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Sökning: WFRF:(Kirkegaard Hans)

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1.
  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hypothermia versus Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 384:24, s. 2283-2294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypothermia or Normothermia after Cardiac Arrest This trial randomly assigned patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C or normothermia with treatment of fever. At 6 months, there were no significant between-group differences regarding death or functional outcomes. Background Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. Methods In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, >= 37.8 degrees C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. Results A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P=0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score >= 4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, .)
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2.
  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Targeted hypothermia versus targeted Normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (TTM2): A randomized clinical trial - Rationale and design
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 217, s. 23-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Less than 500 participants have been included in randomized trials comparing hypothermia with regular care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, and many of these trials were small and at a high risk of bias. Consequently, the accrued data on this potentially beneficial intervention resembles that of a drug following small phase II trials. A large confirmatory trial is therefore warranted. Methods: The TTM2-trial is an international, multicenter, parallel group, investigator-initiated, randomized, superiority trial in which a target temperature of 33°C after cardiac arrest will be compared with a strategy to maintain normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C). Participants will be randomized within 3 hours of return of spontaneous circulation with the intervention period lasting 40 hours in both groups. Sedation will be mandatory for all patients throughout the intervention period. The clinical team involved with direct patient care will not be blinded to allocation group due to the inherent difficulty in blinding the intervention. Prognosticators, outcome-assessors, the steering group, the trial coordinating team, and trial statistician will be blinded. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 180 days after randomization. We estimate a 55% mortality in the control group. To detect an absolute risk reduction of 7.5% with an alpha of 0.05 and 90% power, 1900 participants will be enrolled. The main secondary neurological outcome will be poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 4–6) at 180 days after arrest. Discussion: The TTM2-trial will compare hypothermia to 33°C with normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. © 2019
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3.
  • Heimburg, K., et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity after cardiac arrest; protocol of a sub-study in the Targeted Hypothermia versus Targeted Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest trial (TTM2)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation Plus. - : Elsevier. - 2666-5204. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors have lower levels of self-reported physical activity compared to a non-cardiac arrest (CA) control group who had acute myocardial infarction (MI). Additional aims are to explore potential predictors of physical inactivity (older age, female gender, problems with general physical function, global cognition, mental processing speed/attention, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, kinesiophobia, fatigue), and to investigate the relationship between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among OHCA-survivors. Methods: The Targeted Hypothermia versus Targeted Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest trial (TTM2-trial) collects information regarding age, gender, self-reported physical activity, general physical function, global cognition and mental processing speed/attention at 6 months after OHCA. In this TTM2-trial cross-sectional prospective sub-study, participants at selected sites are invited to an additional follow-up meeting within 4 weeks from the main study follow-up. At this meeting, information regarding anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, kinesiophobia and fatigue is collected. The OHCA-survivors are then provided with an objective measure of physical activity, a hip-placed accelerometer, to wear for one week, together with a training diary. At the end of the week, participants are asked to once again answer two self-reported questions regarding physical activity for that specific week. MI-controls attend a single follow-up meeting and perform the same assessments as the OHCA-survivors, except from wearing the accelerometer. We aim to include 110 OHCA-survivors and 110 MI-controls in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Conclusion: The results from this sub-study will provide novel information about physical activity among OHCA-survivors.
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4.
  • Jakobsen, Janus Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Targeted hypothermia versus targeted normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a statistical analysis plan.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Trials. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1745-6215. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To date, targeted temperature management (TTM) is the only neuroprotective intervention after resuscitation from cardiac arrest that is recommended by guidelines. The evidence on the effects of TTM is unclear.The Targeted Hypothermia Versus Targeted Normothermia After Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest (TTM2) trial is an international, multicentre, parallel group, investigator-initiated, randomised, superiority trial in which TTM with a target temperature of 33 °C after cardiac arrest will be compared with a strategy to maintain normothermia and active treatment of fever (≥ 37.8 °C). Prognosticators, outcome assessors, the steering group, the trial coordinating team, and trial statisticians will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 180 days after randomisation. We estimate a 55% mortality in the targeted normothermia group. To detect an absolute risk reduction of 7.5% with an alpha of 0.05 and 90% power, 1900 participants will be enrolled. The secondary neurological outcome will be poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale 4-6) at 180 days after cardiac arrest. In this paper, a detailed statistical analysis plan is presented, including a comprehensive description of the statistical analyses, handling of missing data, and assessments of underlying statistical assumptions. Final analyses will be conducted independently by two qualified statisticians following the present plan.This SAP, which was prepared before completion of enrolment, should increase the validity of the TTM trial by mitigation of analysis-bias.
