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1.
  • Karlberg, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • 14-3-3 proteins activate Pseudomonas exotoxins-S and -T by chaperoning a hydrophobic surface
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pseudomonas are a common cause of hospital-acquired infections that may be lethal. ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of Pseudomonas exotoxin-S and -T depend on 14-3-3 proteins inside the host cell. By binding in the 14-3-3 phosphopeptide binding groove, an amphipathic C-terminal helix of ExoS and ExoT has been thought to be crucial for their activation. However, crystal structures of the 14-3-3 beta: ExoS and -ExoT complexes presented here reveal an extensive hydrophobic interface that is sufficient for complex formation and toxin activation. We show that C-terminally truncated ExoS ADP-ribosyltransferase domain lacking the amphipathic binding motif is active when co-expressed with 14-3-3. Moreover, swapping the amphipathic C-terminus with a fragment from Vibrio Vis toxin creates a 14-3-3 independent toxin that ADP-ribosylates known ExoS targets. Finally, we show that 14-3-3 stabilizes ExoS against thermal aggregation. Together, this indicates that 14-3-3 proteins activate exotoxin ADP-ribosyltransferase domains by chaperoning their hydrophobic surfaces independently of the amphipathic C-terminal segment.
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2.
  • Andersson, C David, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of Ligands for ADP-Ribosyltransferases via Docking-Based Virtual Screening
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. - 0022-2623 .- 1520-4804. ; 55:17, s. 7706-7718
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The diphtheria toxin-like ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTDs) are an enzyme family that catalyses the transfer of ADP-ribose units onto substrate proteins, using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as a co-substrate. They have a documented role in chromatin remodelling and DNA repair; and inhibitors of ARTD1 and 2 (PARP1 and 2) are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. The detailed function of most other ARTDs is still unknown. Using virtual screening we identified small ligands of ARTD7 (PARP15/BAL3) and ARTD8 (PARP14/BAL2). Thermal-shift assays confirmed that 16 compounds, belonging to eight structural classes, bound to ARTD7/ARTD8. Affinity measurements with isothermal titration calorimetry for two isomers of the most promising hit compound confirmed binding in the low micromolar range to ARTD8. Crystal structures showed anchoring of the hits in the nicotinamide pocket. These results form a starting point in the development of chemical tools for the study of the role and function of ARTD7 and ARTD8.
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3.
  • Ekblad, Torun, et al. (författare)
  • Towards small molecule inhibitors of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 95, s. 546-551
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Protein ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification involved in DNA repair, protein degradation, transcription regulation, and epigenetic events. Intracellular ADP-ribosylation is catalyzed predominantly by ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTDs). The most prominent member of the ARTD family, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (ARTD1/PARP1) has been a target for cancer drug development for decades. Current PARP inhibitors are generally non-selective, and inhibit the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases with low potency. Here we describe the synthesis of acylated amino benzamides and screening against the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases ARTD7/PARP15, ARTD8/PARP14, ARTD10/PARP10, and the poly-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTD1/PARP1. The most potent compound inhibits ARTD10 with sub-micromolar IC50.
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4.
  • Lindgren, Anders E. G., et al. (författare)
  • Chemical Probes to Study ADP-Ribosylation : Synthesis and Biochemical Evaluation of Inhibitors of the Human ADP-Ribosyltransferase ARTD3/PARP3
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0022-2623 .- 1520-4804. ; 56:23, s. 9556-9568
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The racemic 3-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)-N-[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl]propanamide, 1, has previously been identified as a potent but unselective inhibitor of diphtheria toxin-like ADP-ribosyltransferase 3 (ARTD3). Herein we describe synthesis and evaluation of SS compounds in this class. It was found that the stereochemistry is of great importance for both selectivity and potency and that substituents on the phenyl ring resulted in poor solubility. Certain variations at the meso position were tolerated and caused a large shift in the binding pose. Changes to the ethylene linker that connects the quinazolinone to the amide were also investigated but proved detrimental to binding. By combination of synthetic organic chemistry and structure-based design, two selective inhibitors of ARTD3 were discovered.
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5.
  • Lindgren, Anders E. G., et al. (författare)
  • PARP Inhibitor with Selectivity Toward ADP-Ribosyltransferase ARTD3/PARP3
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: ACS Chemical Biology. - 1554-8929 .- 1554-8937. ; 8:8, s. 1698-1703
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inhibiting ADP-ribosyl transferases with PARP-inhibitors is considered a promising strategy for the treatment of many cancers and ischemia, but most of the cellular targets are poorly characterized. Here, we describe an inhibitor of ADP-ribosyltransferase-3/poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-3 (ARTD3), a regulator of DNA repair and mitotic progression. In vitro profiling against 12, members of the enzyme family suggests selectivity for ARTD3, and crystal structures illustrate the molecular basis for inhibitor selectivity. The compound is active in cells, where it elicits ARTD3-specific effects at submicromolar concentration. Our results show that by targeting the nicotinamide binding site, selective inhibition can be achieved among the closest relatives of the validated clinical target, ADP-ribosyltransferase-1/poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.
