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Sökning: WFRF:(Kasimir Åsa)

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1.
  • Backman, J. S. K., et al. (författare)
  • Clear-cutting affects the ammonia-oxidising community differently in limed and non-limed coniferous forest soils
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Biology and Fertility of Soils. - 0178-2762 .- 1432-0789. ; 40:4, s. 260-267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effects of clear-cutting on the ammonia-oxidising bacterial community were studied in the soil of limed and non-limed spruce forest plots located in the central part of southern Sweden. The communities were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from total DNA with primers reported to be specific for beta-subgroup ammonia-oxidising bacteria. The bands on the DGGE were sequenced and each unique sequence was interpreted as representing one ammonia-oxidising population. The relative abundance of each population was determined by measuring the fluorescence of the respective DGGE bands. In both limed and non-limed soil, the same two Nitrosospira populations were found, one belonging to cluster 2 (NScl2) and one to cluster 4 (NScl4). However, while NScl4 first appeared a year after the clear-cutting in the non-limed plot, it was present both before and after the cutting in the limed plot. Irrespective of previous liming, clear-cutting caused a shift in the ammonia-oxidiser community, from dominance by the NScl2 population to a community with approximately equal relative abundance of NScl2 and NScl4. In both plots the total size of the community increased after clear-cutting (based on increased DGGE band intensity), most likely due to increased NH4+ availability, but the growth response was faster in the limed plot. Hence, the prior liming increased the responsiveness of the ammonia-oxidisers to the changes caused by cutting. This is the first study to report the effects of clear-cutting on the ammonia-oxidising community, and the results show a clear correlation between increased potential nitrification and a shift in the ammonia-oxidiser community.
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2.
  • Klemedtsson, Åsa Kasimir, 1956, et al. (författare)
  • Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2014 Vienna, Austria, 27 April – 02 May 2014.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden – which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, – to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG’es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC/POC leakage. Based on the modelling results a cost benefit analysis is performed (economics), guiding to the design of environmental policies needed for land use change to come true.
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3.
  • Rees, R. M., et al. (författare)
  • Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture - an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - : Copernicus Publications. - 1726-4170 .- 1726-4189. ; 10:4, s. 2671-2682
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe and Zimbabwe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, Harare in Zimbabwe and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period) varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression) in the data from the arable sites (p < 0.0001), and 77% in the grassland sites. The annual emissions from arable sites were significantly greater than those that would be predicted by IPCC default emission factors. Variability in N2O within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site to site and year to year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.
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4.
  • He, Hongxing, 1987, et al. (författare)
  • Factors controlling Nitrous Oxide emission from a spruce forest ecosystem on drained organic soil, derived using the CoupModel
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Ecological Modelling. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3800 .- 1872-7026. ; 321, s. 46-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emissions have been identified in hemiboreal forests in association with draining organic soils. However, the specific controlling factors that regulate the emissions remain unclear. To examine the importance of different factors affecting N2O emissions in a spruce forest on drained organic soil, a process-based model, CoupModel, was calibrated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. The calibration also aims to estimate parameter density distributions, the covariance matrix of estimated parameters and the correlation between parameters and variables information, useful when applying the model on other peat soil sites and for further model improvements. The calibrated model reproduced most of the high resolution data (total net radiation, soil temperature, groundwater level, net ecosystem exchange, etc.) very well, as well as cumulative measured N2O emissions (simulated 8.7 ± 1.1 kg N2O ha−1 year−1 (n = 97); measured 8.7 ± 2.7 kg N2O ha−1 year−1 (n = 6)), but did not capture every measured peak. Parameter uncertainties were reduced after calibration, in which 16 out of 20 parameters changed from uniform distributions into normal distributions or log normal distributions. Four parameters describing bypass water flow, oxygen diffusion and soil freezing changed significantly after calibration. Inter-connections and correlations between many calibrated parameters and variables reflect the complex and interrelated nature of pedosphere, biosphere and atmosphere interactions. This also highlights the need to calibrate a number of parameters simultaneously. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that N2O emissions during growing seasons are controlled by competition between plants and microbes for nitrogen, while during the winter season snow melt periods are important. Our results also indicate that N2O is mainly produced in the capillary fringe close to the groundwater table by denitrification in the anaerobic zone. We conclude that, in afforested drained peatlands, the plants and groundwater level have important influences on soil N availability, ultimately controlling N2O emissions.
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5.
