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Sökning: WFRF:(Kjeldsen Sverre E)

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  • Fossum, E., et al. (författare)
  • The effect of losartan versus atenolol on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertension taking aspirin: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Am Coll Cardiol. - 0735-1097. ; 46:5, s. 770-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We conducted a subgroup analysis in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study to determine whether aspirin interacted with the properties of losartan, an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist. BACKGROUND: Negative interactions between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and aspirin have been reported. There are no data reported from clinical trials about possible interactions between angiotensin-II receptor antagonists and aspirin. METHODS: The LIFE study assigned 9,193 patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) to losartan- or atenolol-based therapy for a mean of 4.7 years, with 1,970 (21.4%) taking aspirin at baseline. The primary composite end point (CEP) included cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI). The present cohort was stratified by aspirin use at baseline. RESULTS: Blood pressures were reduced similarly in the losartan with aspirin (n = 1,004) and atenolol with aspirin (n = 966) groups. The CEP was reduced by 32% (95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.86, p = 0.001) with losartan with aspirin compared to atenolol with aspirin, adjusted for Framingham risk score and LVH. The test for treatment versus aspirin interaction, excluding other covariates, was significant for the CEP (p = 0.016) and MI (p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: There was a statistical interaction between treatment and aspirin in the LIFE study, with significantly greater reductions for the CEP and MI with losartan in patients using aspirin than in patients not using aspirin at baseline. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this represents a pharmacologic interaction or a selection by aspirin use of patients more likely to respond to losartan treatment.
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  • Reims, H. M., et al. (författare)
  • Losartan benefits over atenolol in non-smoking hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Blood Press. - 0803-7051. ; 13:6, s. 376-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We studied the impact of smoking in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study, which showed superiority of losartan over atenolol for reduction of composite risk of cardiovascular death, stroke and myocardial infarction in hypertensives with left ventricular hypertrophy. We compared hazard ratios in 4656 never-smokers, and 3033 previous and 1499 current smokers, adjusting for gender, age, alcohol intake, exercise and race. Composite endpoint rate was higher in previous (28/1000 years), as well as current (39/1000 years) smokers than in never-smokers (21/1000 years). Composite (hazard ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.65-0.94, p < 0.01) and stroke (hazard ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.80], p < 0.001) risks were lower with losartan than atenolol in never-smokers, but not significantly in previous smokers. Drug regimens did not differ in current smokers (composite hazard ratio 0.99, stroke hazard ratio 0.94). Smoking-treatment interactions were non-significant, but a borderline significant trend (p = 0.05) suggested decreasing benefit of losartan vs atenolol for stroke prevention from never- to previous to current smoking status. Smoking increased cardiovascular risk markedly in the LIFE study. The benefit of losartan vs atenolol is consistent with the overall conclusion of the LIFE study, although the treatment effect appeared largest in non-smokers.
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  • Ibsen, H., et al. (författare)
  • Does albuminuria predict cardiovascular outcome on treatment with losartan versus atenolol in hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy? A LIFE substudy
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: J Hypertens. - 0263-6352. ; 22:9, s. 1805-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To examine a possible relationship between baseline albuminuria and effect of losartan versus atenolol on cardiovascular (CV) events in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, the effect of losartan versus atenolol on albuminuria, and whether the benefits of losartan versus atenolol could be explained by influence of losartan on albuminuria. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of 4.8 years. SETTING: Out-patient setting. PATIENTS: A total of 8206 with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. INTERVENTIONS: Losartan or atenolol, supplemented with diuretics and/or calcium antagonists to reach blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and the primary composite endpoint (CEP) of CV death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. RESULTS: The blood pressure was reduced similarly on losartan (30.2/16.6 mmHg) versus atenolol (29.1/16.8 mmHg). The risk of a primary CEP increased linearly from the lowest to the highest decile of baseline albuminuria. The benefits of losartan versus atenolol for the primary CEP and for stroke tended to be more pronounced among patients above the median value for baseline albuminuria (urine albumin/creatinine ratio, 1.28 mg/mmol). The decrease in albuminuria was significantly greater with losartan versus atenolol throughout the study (a decrease from baseline to year 2 of 33% losartan versus 25% atenolol). One-fifth of the difference in favor of losartan on the primary CEP was explained by the greater reduction in albuminuria on losartan. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline albuminuria is a powerful risk factor for CV events. Baseline albuminuria did not identify the group of patients with greatest benefit on losartan versus atenolol in LIFE. Reduction in albuminuria explained one-fifth of the benefits of losartan versus atenolol.
