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Sökning: WFRF:(Keene C. Dirk)

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1.
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2.
  • Deming, Yuetiva, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-specific genetic predictors of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica. - 1432-0533. ; 136:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42) and tau have been evaluated as endophenotypes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) genetic studies. Although there are sex differences in AD risk, sex differences have not been evaluated in genetic studies of AD endophenotypes. We performed sex-stratified and sex interaction genetic analyses of CSF biomarkers to identify sex-specific associations. Data came from a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CSF Aβ42 and tau (1527 males, 1509 females). We evaluated sex interactions at previous loci, performed sex-stratified GWAS to identify sex-specific associations, and evaluated sex interactions at sex-specific GWAS loci. We then evaluated sex-specific associations between prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression at relevant loci and autopsy measures of plaques and tangles using data from the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project. In Aβ42, we observed sex interactions at one previous and one novel locus: rs316341 within SERPINB1 (p = 0.04) and rs13115400 near LINC00290 (p = 0.002). These loci showed stronger associations among females (β = - 0.03, p = 4.25 × 10-8; β = 0.03, p = 3.97 × 10-8) than males (β = - 0.02, p = 0.009; β = 0.01, p = 0.20). Higher levels of expression of SERPINB1, SERPINB6, and SERPINB9 in PFC was associated with higher levels of amyloidosis among females (corrected p values < 0.02) but not males (p > 0.38). In total tau, we observed a sex interaction at a previous locus, rs1393060 proximal to GMNC (p = 0.004), driven by a stronger association among females (β = 0.05, p = 4.57 × 10-10) compared to males (β = 0.02, p = 0.03). There was also a sex-specific association between rs1393060 and tangle density at autopsy (pfemale = 0.047; pmale = 0.96), and higher levels of expression of two genes within this locus were associated with lower tangle density among females (OSTN p = 0.006; CLDN16 p = 0.002) but not males (p ≥ 0.32). Results suggest a female-specific role for SERPINB1 in amyloidosis and for OSTN and CLDN16 in tau pathology. Sex-specific genetic analyses may improve understanding of AD's genetic architecture.
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3.
  • Deming, Yuetiva, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-specific genetic predictors of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - : Springer. - 0001-6322. ; 136:6, s. 857-872
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42) and tau have been evaluated as endophenotypes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) genetic studies. Although there are sex differences in AD risk, sex differences have not been evaluated in genetic studies of AD endophenotypes. We performed sex-stratified and sex interaction genetic analyses of CSF biomarkers to identify sex-specific associations. Data came from a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CSF Aβ42 and tau (1527 males, 1509 females). We evaluated sex interactions at previous loci, performed sex-stratified GWAS to identify sex-specific associations, and evaluated sex interactions at sex-specific GWAS loci. We then evaluated sex-specific associations between prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression at relevant loci and autopsy measures of plaques and tangles using data from the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project. In Aβ42, we observed sex interactions at one previous and one novel locus: rs316341 within SERPINB1 (p = 0.04) and rs13115400 near LINC00290 (p = 0.002). These loci showed stronger associations among females (β = − 0.03, p = 4.25 × 10−8; β = 0.03, p = 3.97 × 10−8) than males (β = − 0.02, p = 0.009; β = 0.01, p = 0.20). Higher levels of expression of SERPINB1, SERPINB6, and SERPINB9 in PFC was associated with higher levels of amyloidosis among females (corrected p values < 0.02) but not males (p > 0.38). In total tau, we observed a sex interaction at a previous locus, rs1393060 proximal to GMNC (p = 0.004), driven by a stronger association among females (β = 0.05, p = 4.57 × 10−10) compared to males (β = 0.02, p = 0.03). There was also a sex-specific association between rs1393060 and tangle density at autopsy (pfemale = 0.047; pmale = 0.96), and higher levels of expression of two genes within this locus were associated with lower tangle density among females (OSTN p = 0.006; CLDN16 p = 0.002) but not males (p ≥ 0.32). Results suggest a female-specific role for SERPINB1 in amyloidosis and for OSTN and CLDN16 in tau pathology. Sex-specific genetic analyses may improve understanding of AD’s genetic architecture.
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4.