  • He, Hongxing, 1987, et al. (författare)
  • Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases – insights from a full rotation period simulation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - : Copernicus GmbH. - 1726-4170 .- 1726-4189. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring data a “vegetation fitted” model was obtained by which we were able to describe the fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. We discuss some conceptual issues relevant to improving the model in order to better understand peat soil simulations. However, the present model was able to describe the most important ecosystem dynamics such as the plant biomass development and GHG emissions. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the spruce forest carbon (C) uptake, 413 g C m-2 yr-1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 399 gCm-2 yr-1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by up to 0.7 gNm-2 yr-1, corresponding to 76 g Cm-2 yr-1. The 60-year old spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 16.0 kg Cm-2 (corresponding to 60 kgCO2 m-2). However, over this period, 26.4 kg m-2 (97 kgCO2eqm-2) has been added to the atmosphere, as both CO2 and N2O originating from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding CO2 to the atmosphere.
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6.
  • Meyer, Astrid, et al. (författare)
  • A fertile peatland forest does not constitute a major greenhouse gas sink
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - : Copernicus Publications. - 1726-4170 .- 1726-4189. ; 10:11, s. 7739-7758
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Afforestation has been proposed as a strategy to mitigate the often high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural soils with high organic matter content. However, the carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes after afforestation can be considerable, depending predominantly on site drainage and nutrient availability. Studies on the full GHG budget of afforested organic soils are scarce and hampered by the uncertainties associated with methodology. In this study we etermined the GHG budget of a spruce-dominated forest on a drained organic soil with an agricultural history. Two different approaches for determining the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) were applied, for the year 2008, one direct (eddy covariance) and the other indirect (analyzing the different components of the GHG budget), so that uncertainties in each method could be evaluated. The annual tree production in 2008 was 8.3±3.9 tC ha−1 yr−1 due to the high levels of soil nutrients, the favorable climatic conditions and the fact that the forest was probably in its phase of maximum C assimilation or shortly past it. The N2O fluxes were determined by the closed-chamber technique and amounted to 0.9±0.8 tCeq ha−1 yr−1. According to the direct measurements from the eddy covariance technique, the site acts as a minor GHG sink of −1.2±0.8 t Ceq ha−1 yr−1. This contrasts with the NEE estimate derived from the indirect approach which suggests that the site is a net GHG emitter of 0.6±4.5 tCeq ha−1 yr−1. Irrespective of the approach applied, the soil CO2 effluxes counter large amounts of the C sequestration by trees. Due to accumulated uncertainties involved in the indirect approach, the direct approach is considered the more reliable tool. As the rate of C sequestration will likely decrease with forest age, the site will probably become a GHG source once again as the trees do not compensate for the soil C and N losses. Also forests in younger age stages have been shown to have lower C assimilation rates; thus, the overall GHG sink potential of this afforested nutrient-rich organic soil is probably limited to the short period of maximum C assimilation.
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7.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
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8.
  • Aurangojeb, Mohammad, et al. (författare)
  • Nitrous oxide emissions from Norway spruce forests on drained organic and mineral soil
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research. - 0045-5067. ; 47:11, s. 1482-1487
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from drained organic (Histosol) and mineral (Umbrisol) soils having a 60 year old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest in a catchment in southwest Sweden were measured using static closed chambers every other week over 3 years (August 2010 - July 2013). High emissions were observed during the summer months for both sites, which were significantly higher for the drained organic soils compared to the mineral soils: average emissions of 49.0 +/- 3.3 and 8.0 +/- 3.3 mu g N2O.m(-2).h(-1), respectively. As the experiment was designed to have similar forest and weather conditions for both sites, these were omitted as explanatory factors for the emission difference. Initially, the soil organic matter concentration (percent by mass) difference was thought to be the cause. However, the results found that the soil organic matter amount per square metre of top soil was similar at both sites, suggesting other possible explanations. We propose that the most plausible explanation is that higher tree growth and mycorrhizal nitrogen demand reduce nitrogen availability contributing to the lower N2O emissions from the mineral soil site.
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9.
  •  
10.
  • He, Hongxing, 1987, et al. (författare)
  • Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases – insights from a full rotation period simulation
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences Discussions. - 1810-6277. ; 12, s. 19673-19710
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. We discuss some conceptual issues relevant to improving the model in order to better understand peat soil simulations. However, the present model was able to describe the most important ecosystem dynamics such as the plant biomass development and GHG emissions. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m−2 yr−1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m−2 yr−1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m−2 yr−1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m−2 yr−1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha−1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha−1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding CO2 to the atmosphere.
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