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5.
  • Lilja, Gisela, et al. (författare)
  • Protocol for outcome reporting and follow-up in the Targeted Hypothermia versus Targeted Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest trial (TTM2)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 150, s. 104-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The TTM2-trial is a multi-centre randomised clinical trial where targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 °C will be compared with normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8 °C) after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA). This paper presents the design and rationale of the TTM2-trial follow-up, where information on secondary and exploratory outcomes will be collected. We also present the explorative outcome analyses which will focus on neurocognitive function and societal participation in OHCA-survivors. Methods: Blinded outcome-assessors will perform follow-up at 30-days after the OHCA with a telephone interview, including the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). Face-to-face meetings will be performed at 6 and 24-months, and include reports on outcome from several sources of information: clinician-reported: mRS, GOSE; patient-reported: EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Level responses version (EQ-5D-5L), Life satisfaction, Two Simple Questions; observer-reported: Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly-Cardiac Arrest version (IQCODE-CA) and neurocognitive performance measures: Montreal Cognitive Assessment, (MoCA), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Exploratory analyses will be performed with an emphasis on brain injury in the survivors, where the two intervention groups will be compared for potential differences in neuro-cognitive function (MoCA, SDMT) and societal participation (GOSE). Strategies to increase inter-rater reliability and decrease missing data are described. Discussion: The TTM2-trial follow-up is a pragmatic yet detailed pre-planned and standardised assessment of patient's outcome designed to ensure data-quality, decrease missing data and provide optimal conditions to investigate clinically relevant effects of TTM, including OHCA-survivors’ neurocognitive function and societal participation.
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6.
  • Blennow Nordström, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropsychological outcome after cardiac arrest : A prospective case control sub-study of the Targeted hypothermia versus targeted normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest trial (TTM2)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2261. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study is designed to provide detailed knowledge on cognitive impairment after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and its relation to associated factors, and to validate the neurocognitive screening of the Targeted Hypothermia versus Targeted Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest trial (TTM2-trial), assessing effectiveness of targeted temperature management after OHCA. Methods: This longitudinal multi-center clinical study is a sub-study of the TTM2-trial, in which a comprehensive neuropsychological examination is performed in addition to the main TTM2-trial neurocognitive screening. Approximately 7 and 24 months after OHCA, survivors at selected study sites are invited to a standardized assessment, including performance-based tests of cognition and questionnaires of emotional problems, fatigue, executive function and insomnia. At 1:1 ratio, a matched control group from a cohort of acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients is recruited to perform the same assessment. We aim to include 100 patients per group. Potential differences between the OHCA patients and the MI controls at 7 and 24 months will be analyzed with a linear regression, using composite z-scores per cognitive domain (verbal, visual/constructive, working memory, episodic memory, processing speed, executive functions) as primary outcome measures. Results from OHCA survivors on the main TTM2-trial neurocognitive screening battery will be compared with neuropsychological test results at 7 months, using sensitivity and specificity analyses. Discussion: In this study we collect detailed information on cognitive impairment after OHCA and compare this to a control group of patients with acute MI. The validation of the TTM2 neurocognitive screening battery could justify its inclusion in routine follow-up. Our results may have a potential to impact on the design of future follow-up strategies and interventions after OHCA. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03543371. Registered 1 June 2018
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7.
  • Dammeyer, Pascal, et al. (författare)
  • Cisplatin and oxaliplatin are toxic to cochlear outer hair cells and both target thioredoxin reductase in organ of Corti cultures
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Oto-Laryngologica. - 0001-6489 .- 1651-2251. ; 134:5, s. 448-454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Conclusion: Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) may be a contributing factor in cisplatin- induced ototoxicity. Direct exposure of organ of Corti to cisplatin and oxaliplatin gives equal loss of hair cells. Objectives: Platinum- containing drugs are known to target the anti- oxidant selenoprotein TrxR in cancer cells. Two such anti- cancer, platinum- containing drugs, cisplatin and oxaliplatin, have different side effects. Only cisplatin induces hearing loss, i.e. has an ototoxic side effect that is not seen after treatment with oxaliplatin. The objective of this study was to evaluate if TrxR is a target in the cochlea. Loss of outer hair cells was also compared when cisplatin and oxaliplatin were administered directly to the organ of Corti. Methods: Organ of Corti cell culture was used for direct exposure to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Hair cells were evaluated and the level of TrxR was assessed. Immunohistochemical staining for TrxR was performed. An animal model was used to evaluate the effect on TrxR after treatment with cisplatin and oxaliplatin in vivo. Results: Direct exposure of cochlear organotypic cultures to either cisplatin or oxaliplatin induced comparable levels of outer hair cell loss and inhibition of TrxR, demonstrating that both drugs are similarly ototoxic provided that the cochlea becomes directly exposed.