  • Aoyagi, Atsushi, et al. (författare)
  • A beta and tau prion-like activities decline with longevity in the Alzheimer's disease human brain
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - : AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 1946-6234 .- 1946-6242. ; 11:490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the accumulation of A beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. We developed sensitive cellular assays using human embryonic kidney-293T cells to quantify intracellular self-propagating conformers of A beta in brain samples from patients with AD or other neurodegenerative diseases. Postmortem brain tissue from patients with AD had measurable amounts of pathological A beta conformers. Individuals over 80 years of age had the lowest amounts of prion-like A beta and phosphorylated tau. Unexpectedly, the longevity-dependent decrease in self-propagating tau conformers occurred in spite of increasing amounts of total insoluble tau. When corrected for the abundance of insoluble tau, the ability of postmortem AD brain homogenates to induce misfolded tau in the cellular assays showed an exponential decrease with longevity, with a half-life of about one decade over the age range of 37 to 99 years. Thus, our findings demonstrate an inverse correlation between longevity in patients with AD and the abundance of pathological tau conformers. Our cellular assays can be applied to patient selection for clinical studies and the development of new drugs and diagnostics for AD.
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5.
  • Beckelman, Brenna C., et al. (författare)
  • Dysregulation of Elongation Factor 1A Expression is Correlated with Synaptic Plasticity Impairments in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877. ; 54:2, s. 669-678
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Synaptic dysfunction may represent an early and crucial pathophysiology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies implicate a connection between synaptic plasticity deficits and compromised capacity of de novo protein synthesis in AD. The mRNA translational factor eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is critically involved in several forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity. By examining postmortem human brain samples, a transgenic mouse model, and application of synthetic human Aβ42 on mouse hippocampal slices, we demonstrated that eEF1A protein levels were significantly decreased in AD, particularly in the hippocampus. In contrast, brain levels of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 were unaltered in AD. Further, upregulation of eEF1A expression by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, which induces long-lasting synaptic plasticity, was blunted in hippocampal slices derived from Tg2576 AD model mice. Finally, Aβ-induced hippocampal long-term potentiation defects were alleviated by upregulation of eEF1A signaling via brain-specific knockdown of the gene encoding tuberous sclerosis 2. In summary, our findings suggest a strong correlation between the dysregulation of eEF1A synthesis and AD-associated synaptic failure. These findings provide insights into the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying AD etiology and may aid in identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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6.
  • Condello, Carlo, et al. (författare)
  • Structural heterogeneity and intersubject variability of A beta in familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : NATL ACAD SCIENCES. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 115:4, s. E782-E791
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Point mutations in the amyloid-beta (A beta) coding region produce a combination of mutant and WT A beta isoforms that yield unique clinicopathologies in familial Alzheimer's disease (fAD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (fCAA) patients. Here, we report a method to investigate the structural variability of amyloid deposits found in fAD, fCAA, and sporadic AD (sAD). Using this approach, we demonstrate that mutant A beta determines WT A beta conformation through prion template-directed misfolding. Using principal component analysis of multiple structure-sensitive fluorescent amyloid-binding dyes, we assessed the conformational variability of A beta deposits in fAD, fCAA, and sAD patients. Comparing many deposits from a given patient with the overall population, we found that intrapatient variability is much lower than interpatient variability for both disease types. In a given brain, we observed one or two structurally distinct forms. When two forms coexist, they segregate between the parenchyma and cerebrovasculature, particularly in fAD patients. Compared with sAD samples, deposits from fAD patients show less intersubject variability, and little overlap exists between fAD and sAD deposits. Finally, we examined whether E22G (Arctic) or E22Q (Dutch) mutants direct the misfolding of WT A beta, leading to fAD-like plaques in vivo. Intracerebrally injecting mutant A beta 40 fibrils into transgenic mice expressing only WT A beta induced the deposition of plaques with many biochemical hallmarks of fAD. Thus, mutant A beta 40 prions induce a conformation of WT A beta similar to that found in fAD deposits. These findings indicate that diverse AD phenotypes likely arise from one or more initial A beta prion conformations, which kinetically dominate the spread of prions in the brain.
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7.
