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  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of Elliptic and Triangular Flow in High-Multiplicity He-3 + Au Collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 115:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first measurement of elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow in high-multiplicity He-3 + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in He-3 + Au and in p + p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the He-3 + Au system. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v(2) and triangular v(3) anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v(2) values are comparable to those previously measured in d + Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three He-3 nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of K-S(0) and K*(0) in p plus p, d plus Au, and Cu plus Cu collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 90:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed a systematic study of K-S(0) and K*(0) meson production at midrapidity in p + p, d + Au, and Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons are reconstructed via their K-S(0) -> pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) and K*(0) -> K-+/-pi(-/+) decay modes, respectively. The measured transverse-momentum spectra are used to determine the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons in d + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at different centralities. In the d + Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons is almost constant as a function of transverse momentum and is consistent with unity, showing that cold-nuclear-matter effects do not play a significant role in the measured kinematic range. In Cu + Cu collisions, within the uncertainties no nuclear modification is registered in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, both mesons show suppression relative to the expectations from the p + p yield scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions in the Cu + Cu system. In the p(T) range 2-5 GeV/c, the strange mesons (K-S(0), K*(0)) similarly to the phi meson with hidden strangeness, showan intermediate suppression between the more suppressed light quark mesons (pi(0)) and the nonsuppressed baryons (p, (p) over bar). At higher transverse momentum, p(T) > 5 GeV/c, production of all particles is similarly suppressed by a factor of approximate to 2.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Search for dark photons from neutral meson decays in p plus p and d plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 91:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The standard model (SM) of particle physics is spectacularly successful, yet the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g - 2)mu deviates from SM calculations by 3.6 sigma. Several theoretical models attribute this to the existence of a "dark photon," an additional U(1) gauge boson, which is weakly coupled to ordinary photons. The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has searched for a dark photon, U, in pi(0), eta -> gamma e(+)e(-) decays and obtained upper limits of O(2 x 10(-6)) on U-gamma mixing at 90% C.L. for the mass range 30 < m(U) < 90 MeV/c(2). Combined with other experimental limits, the remaining region in the U-gamma mixing parameter space that can explain the (g - 2)(mu) deviation from its SM value is nearly completely excluded at the 90% confidence level, with only a small region of 29 < m(U) < 32 MeV/c(2) remaining.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • phi meson production in d plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 92:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX Collaboration has measured phi meson production in d + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV using the dimuon and dielectron decay channels. The phi meson is measured in the forward (backward) d-going (Au-going) direction, 1.2 < y < 2.2 (-2.2 < y < -1.2) in the transverse-momentum (pT) range from 1-7 GeV/c and at midrapidity vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.35 in the p(T) range below 7 GeV/c. The phi meson invariant yields and nuclear-modification factors as a function of p(T), rapidity, and centrality are reported. An enhancement of phi meson production is observed in the Au-going direction, while suppression is seen in the d-going direction, and no modification is observed at midrapidity relative to the yield in p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary collisions. Similar behavior was previously observed for inclusive charged hadrons and open heavy flavor, indicating similar cold-nuclear-matter effects.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 92:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a systematic study of charged-pion and kaon interferometry in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-mass dependence of the oscillations.