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8.
  • Endisch, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Evaluated by Brain Autopsy and Neuroprognostication after Cardiac Arrest
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA Neurology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6149. ; 77:11, s. 1430-1439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Neuroprognostication studies are potentially susceptible to a self-fulfilling prophecy as investigated prognostic parameters may affect withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. Objective: To compare the results of prognostic parameters after cardiac arrest (CA) with the histopathologically determined severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) obtained from autopsy results. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a retrospective, 3-center cohort study of all patients who died following cardiac arrest during their intensive care unit stay and underwent autopsy between 2003 and 2015, postmortem brain histopathologic findings were compared with post-CA brain computed tomographic imaging, electroencephalographic (EEG) findings, somatosensory-evoked potentials, and serum neuron-specific enolase levels obtained during the intensive care unit stay. Data analysis was conducted from 2015 to 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The severity of HIE was evaluated according to the selective eosinophilic neuronal death (SEND) classification and patients were dichotomized into categories of histopathologically severe and no/mild HIE. Results: Of 187 included patients, 117 were men (63%) and median age was 65 (interquartile range, 58-74) years. Severe HIE was found in 114 patients (61%) and no/mild HIE was identified in 73 patients (39%). Severe HIE was found in all 21 patients with bilaterally absent somatosensory-evoked potentials, all 15 patients with gray-white matter ratio less than 1.10 on brain computed tomographic imaging, all 9 patients with suppressed EEG, 15 of 16 patients with burst-suppression EEG, and all 29 patients with neuron-specific enolase levels greater than 67 μg/L more than 48 hours after CA without confounders. Three of 7 patients with generalized periodic discharges on suppressed background and 1 patient with burst-suppression EEG had a SEND 1 score (<30% dead neurons) in the cerebral cortex, but higher SEND scores (>30% dead neurons) in other oxygen-sensitive brain regions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, histopathologic findings suggested severe HIE after cardiac arrest in patients with bilaterally absent cortical somatosensory-evoked potentials, gray-white matter ratio less than 1.10, highly malignant EEG, and serum neuron-specific enolase concentration greater than 67 μg/L.
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9.
  • Madsen, Michael Moesmann, et al. (författare)
  • Selection of quality indicators for hospital-based emergency care in Denmark, informed by a modified-Delphi process
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. - London, United Kingdom : BioMed Central. - 1757-7241 .- 1757-7241. ; 24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In 2013, Danish policy-makers on a nationwide level decided to set up a national quality of care database for hospital-based emergency care in Denmark including the selection of quality indicators. The aim of the study was to describe the Delphi process that contributed to the selection of quality indicators for a new national database of hospital-based emergency care in Denmark.METHODS: The process comprised a literature review followed by a modified-Delphi survey process, involving a panel of 54 experts (senior clinicians, researchers and administrators from the emergency area and collaborating specialties). Based on the literature review, we identified 43 potential indicators, of which eight were time-critical conditions. We then consulted the Expert panel in two consecutive rounds. The Expert panel was asked to what extent each indicator would be a good measure of hospital-based emergency care in Denmark. In each round, the Expert panel participants scored each indicator on a Likert scale ranging from one (=disagree completely) through to six (=agree completely). Consensus for a quality indicator was reached if the median was greater than or equal to five (=agree). The Delphi process was followed by final selection by the steering group for the new database.RESULTS: Following round two of the Expert panel, consensus was reached on 32 quality indicators, including three time-critical conditions. Subsequently, the database steering group chose a set of nine quality indicators for the initial version of the national database for hospital-based emergency care.CONCLUSIONS: The two-round modified Delphi process contributed to the selection of an initial set of nine quality indicators for a new a national database for hospital-based emergency care in Denmark. Final selection was made by the database steering group informed by the Delphi process.
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