  • Hohman, Timothy J, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-Specific Association of Apolipoprotein E With Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Tau.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - 2168-6157. ; 75:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, has a stronger association among women compared with men. Yet limited work has evaluated the association between APOE alleles and markers of AD neuropathology in a sex-specific manner.To evaluate sex differences in the association between APOE and markers of AD neuropathology measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during life or in brain tissue at autopsy.This multicohort study selected data from 10 longitudinal cohort studies of normal aging and AD. Cohorts had variable recruitment criteria and follow-up intervals and included population-based and clinic-based samples. Inclusion in our analysis required APOE genotype data and either CSF data available for analysis. Analyses began on November 6, 2017, and were completed on December 20, 2017.Biomarker analyses included levels of β-amyloid 42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau measured in CSF. Autopsy analyses included Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease staging for neuritic plaques and Braak staging for neurofibrillary tangles.Of the 1798 patients in the CSF biomarker cohort, 862 were women, 226 had AD, 1690 were white, and the mean (SD) age was 70 [9] years. Of the 5109 patients in the autopsy cohort, 2813 were women, 4953 were white, and the mean (SD) age was 84 (9) years. After correcting for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni procedure, we observed a statistically significant interaction between APOE-ε4 and sex on CSF total tau (β = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.55; P < .001) and phosphorylated tau (β = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.38; P = .001), whereby APOE showed a stronger association among women compared with men. Post hoc analyses suggested this sex difference was present in amyloid-positive individuals (β = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.20-0.62; P < .001) but not among amyloid-negative individuals (β = 0.06; 95% CI, -0.18 to 0.31; P = .62). We did not observe sex differences in the association between APOE and β-amyloid 42, neuritic plaque burden, or neurofibrillary tangle burden.We provide robust evidence of a stronger association between APOE-ε4 and CSF tau levels among women compared with men across multiple independent data sets. Interestingly, APOE-ε4 is not differentially associated with autopsy measures of neurofibrillary tangles. Together, the sex difference in the association between APOE and CSF measures of tau and the lack of a sex difference in the association with neurofibrillary tangles at autopsy suggest that APOE may modulate risk for neurodegeneration in a sex-specific manner, particularly in the presence of amyloidosis.
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8.
  • Nelson, Peter T., et al. (författare)
  • Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE) : consensus working group report
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 142, s. 1503-1527
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe a recently recognized disease entity, limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE). LATE neuropathological change (LATE-NC) is defined by a stereotypical TDP-43 proteinopathy in older adults, with or without coexisting hippocampal sclerosis pathology. LATE-NC is a common TDP-43 proteinopathy, associated with an amnestic dementia syndrome that mimicked Alzheimer's-type dementia in retrospective autopsy studies. LATE is distinguished from frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology based on its epidemiology (LATE generally affects older subjects), and relatively restricted neuroanatomical distribution of TDP-43 proteinopathy. In community-based autopsy cohorts, similar to 25% of brains had sufficient burden of LATE-NC to be associated with discernible cognitive impairment. Many subjects with LATE-NC have comorbid brain pathologies, often including amyloid-beta plaques and tauopathy. Given that the oldest-old' are at greatest risk for LATE-NC, and subjects of advanced age constitute a rapidly growing demographic group in many countries, LATE has an expanding but under-recognized impact on public health. For these reasons, a working group was convened to develop diagnostic criteria for LATE, aiming both to stimulate research and to promote awareness of this pathway to dementia. We report consensus-based recommendations including guidelines for diagnosis and staging of LATE-NC. For routine autopsy workup of LATE-NC, an anatomically-based preliminary staging scheme is proposed with TDP-43 immunohistochemistry on tissue from three brain areas, reflecting a hierarchical pattern of brain involvement: amygdala, hippocampus, and middle frontal gyrus. LATE-NC appears to affect the medial temporal lobe structures preferentially, but other areas also are impacted. Neuroimaging studies demonstrated that subjects with LATE-NC also had atrophy in the medial temporal lobes, frontal cortex, and other brain regions. Genetic studies have thus far indicated five genes with risk alleles for LATE-NC: GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, KCNMB2, and APOE. The discovery of these genetic risk variants indicate that LATE shares pathogenetic mechanisms with both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease, but also suggests disease-specific underlying mechanisms. Large gaps remain in our understanding of LATE. For advances in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is an urgent need for research focused on LATE, including in vitro and animal models. An obstacle to clinical progress is lack of diagnostic tools, such as biofluid or neuroimaging biomarkers, for ante-mortem detection of LATE. Development of a disease biomarker would augment observational studies seeking to further define the risk factors, natural history, and clinical features of LATE, as well as eventual subject recruitment for targeted therapies in clinical trials.
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9.
  • Nelson, Peter T., et al. (författare)
  • Reply : LATE to the PART-y
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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10.
  • Schindler, Suzanne E., et al. (författare)
  • Maximizing Safety in the Conduct of Alzheimer's Disease Fluid Biomarker Research in the Era of COVID-19
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877. ; 76:1, s. 27-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to an abrupt halt of many Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies at sites spanning the world. This is especially true for studies requiring in-person contact, such as studies collecting biofluids. Since COVID-19 is likely to remain a threat for an extended period, the resumption of fluid biomarker studies requires the development and implementation of procedures that minimize the risk of in-person visits to participants, staff, and individuals handling the biofluid samples. Some issues to consider include structuring the visit workflow to minimize contacts and promote social distancing; screening and/or testing participants and staff for COVID-19; wearing masks and performing hand hygiene; and precautions for handling, storing, and analyzing biofluids. AD fluid biomarker research remains a vitally important public health priority and resuming studies requires appropriate safety procedures to protect research participants and staff.
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