  • Achberger, Christine, 1968, et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2011
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. - 0003-0007. ; 93:7, s. S1-S263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large-scale climate patterns influenced temperature and weather patterns around the globe in 2011. In particular, a moderate-to-strong La Nina at the beginning of the year dissipated during boreal spring but reemerged during fall. The phenomenon contributed to historical droughts in East Africa, the southern United States, and northern Mexico, as well the wettest two-year period (2010-11) on record for Australia, particularly remarkable as this follows a decade-long dry period. Precipitation patterns in South America were also influenced by La Nina. Heavy rain in Rio de Janeiro in January triggered the country's worst floods and landslides in Brazil's history. The 2011 combined average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was the coolest since 2008, but was also among the 15 warmest years on record and above the 1981-2010 average. The global sea surface temperature cooled by 0.1 degrees C from 2010 to 2011, associated with cooling influences of La Nina. Global integrals of upper ocean heat content for 2011 were higher than for all prior years, demonstrating the Earth's dominant role of the oceans in the Earth's energy budget. In the upper atmosphere, tropical stratospheric temperatures were anomalously warm, while polar temperatures were anomalously cold. This led to large springtime stratospheric ozone reductions in polar latitudes in both hemispheres. Ozone concentrations in the Arctic stratosphere during March were the lowest for that period since satellite records began in 1979. An extensive, deep, and persistent ozone hole over the Antarctic in September indicates that the recovery to pre-1980 conditions is proceeding very slowly. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased by 2.10 ppm in 2011, and exceeded 390 ppm for the first time since instrumental records began. Other greenhouse gases also continued to rise in concentration and the combined effect now represents a 30% increase in radiative forcing over a 1990 baseline. Most ozone depleting substances continued to fall. The global net ocean carbon dioxide uptake for the 2010 transition period from El Nino to La Nina, the most recent period for which analyzed data are available, was estimated to be 1.30 Pg C yr(-1), almost 12% below the 29-year long-term average. Relative to the long-term trend, global sea level dropped noticeably in mid-2010 and reached a local minimum in 2011. The drop has been linked to the La Nina conditions that prevailed throughout much of 2010-11. Global sea level increased sharply during the second half of 2011. Global tropical cyclone activity during 2011 was well-below average, with a total of 74 storms compared with the 1981-2010 average of 89. Similar to 2010, the North Atlantic was the only basin that experienced above-normal activity. For the first year since the widespread introduction of the Dvorak intensity-estimation method in the 1980s, only three tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensity level-all in the Northwest Pacific basin. The Arctic continued to warm at about twice the rate compared with lower latitudes. Below-normal summer snowfall, a decreasing trend in surface albedo, and above-average surface and upper air temperatures resulted in a continued pattern of extreme surface melting, and net snow and ice loss on the Greenland ice sheet. Warmer-than-normal temperatures over the Eurasian Arctic in spring resulted in a new record-low June snow cover extent and spring snow cover duration in this region. In the Canadian Arctic, the mass loss from glaciers and ice caps was the greatest since GRACE measurements began in 2002, continuing a negative trend that began in 1987. New record high temperatures occurred at 20 m below the land surface at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, where measurements began in the late 1970s. Arctic sea ice extent in September 2011 was the second-lowest on record, while the extent of old ice (four and five years) reached a new record minimum that was just 19% of normal. On the opposite pole, austral winter and spring temperatures were more than 3 degrees C above normal over much of the Antarctic continent. However, winter temperatures were below normal in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, which continued the downward trend there during the last 15 years. In summer, an all-time record high temperature of -12.3 degrees C was set at the South Pole station on 25 December, exceeding the previous record by more than a full degree. Antarctic sea ice extent anomalies increased steadily through much of the year, from briefly setting a record low in April, to well above average in December. The latter trend reflects the dispersive effects of low pressure on sea ice and the generally cool conditions around the Antarctic perimeter.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Cross section and transverse single-spin asymmetry of eta mesons in p up arrow plus p collisions at root s=200 GeV at forward rapidity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - : American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 90:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a measurement of the cross section and transverse single-spin asymmetry (AN) for. mesons at large pseudorapidity from root s = 200 GeV p up arrow + p collisions. The measured cross section for 0.5 < p(T) < 5.0 GeV/c and 3.0 < vertical bar eta vertical bar < 3.8 is well described by a next-to-leading-order perturbative-quantum-chromodynamics calculation. The asymmetries A(N) have been measured as a function of Feynman-x (x(F)) from 0.2 < vertical bar x(F)vertical bar < 0.7, as well as transverse momentum (p(T)) from 1.0 < p(T) < 4.5 GeV/c. The asymmetry averaged over positive x(F) is < A(N)> = 0.061 +/- 0.014. The results are consistent with prior transverse single-spin measurements of forward eta and pi(0) mesons at various energies in overlapping x(F) ranges. Comparison of different particle species can help to determine the origin of the large observed asymmetries in p up arrow + p collisions.
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