We generated receiver operating characteristics curves and quantified areas under the curves to compare the concordance of the different blood tests with amyloid PET. We determined blood test cut-off points using Youden's index, then estimated numbers needed to screen to obtain 100 amyloid PET-positive individuals. Of the 502 individuals assessed, 441 dementia-free individuals with complete data were included; 82 (18.6%) were amyloid PET-positive. The area under the curve for amyloid PET status using a base model comprising age, sex and APOE ε4 carrier status was 0.695 (95% confidence interval: 0.628-0.762). The two best-performing Simoa plasma biomarkers were amyloid-β42/40 (0.620; 0.548-0.691) and phospho-tau181 (0.707; 0.646-0.768), but neither outperformed the base model. Mass spectrometry plasma measures performed significantly better than any other measure (amyloid-β1-42/1-40: 0.817; 0.770-0.864 and amyloid-β composite: 0.820; 0.775-0.866). At a cut-off point of 0.095, mass spectrometry measures of amyloid-β1-42/1-40 detected amyloid PET positivity with 86.6% sensitivity and 71.9% specificity. Without screening, to obtain 100 PET-positive individuals from a population with similar amyloid PET positivity prevalence to Insight 46, 543 PET scans would need to be performed. Screening using age, sex and APOE ε4 status would require 940 individuals, of whom 266 would proceed to scan. Using mass spectrometry amyloid-β1-42/1-40 alone would reduce these numbers to 623 individuals and 243 individuals, respectively. Across a theoretical range of amyloid PET positivity prevalence of 10-50%, mass spectrometry measures of amyloid-β1-42/1-40 would consistently reduce the numbers proceeding to scans, with greater cost savings demonstrated at lower prevalence.
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7.
  • Lantero Rodriguez, Juan, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma p-tau181 accurately predicts Alzheimer's disease pathology at least 8 years prior to post-mortem and improves the clinical characterisation of cognitive decline.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica. - 1432-0533. ; 140:3, s. 267-278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The neuropathological confirmation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) remains the gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nowadays, the in vivo diagnosis of AD is greatly aided by both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers. Although highly accurate, their broad implementation is restricted by high cost, limited accessibility and invasiveness. We recently developed a high-performance, ultrasensitive immunoassay for the quantification of tau phosphorylated at threonine-181 (p-tau181) in plasma, which identifies AD pathophysiology with high accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether plasma p-tau181, measured years before the death, can predict the eventual neuropathological confirmation of AD, and successfully discriminates AD from non-AD dementia pathologies. We studied a unique cohort of 115 individuals with longitudinal blood collections with clinical evaluation at 8, 4 and 2 years prior to neuropathological assessment at death. The results demonstrate that plasma p-tau181 associates better with AD neuropathology and Braak staging than a clinical diagnosis 8 years before post-mortem. Moreover, while all patients had a diagnosis of AD dementia during life, plasma p-tau181 proved to discriminate AD from non-AD pathologies with high accuracy (AUC = 97.4%, 95% CI = 94.1-100%) even 8 years before death. Additionally, the longitudinal trajectory of plasma p-tau181 was assessed in all patients. We found that the main increases in plasma p-tau181 occurred between 8 and 4 years prior to death in patients with AD neuropathology and later plateauing. In contrast, non-AD pathologies and controls exhibited minor, albeit significant, increases in p-tau181 up until death. Overall, our study demonstrates that plasma p-tau181 is highly predictive and specific of AD neuropathology years before post-mortem examination. These data add further support for the use of plasma p-tau181 to aid clinical management in primary care and recruitment for clinical trials.
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8.
  • Simrén, Joel, 1996, et al. (författare)
  • The diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of plasma biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigated the diagnostic and disease-monitoring potential of plasma biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and cognitively unimpaired (CU) individuals.Plasma was analyzed using Simoa assays from 99 CU, 107 MCI, and 103 AD dementia participants.Phosphorylated-tau181 (P-tau181), neurofilament light, amyloid-β (Aβ42/40), Total-tau and Glial fibrillary acidic protein were altered in AD dementia but P-tau181 significantly outperformed all biomarkers in differentiating AD dementia from CU (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91). P-tau181 was increased in MCI converters compared to non-converters. Higher P-tau181 was associated with steeper cognitive decline and gray matter loss in temporal regions. Longitudinal change of P-tau181 was strongly associated with gray matter loss in the full sample and with Aβ measures in CU individuals.P-tau181 detected AD at MCI and dementia stages and was strongly associated with cognitive decline and gray matter loss. These findings highlight the potential value of plasma P-tau181 as a non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in AD.
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9.
  • Alawode, Deborah O T, et al. (författare)
  • Transitioning from cerebrospinal fluid to blood tests to facilitate diagnosis and disease monitoring in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - 1365-2796.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide, and disease-modifying treatments may soon be at hand; hence now, more than ever, there is a need to develop techniques that allow earlier and more secure diagnosis. Current biomarker-based guidelines for AD diagnosis, which have replaced the historical symptom-based guidelines, rely heavily on neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling. Whilst these have greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy of AD pathophysiology, they are less practical for application in primary care, population-based and epidemiological settings, or where resources are limited. In contrast, blood is a more accessible and cost-effective source of biomarkers in AD. In this review paper, using the recently proposed amyloid, tau and neurodegeneration [AT(N)] criteria as a framework towards a biological definition of AD, we discuss recent advances in biofluid-based biomarkers, with a particular emphasis on those with potential to be translated into blood-based biomarkers. We provide an overview of the research conducted both in CSF and in blood to draw conclusions on biomarkers that show promise. Given the evidence collated in this review, plasma neurofilament light chain (N), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau; T) show particular potential for translation into clinical practice. However, p-tau requires more comparisons to be conducted between its various epitopes before conclusions can be made as to which one most robustly differentiates AD from non-AD dementias. Plasma amyloid beta (A) would prove invaluable as an early screening modality, but it requires very precise tests and robust pre-analytical protocols.
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10.
  • Alcolea, D., et al. (författare)
  • Use of plasma biomarkers for AT(N) classification of neurodegenerative dementias
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - 0022-3050.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: All categories included in the AT(N) classification can now be measured in plasma. However, their agreement with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers is not fully established. A blood signature to generate the AT(N) classification would facilitate early diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) through an easy and minimally invasive approach. Methods: We measured Aβ, pTau181 and neurofilament light (NfL) in 150 plasma samples of the Sant Pau Initiative on Neurodegeneration cohort including patients with mild cognitive impairment, AD dementia, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and cognitively normal participants. We classified participants in the AT(N) categories according to CSF biomarkers and studied the diagnostic value of plasma biomarkers within each category individually and in combination. Results: The plasma Aβ composite, pTau181 and NfL yielded areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.75, 0.78 and 0.88 to discriminate positive and negative participants in their respective A, T and N categories. The combination of all three markers did not outperform pTau181 alone (AUC=0.81) to discriminate A+T+ from A-T- participants. There was a moderate correlation between plasma Aβ composite and CSF Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 (Rho=-0.5, p<0.001) and between plasma pTau181 and CSF pTau181 in the entire cohort (Rho=0.51, p<0.001). NfL levels in plasma showed high correlation with those in CSF (Rho=0.78, p<0.001). Conclusions: Plasma biomarkers are useful to detect the AT(N) categories, and their use can differentiate patients with pathophysiological evidence of AD. A blood AT(N) signature may facilitate early diagnosis and follow-up of patients with AD through an easy and minimally invasive approach. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
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