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  • Okin, P. M., et al. (författare)
  • Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertension
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Jama. - Chicago : American medical association. - 1538-3598 .- 0098-7484. ; 296:10, s. 1242-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular events, particularly stroke, making prevention of new-onset AF a clinical priority. Although the presence and severity of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) appear to predict development of AF, whether regression of electrocardiographic LVH is associated with a decreased incidence of AF is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that in-treatment regression or continued absence of electrocardiographic LVH during antihypertensive therapy is associated with a decreased incidence of AF, independent of blood pressure and treatment modality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study conducted in 1995-2001 among 8831 men and women with hypertension, aged 55-80 years (median, 67 years), with electrocardiographic LVH by Cornell voltage-duration product or Sokolow-Lyon voltage, with no history of AF, without AF on the baseline electrocardiogram, and enrolled in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study. INTERVENTIONS: Losartan- or atenolol-based treatment regimens, with follow-up assessments at 6 months and then yearly until death or study end. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: New-onset AF in relation to electrocardiographic LVH determined at baseline and subsequently. Electrocardiographic LVH was measured using sex-adjusted Cornell product criteria ({R(aVL) + S(V3) [+ 6 mm in women]} x QRS duration). RESULTS: After a mean (SD) follow-up of 4.7 (1.1) years, new-onset AF occurred in 290 patients with in-treatment regression or continued absence of Cornell product LVH for a rate of 14.9 per 1000 patient-years and in 411 patients with in-treatment persistence or development of LVH by Cornell product criteria for a rate of 19.0 per 1000 patient-years. In time-dependent Cox analyses adjusted for treatment effects, baseline differences in risk factors for AF, baseline and in-treatment blood pressure, and baseline severity of electrocardiographic LVH, lower in-treatment Cornell product LVH treated as a time-varying covariate was associated with a 12.4% lower rate of new-onset AF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.97; P = .007) for every 1050 mm x msec (per 1-SD) lower Cornell product, with persistence of the benefit of losartan vs atenolol therapy on developing AF (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.97; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Lower Cornell product electrocardiographic LVH during antihypertensive therapy is associated with a lower likelihood of new-onset AF, independent of blood pressure lowering and treatment modality in essential hypertension. These findings suggest that antihypertensive therapy targeted at regression or prevention of electrocardiographic LVH may reduce the incidence of new-onset AF.
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7.
  • Cicala, S., et al. (författare)
  • Are coronary revascularization and myocardial infarction a homogeneous combined endpoint in hypertension trials? The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - 0263-6352 .- 1473-5598. ; 28:6, s. 1134-1140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Construction of prognostically relevant endpoints for clinical trials in hypertension has increasingly included coronary revascularization with myocardial infarction (MI) as manifestations of coronary artery disease. However, whether coronary revascularization and MI predict other cardiovascular events similarly is unknown. METHODS: We examined risks of cardiovascular death, all-cause death, and stroke following MI or coronary revascularization in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) enrolled in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE). We studied 9113 patients after excluding those who died within 7 days after MI or underwent coronary revascularization within 24 h after MI. RESULTS: In multivariate Cox regression adjusting for participating countries, time-varying systolic blood pressure, and Framingham risk score, hazard ratios for cardiovascular death, all-cause death, and stroke were, respectively, 4.5 (P<0.0001), 2.9 (P<0.0001), and 1.9 (P=0.003) in 321 patients with MI as first event. In similar models, coronary revascularization as first event (n=202) was not associated with increased risks of cardiovascular death, all-cause death, and stroke (P=0.06-0.86). CONCLUSION: During follow-up of hypertensive patients with LVH, occurrence of MI but not coronary revascularization as first cardiovascular event significantly increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular death, all-cause death, and stroke. In view of differences in prognostic implications, when the goal is to have a prognostically relevant composite endpoint for trials in hypertensive patients, caution should be used in combining coronary revascularization with MI.