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8.
  • Aw, S T, et al. (författare)
  • Individual semicircular canal function in superior and inferior vestibular neuritis
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 57:5, s. 768-774
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To examine the concept of selective superior and inferior vestibular nerve involvement in vestibular neuritis by studying the distribution of semicircular canal (SCC) involvement in such patients. BACKGROUND: Vestibular neuritis was traditionally thought to involve the superior and inferior vestibular nerves. Recent work suggests that in some patients, only the superior nerve is involved. So far there are no reported cases of selective involvement of the inferior vestibular nerve. METHODS: The authors measured the vestibuloocular reflex from individual SCC at natural head accelerations using the head impulse test. The authors studied 33 patients with acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy, including 29 with classic vestibular neuritis and 4 with simultaneous ipsilateral hearing loss, 18 healthy subjects and 15 surgical unilateral vestibular deafferented patients. RESULTS: In patients with preserved hearing, eight had deficits in all three SCC, suggesting involvement of the superior and inferior vestibular nerves. Twenty-one had a lateral SCC deficit or a combined lateral and anterior SCC deficit consistent with selective involvement of the superior vestibular nerve. Two patients with ipsilateral hearing loss had normal caloric responses and an isolated posterior SCC deficit on impulsive testing. The authors propose that these two patients had a selective loss of inferior vestibular nerve function. CONCLUSION: Vestibular neuritis can affect the superior and inferior vestibular nerves together or can selectively affect the superior vestibular nerve.
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9.
  • Berling Holm, Katarina (författare)
  • The Chorda Tympani Nerve : Role in Taste Impairment in Middle Ear Disease and after Ear Surgery
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The chorda tympani nerve, also known as the taste nerve, runs uncovered through the middle ear cavity, a localization that exposes the nerve to pathological processes and surgical trauma in the middle ear. People operated on for otosclerosis tend to complain more about postoperative taste disturbances than those operated on for chronic otitis media. It has been suggested that this difference may be explained by gradual deterioration of chorda tympani nerve function caused by chronic otitis media infection and that further impairment caused by surgery is less noticeable in these patients.This thesis aimed to evaluate the function of the chorda tympani nerve, the effects of middle ear disease on taste and complications resulting from ear surgery for chronic otitis media or otosclerosis. This information will help to improve the ear surgeon’s ability to predict the prognosis of iatrogenic taste disturbances in patients with middle ear disease and after ear surgery.Taste was assessed using electrogustometry and the filter paper disc method before and after surgery for chronic otitis media or otosclerosis. Patients also completed questionnaires about symptoms and quality of life. The status of the chorda tympani nerve upon surgical opening of the ear and grading of the trauma to the nerve during the surgery were recorded. The ultrastructure of the chorda tympani nerve from healthy ears and from ears with chronic otitis media was examined. Electrogustometry and the filter paper disc method were evaluated.The results of electrogustometry and the filter paper disc method were highly reproducible, although their correlation was moderate. Patients with chronic otitis media, patients with a more traumatized nerve, female patients and younger patients were more likely to report postoperative taste disturbances. Most of the patients recovered their taste after 1 year. The quality of life study showed only minor changes after surgery. Electron microscopic observations of nerves from ears with chronic otitis media showed signs of structural degeneration, although signs of regeneration, such as sprouting were also observed. This results may explain the recovery of taste postoperatively and indicate that the nerve should be carefully handled during surgery.
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10.
  • Betts, G A, et al. (författare)
  • Neck muscle vibration alters visually-perceived roll after unilateral vestibular loss
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: NeuroReport. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1473-558X. ; 11:12, s. 2659-2662
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle vibration was applied to 21 normal and six unilateral vestibular deafferented (uVD) human subjects at head erect and during 30 degrees left and right whole body roll-tilt. In normal subjects, neck vibration had no effect upon the settings of a visual bar to subjective visual horizontal (SVH) in any roll-tilt condition. In uVD subjects settings to SVH were significantly altered by neck vibration, with ipsilesional neck vibration increasing the SVH bias at head erect. Further, during contralesional roll-tilt, ipsilesional neck vibration in uVD subjects significantly increased the E-effect. These results suggest that compensation after vestibular loss allows cervical signals to influence visual perception of roll-tilt.
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