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Sökning: WFRF:(Karjalainen Juha)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 19
  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Huckins, Laura M., et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression imputation across multiple brain regions provides insights into schizophrenia risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 51:4, s. 659-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.
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2.
  • Kopakkala-Tani, Milla, et al. (författare)
  • Ultrasound stimulates proteoglycan synthesis in bovine primary chondrocytes.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Biorheology. - IOS Press. - 0006-355X. ; 43:3-4, s. 271-282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanical forces can stimulate the production of extracellular matrix molecules. We tested the efficacy of ultrasound to increase proteoglycan synthesis in bovine primary chondrocytes. The ultrasound-induced temperature rise was measured and its contribution to the synthesis was investigated using bare heat stimulus. Chondrocytes from five cellular isolations were exposed in triplicate to ultrasound (1 MHz, duty cycle 20%, pulse repetition frequency 1 kHz) at average intensity of 580 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes daily for 1-5 days. Temperature evolution was recorded during the sonication and corresponding temperature history was created using a controllable water bath. This exposure profile was used in 10-minute-long heat treatments of chondrocytes. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) levels after one-time treatment to ultrasound and heat was analyzed by Western blotting, and proteoglycan synthesis was evaluated by 35S-sulfate incorporation. Ultrasound treatment did not induce Hsp70, while heat treatment caused a slight heat stress response. Proteoglycan synthesis was increased approximately 2-fold after 3-4 daily ultrasound stimulations, and remained at that level until day 5 in responsive cell isolates. However, chondrocytes from one donor cell isolation out of five remained non-responsive. Heat treatment alone did not increase proteoglycan synthesis. In conclusion, our study confirms that pulsed ultrasound stimulation can induce proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes.
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3.
  • Marshall, Christian R., et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of copy number variants to schizophrenia from a genome-wide study of 41,321 subjects
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 49:1, s. 27-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Copy number variants (CNVs) have been strongly implicated in the genetic etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, genome-wide investigation of the contribution of CNV to risk has been hampered by limited sample sizes. We sought to address this obstacle by applying a centralized analysis pipeline to a SCZ cohort of 21,094 cases and 20,227 controls. A global enrichment of CNV burden was observed in cases (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, P = 5.7 x 10(-15)), which persisted after excluding loci implicated in previous studies (OR = 1.07, P = 1.7 x 10(-6)). CNV burden was enriched for genes associated with synaptic function (OR = 1.68, P = 2.8 x 10(-11)) and neurobehavioral phenotypes in mouse (OR = 1.18, P = 7.3 x 10(-5)). Genome-wide significant evidence was obtained for eight loci, including 1q21.1, 2p16.3 (NRXN1), 3q29, 7q11.2, 15q13.3, distal 16p11.2, proximal 16p11.2 and 22q11.2. Suggestive support was found for eight additional candidate susceptibility and protective loci, which consisted predominantly of CNVs mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination.
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4.
  • Ripke, Stephan, et al. (författare)
  • Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 511:7510, s. 421-427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.
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5.
  • Wood, Andrew R, et al. (författare)
  • Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:11, s. 1173-1186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
6.
  • Keskiväli, Juha, et al. (författare)
  • Isosorbide synthesis from cellulose with an efficient and recyclable ruthenium catalyst
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Green Chemistry. - 1463-9262. ; 19:19, s. 4563-4570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Herein, we describe an efficient two-step pathway for isosorbide synthesis from cellulose with the use of new recyclable Ru-catalysts. We show that the oxidative and sulfonation treatments of the new Ru-catalysts increase the acidity and the hydrophilicity of the activated carbon support material, thus reducing the catalyst fouling caused by the build-up of insoluble products. Accordingly, the new Ru-catalysts are more resilient towards lignin containing cellulose than a commercial Ru/C catalyst, and the best Ru-catalyst maintains its high catalytic activity in four consecutive runs with dissolving pulp, microcrystalline cellulose and even with residual lignin containing bagasse pulp. Overall, our two-step approach provides isosorbide in high yields of 56-57 mol% ( 49-50 wt% of the substrate) from the cellulosic substrates.
