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Sökning: WFRF:(Kerrigan S. J.)

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1.
  • Amole, C., et al. (författare)
  • The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 735, s. 319-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.
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2.
  • Charlton, M, et al. (författare)
  • Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. ; 262, s. 012001-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed. Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed.
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3.
  • Zamora, Juan Carlos, et al. (författare)
  • Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: IMA Fungus. - : INT MYCOLOGICAL ASSOC. - 2210-6340 .- 2210-6359. ; 9:1, s. 167-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
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4.
  • Kos, K., et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of the fibrosis and angiogenesis promoter SPARC/osteonectin in human adipose tissue by weight change, leptin, insulin, and glucose : Regulation of SPARC in human adipose tissue
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 58:8, s. 1780-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Matricellular Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC), originally discovered in bone as osteonectin, is a mediator of collagen deposition and promotes fibrosis. Adipose tissue collagen has recently been found to be linked with metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SPARC in human adipose tissue is influenced by glucose metabolism and adipokines. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from morbidly obese nondiabetic subjects undergoing bariatric surgery and lean control subjects for analysis of metabolic markers, SPARC, and various cytokines (RT-PCR). Additionally, 24 obese subjects underwent a very-low-calorie diet of 1,883 kJ (450 kcal)/day for 16 weeks and serial subcutaneous-abdominal-adipose tissue (SCAT) biopsies (weight loss: 28 +/- 3.7 kg). Another six lean subjects underwent fast-food-based hyperalimentation for 4 weeks (weight gain: 7.2 +/- 1.6 kg). Finally, visceral adipose tissue explants were cultured with recombinant leptin, insulin, and glucose, and SPARC mRNA and protein expression determined by Western blot analyses. RESULTS: SPARC expression in human adipose tissue correlated with fat mass and was higher in SCAT. Weight loss induced by very-low-calorie diet lowered SPARC expression by 33% and increased by 30% in adipose tissue of subjects gaining weight after a fast-food diet. SPARC expression was correlated with leptin independent of fat mass and correlated with homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. In vitro experiments showed that leptin and insulin potently increased SPARC production dose dependently in visceral adipose tissue explants, while glucose decreased SPARC protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that SPARC expression is predominant in subcutaneous fat and its expression and secretion in adipose tissue are influenced by fat mass, leptin, insulin, and glucose. The profibrotic effects of SPARC may contribute to metabolic dysregulation in obesity.
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5.
  • Kos, K., et al. (författare)
  • In humans the adiponectin receptor R2 is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and linked to the adipose tissue expression of MMIF-1
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: DIABETES OBESITY AND METABOLISM. - 1462-8902. ; 12:4, s. 360-363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, the regional adipose tissue-adiponectin (AT-ADN) and adiponectin receptor (R1 and R2) expression and their relation with metabolic parameters, circulating and AT-derived cytokine expressions were compared. Paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were taken from 18 lean and 39 obese humans, AT-mRNA expression of adipokines analysed by RT-PCR and corresponding serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). R1 and R2 adipocyte expression was compared with 17 other human tissues. ADN-gene expression was lower in VAT than SCAT [mean (SD) 1.54 (1.1) vs. 2.84 (0.87); p < 0.001], and lower in obese subjects (VAT : p = 0.01;SCAT : p < 0.001). SCAT-ADN correlated positively with serum ADN (r = 0.33;p = 0.036) but not VAT-ADN. AT expressions of ADN and macrophage migration inhibiting factor (MMIF), IL18 and cluster of differentiation factor 14 (CD14) in both depots showed inverse correlations. R1 and R2 were expressed ubiquitously and R2 highest in SCAT, and this is much higher (×100) than R1 (×100). R expression was similar in lean and obese subjects and unrelated to the metabolic syndrome, however, receptors correlated with VAT-MMIF (R 1: r = 0.4;p = 0.008;R 2: r = 0.35,p = 0.02) and SCAT-MMIF expression (R 2: r = 0.43;p = 0.004). Unlike ADN, its receptors are expressed in many human tissues. Human R2 expression is not highest in the liver but in AT where it is associated with MMIF expression. The adiponectin-dependent insulin-sensitizing action of thiazolidinediones is thus probably to differ amongst species with weaker effects on the human liver.
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6.