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  • Wachtell, K., et al. (författare)
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to atenolol: the Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Am Coll Cardiol. - 0735-1097. ; 45:5, s. 712-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate whether different antihypertensive treatment regimens with similar blood pressure reduction have different effects on new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether angiotensin II receptor blockade is better than beta-blockade in preventing new-onset AF. METHODS: In the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study 9,193 hypertensive patients and patients with electrocardiogram-documented left ventricular hypertrophy were randomized to once-daily losartan- or atenolol-based antihypertensive therapy. Electrocardiograms were Minnesota coded centrally, and 8,851 patients without AF by electrocardiogram or history, who were thus at risk of developing AF, were followed for 4.8 +/- 1.0 years. RESULTS: New-onset AF occurred in 150 patients randomized to losartan versus 221 to atenolol (6.8 vs. 10.1 per 1,000 person-years; relative risk 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55 to 0.83, p < 0.001) despite similar blood pressure reduction. Patients receiving losartan tended to stay in sinus rhythm longer (1,809 +/- 225 vs. 1,709 +/- 254 days from baseline, p = 0.057) than those receiving atenolol. Moreover, patients with new-onset AF had two-, three- and fivefold increased rates, respectively, of cardiovascular events, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure. There were fewer composite end points (n = 31 vs. 51, hazard ratio = 0.60, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.94, p = 0.03) and strokes (n = 19 vs. 38, hazard ratio = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.86, p = 0.01) in patients who developed new-onset AF in the losartan compared to the atenolol treatment arm of the study. Furthermore, Cox regression analysis showed that losartan (21% risk reduction) and new-onset AF both independently predicted stroke even when adjusting for traditional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel finding is that new-onset AF and associated stroke were significantly reduced by losartan- compared to atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment with similar blood pressure reduction.
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  • Wachtell, K., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients with a history of atrial fibrillation: The Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Am Coll Cardiol. - 0735-1097. ; 45:5, s. 705-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We assessed the impact of antihypertensive treatment in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and a history of atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment of hypertensive patients with AF to reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains unclear. METHODS: As part of the Losartan Intervention For End point reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study, 342 hypertensive patients with AF and LV hypertrophy were assigned to losartan- or atenolol-based therapy for 1,471 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: The primary composite end point (cardiovascular mortality, stroke, and myocardial infarction) occurred in 36 patients in the losartan group versus 67 in the atenolol group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39 to 0.88, p = 0.009). Cardiovascular deaths occurred in 20 versus 38 patients in the losartan and atenolol groups, respectively (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.99, p = 0.048). Stroke occurred in 18 versus 38 patients (HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.97, p = 0.039), and myocardial infarction in 11 versus 8 patients (p = NS). Losartan-based treatment led to trends toward lower all-cause mortality (30 vs. 49, HR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.06, p = 0.090) and fewer pacemaker implantations (5 vs. 15, p = 0.065), whereas hospitalization for heart failure took place in 15 versus 26 patients and sudden cardiac death in 9 versus 17, respectively (both p = NS). The benefit of losartan was greater in patients with AF than those with sinus rhythm for the primary composite end point (p = 0.019) and cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Losartan is more effective than atenolol-based therapy in reducing the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as stroke and cardiovascular death in hypertensive patients with ECG LV hypertrophy and AF.
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