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7.
  • Kulmala, Katariina, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion of ionic and non-ionic contrast agents in articular cartilage with increased cross-linking : contribution of steric and electrostatic effects
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Medical Engineering and Physics. - Elsevier. - 1350-4533. ; 35:10, s. 1415-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of threose-induced collagen cross-linking on diffusion of ionic and non-ionic contrast agents in articular cartilage.DESIGN: Osteochondral plugs (Ø=6mm) were prepared from bovine patellae and divided into two groups according to the contrast agent to be used in contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) imaging: (I) anionic ioxaglate and (II) non-ionic iodixanol. The groups I and II contained 7 and 6 sample pairs, respectively. One of the paired samples served as a reference while the other was treated with threose to induce collagen cross-linking. The equilibrium partitioning of the contrast agents was imaged after 24h of immersion. Fixed charge density (FCD), water content, contents of proteoglycans, total collagen, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP), lysyl pyridinoline (LP) and pentosidine (Pent) cross-links were determined as a reference.RESULTS: The equilibrium partitioning of ioxaglate (group I) was significantly (p=0.018) lower (-23.4%) in threose-treated than control samples while the equilibrium partitioning of iodixanol (group II) was unaffected by the threose-treatment. FCD in the middle and deep zones of the cartilage (p<0.05) and contents of Pent and LP (p=0.001) increased significantly due to the treatment. However, the proteoglycan concentration was not systematically altered after the treatment. Water content was significantly (-3.5%, p=0.007) lower after the treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Since non-ionic iodixanol showed no changes in partition after cross-linking, in contrast to anionic ioxaglate, we conclude that the cross-linking induced changes in charge distribution have greater effect on diffusion compared to the cross-linking induced changes in steric hindrance.
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8.
  • Locke, Adam E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 518:7538, s. 197-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.
9.
  • Lu, Yingchang, et al. (författare)
  • New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P&lt;5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk.
10.
  • Malo, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Non-optimal focusing of ultrasound does not affect dual frequency ultrasound measurements
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control. - IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 0885-3010. ; 58:6, s. 1182-1188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In pulse-echo (PE) ultrasound measurements, the use of focused transducers is desirable for quantitative assessment of bone characteristics because of the attenuation in the overlying soft tissues. However, the variable thickness and composition of the soft tissue overlying bone affect the focal depth of the ultrasound beam and induce errors into the measurements. To compensate for the attenuation-related effects caused by the interfering soft tissue (i.e., fat and lean tissue), a dual-frequency ultrasound (DFUS) technique was recently introduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of non-optimal focal depth of the ultrasound beam on the determination of the integrated reflection coefficient (IRC) of bone when overlaid by an interfering layer composed of oil and water. The feasibility of the DFUS-based correction of the IRC was evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Even when the interfering layer-bone interface was out of focus, the total thickness of the interfering layer could be accurately determined with the technique. However, based on the simulations, the errors in the determination of the composition of the interfering layer increased (0.004 to 113.8%) with the increase in distance between the interfering layer-bone interface and the focus of the ultrasound beam. Attenuation compensation, based on the true composition of the interfering layer, resulted in an average relative error of 22.3% in the IRC values calculated from the simulations. Interestingly, the attenuation compensation with the interfering layer composition estimated using the DFUS technique resulted in a smaller average relative error of 14.9% in the IRC values. The simulations suggest that DFUS can reduce the errors induced by soft tissue in bone PE ultrasound measurements. The experimental measurements indicate that the accuracy of the IRC measurements is rather similar when using DFUS correction or correction based on the true composition of - - the interfering layer. However, the results suggest that accurate determination of soft tissue composition may be difficult without optimal focusing of the ultrasound beam on the soft tissue-bone interface.
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