  • Jakubovics, N.S., et al. (författare)
  • Interactions of mitis group streptococci with sialic acid receptors
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Congress Series 1289. - : Elsevier B.V.. ; , s. 275-278
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The serine-rich repeat glycoprotein Hsa in Streptococcus gordonii Challis mediates bacterial cell interactions with fetuin, glycocalicin, fibronectin and human platelets. Different strains of S.gordonii vary markedly in their adhesion levels to sialylated proteins, while other mitis group streptococci have distinct patterns of recognition of sialylated or desialylated receptor oligosaccharides.  2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Karat, Aaron S., et al. (författare)
  • Measuring mortality due to HIV-associated tuberculosis among adults in South Africa : Comparing verbal autopsy, minimally-invasive autopsy, and research data
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 12:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to reduce tuberculosis (TB) deaths by 95% by 2035; tracking progress requires accurate measurement of TB mortality. International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes do not differentiate between HIV-associated TB and HIV more generally. Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate cause of death (CoD) patterns but has mostly been validated against a suboptimal gold standard for HIV and TB. This study, conducted among HIV-positive adults, aimed to estimate the accuracy of VA in ascertaining TB and HIV CoD when compared to a reference standard derived from a variety of clinical sources including, in some, minimally-invasive autopsy (MIA). Methods and findings Decedents were enrolled into a trial of empirical TB treatment or a cohort exploring diagnostic algorithms for TB in South Africa. The WHO 2012 instrument was used; VA CoD were assigned using physician-certified VA (PCVA), InterVA-4, and SmartVA-Analyze. Reference CoD were assigned using MIA, research, and health facility data, as available. 259 VAs were completed: 147 (57%) decedents were female; median age was 39 (interquartile range [IQR] 33-47) years and CD4 count 51 (IQR 22-102) cells/mu L. Compared to reference CoD that included MIA (n = 34), VA underestimated mortality due to HIV/AIDS (94% reference, 74% PCVA, 47% InterVA-4, and 41% SmartVA-Analyze; chance-corrected concordance [CCC] 0.71, 0.42, and 0.31, respectively) and HIV-associated TB (41% reference, 32% PCVA; CCC 0.23). For individual decedents, all VA methods agreed poorly with reference CoD that did not include MIA (n = 259; overall CCC 0.14, 0.06, and 0.15 for PCVA, InterVA-4, and SmartVA-Analyze); agreement was better at population level (cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy 0.78, 0.61, and 0.57, for the three methods, respectively). Conclusions Current VA methods underestimate mortality due to HIV-associated TB. ICD and VA methods need modifications that allow for more specific evaluation of HIV-related deaths and direct estimation of mortality due to HIV-associated TB.
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8.
  • Karat, Aaron S., et al. (författare)
  • Performance of verbal autopsy methods in estimating HIV-associated mortality among adults in South Africa
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 3:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Verbal autopsy (VA) can be integrated into civil registration and vital statistics systems, but its accuracy in determining HIV-associated causes of death (CoD) is uncertain. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of VA questions in determining HIV status and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and compared HIV-associated mortality fractions assigned by different VA interpretation methods.Methods: Using the WHO 2012 instrument with added ART questions, VA was conducted for deaths among adults with known HIV status (356 HIV positive and 103 HIV negative) in South Africa. CoD were assigned using physician-certified VA (PCVA) and computer-coded VA (CCVA) methods and compared with documented HIV status.Results: The sensitivity of VA questions in detecting HIV status and ART initiation was 84.3% (95% CI 80 to 88) and 91.0% (95% CI 86 to 95); 283/356 (79.5%) HIV-positive individuals were assigned HIV-associated CoD by PCVA, 166 (46.6%) by InterVA-4.03, 201 (56.5%) by InterVA-5, and 80 (22.5%) and 289 (81.2%) by SmartVA-Analyze V.1.1.1 and V.1.2.1. Agreement between PCVA and older CCVA methods was poor (chance-corrected concordance [CCC] <0; cause-specific mortality fraction [CSMF] accuracy <= 56%) but better between PCVA and updated methods (CCC 0.21-0.75; CSMF accuracy 65%-98%). All methods were specific (specificity 87% to 96%) in assigning HIV-associated CoD.Conclusion: All CCVA interpretation methods underestimated the HIV-associated mortality fraction compared with PCVA; InterVA-5 and SmartVA-Analyze V. 1.2.1 performed better than earlier versions. Changes to VA methods and classification systems are needed to track progress towards targets for reducing HIV-associated mortality.
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9.
  • Maraba, Noriah, et al. (författare)
  • Verbal autopsy-assigned causes of death among adults being investigated for TB in South Africa
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. - : Oxford University Press. - 0035-9203 .- 1878-3503. ; 110:9, s. 510-516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Adults being investigated for TB in South Africa experience high mortality, yet causes of death (CoD) are not well defined. We determined CoD in this population using verbal autopsy (VA), and compared HIV- and TB-associated CoD using physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA) and InterVA-4 software. Methods: All contactable consenting caregivers of participants who died during a trial comparing Xpert MTB/RIF to smear microscopy were interviewed using the WHO VA tool. CoD were assigned using PCVA and InterVA-4. Kappa statistic (K) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) were calculated for comparison. Results: Among 231 deaths, relatives of 137 deceased were interviewed. Of the 137 deceased 76 (55.4%) were males, median age 41 years (IQR 33-50). PCVA assigned 70 (51.1%) TB immediate CoD (44 [62.8%] pulmonary TB; 26 [37.1%] extra-pulmonary TB); 21 (15.3%) HIV/AIDS-related; and 46 (33.5%) other CoD. InterVA-4 assigned 48 (35.0%) TB deaths; 49 (35.7%) HIV/AIDS-related deaths; and 40 (29.1%) other CoD. Agreement between PCVA and InterVA-4 CoD was slight at individual level (K=0.20; 95% CI 0.10-0.30) and poor at population level (CCC 0.67; 95% CI 0.38-0.99). Conclusions: TB and HIV are leading CoD among adults being investigated for TB. PCVA and InterVA agreement at individual level was slight and poor at population level. VA methodology needs further development where TB and HIV are common.
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