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Sökning: WFRF:(Kjellin Lars Docent)

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1.
  • Gustafsson, Sanna Aila, 1972- (författare)
  • The importance of being thin : perceived expectations from self and others and the effect on self-evaluation in girls with disordered eating
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aims of this thesis were to examine personal standards, self-evaluation and attitudes to eating and weight in the development of disturbed eating in adolescent girls, and to examine how adolescent girls with a clinical eating disorder reflect upon and deal with perceived expectations in daily life.Studies I and II were quantitative studies, conducted in a population-based longitudinal study. Studies III and IV were qualitative interview studies of girls who were suffering from eating disorders and the data were analysed using a phenomenographic approach.Study I showed that high personal standards expressed in a competitive way were specific for the girls with disturbed eating. These girls also reported a negative physical self-evaluation and often believed that thinness would make them more popular. In study II variables concerning attitudes to eating and weight and physical self-evaluation emerged as risk factors for disturbed eating, whereas personal standards or self-evaluation in general did not. Protective factors were a low BMI, healthy eating attitudes, an accepting attitude towards body size and a positive self-evaluation. Three categories of perceived expectations were described in study III: expectations from others, self-imposed expectations and conflicting expectations. Many informants had problems identifying expectations that were not explicit and they interpreted them as self-imposed. In study IV the various ways in which the informants reflected on dealing with these expectations were summarized into three qualitatively different conceptions: being oneself, adapting to different situations and presenting oneself in a positive light. These conceptions were expressed in five patterns of action, which could have various functions for different individuals and in different situations.The results suggest that in order to prevent and treat eating disorders and related problems it is essential to integrate both intrapersonal and contextual factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these conditions.
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2.
  • Elwin, Marie, 1953- (författare)
  • Description and measurement of sensory symptoms in autism spectrum
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Unusual responses to sensory stimuli have been reported in nearly all children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). A few studies on adults indicate that the sensory and perceptual problems persist into adulthood. Sensory symptoms have not been included in the diagnostic criteria for ASC but in the new diagnostic manual (DSM-5, 2013) hyper- or hyporeactivity or unusual sensory interests were included in the diagnostic criteria for ASC. Sensory phenomena are mostly investigated in studies involving children and the scales used to measure sensory reactivity have been constructed on the basis of the scientific literature and parents’ reports. The experiences of adults with ASC are not well understood and have not been systematically used to develop measures.The overall aim of the thesis was to capture the first-hand experiences of and perspectives on sensory reactivity and translate them into a self-rating scale. To fulfil this overarching aim the personal sensory experiences of adults with ASC were investigated and the variations and range of atypical sensory phenomena explored and described in two qualitative studies (study I and II). The analyses of the firstperson descriptions enabled the development of items for a scale. These were reduced in steps and the final scale which was named the Sensory Reactivity in Autism Spectrum scale (SR-AS) comprised 32 items in four subscales: high awareness/ hyperreactivity, low awareness/hyporeactivity, strong sensory interests and sensory/motor. The SR-AS was validated using content and factor analyses. Its discriminative validity was then investigated as well as its reliability in the form of internal consistency (study III). In the final step the scale was used to identify clusters of atypical sensory functioning in adults with ASC by hierarchical cluster analysis (study IV). Three different sensory clusters were found.The main contribution of this thesis is its presentation of individual experience and perspectives and the creation of an clinical tool to measure atypical sensory reactivity frequently experienced by people with ASC. The ways in which the SR-AS can be used comprise assessment of individual sensory patterns for self-knowledge and awareness, to enable the development of coping strategies and to provide information on environmental adjustments required. In diagnostic processes where other criteria for ASC are fulfilled the SR-AS can be used for assessing sensory symptoms according to the DSM-5.
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3.
  • Humble, Mats B., 1952- (författare)
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder, serotonin and oxytocin : treatment response and side effects
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with a prevalence of 1-2 %, frequently leads a chronic course. Persons with OCD are often reluctant to seek help and, if they do, their OCD is often missed. This is unfortunate, since active treatment may substantially improve social function and quality of life. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) have welldocumented efficacy in OCD, but delayed response may be problematic. Methods to predict response have been lacking. Because SRIs are effective, pathophysiological research on OCD has focussed on serotonin. However, no clear aberrations of serotonin have been found, thus other mechanisms ought to be involved.Our aims were to facilitate clinical detection and assessment of OCD, to search for biochemical correlates of response and side-effects in SRI treatment of OCD and to identify any possible involvement of oxytocin in the pathophysiology of OCD.In study I, we tested in 402 psychiatric out-patients the psychometric properties of a concise rating scale, “Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale” (BOCS). BOCS was shown to be easy to use and have excellent discriminant validity in relation to other common psychiatric diagnoses.Studies II-V were based on 36 OCD patients from a randomised controlled trial of paroxetine, clomipramine or placebo. In study II, contrary to expectation, we found that the change (decrease) of serotonin in whole blood was most pronounced in non-responders to SRI. This is likely to reflect inflammatory influence on platelet turnover rather than serotonergic processes within the central nervous system.In studies IV-V, we found relations between changes of oxytocin in plasma and the anti-obsessive response, and between oxytocin and the SRI related delay of orgasm, respectively. In both cases, the relation to central oxytocinergic mechanisms is unclear. In males, delayed orgasm predicted anti-obsessive response.
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4.
  • Lindstedt, Katarina, 1979- (författare)
  • A life put on hold : inside and outside perspectives on illness, treatment, and recovery in adolescents with restrictive eating disorders
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis was to study adolescents with restrictive eating disorders in relation to illness, treatment, and recovery from an inside and outside perspective. Studies I and II are based on data from a national quality register for eating-disorder treatment. Studies III and IV are based on interviews with adolescents previously treated in outpatient care for a restrictive eating disorder. The results showed that 55% of the adolescents were in remission at the end of treatment, and 85% were within a healthy weight range. The average treatment duration was 15 months. Over the years 1999–2014, remission rates and weight recovery increased, whereas treatment duration decreased. Young patients who received mainly family-based treatment had the highest probability of achieving remission at one-year followup, but the patients themselves were most satisfied with individual therapy. The interviews with the adolescents revealed that they often felt a strong ambivalence during the first treatment sessions, both regarding being defined as sick and the involvement of their parents. In retrospect they believed that family involvement was important, but that individual treatment sessions were crucial. The informants highlighted that trust in the therapist was the key to successful treatment. The adolescents’ narratives drew a picture of a life that was “put on hold” during the time of illness, as their involvement in social contexts outside the family was strongly influenced. It was in these contexts that their problems first became visible, and the quality of their interpersonal relationships played a great role in the recovery process. The results suggest that treatment for adolescents with restrictive eating disorders should be better adapted to changed social structures and patients’ individual contexts – a relevant area for future research.
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5.
  • Kileng, Hege, et al. (författare)
  • Personalized treatment of hepatitis C genotype 1a in Norway and Sweden 2014-2016 : a study of treatment outcome in patients with or without resistance-based DAA-therapy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 53:10-11, s. 1347-1353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) may impair treatment response to direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We investigated the effects of baseline NS3-RASs (Q80K and R155K) and clinically relevant NS5A-RASs in patients with HCV genotype (GT) 1a infection on treatment outcome, with or without resistance-based DAA-treatment. This multi-center study was carried out between 2014 and 2016.PATIENTS/METHODS: Treatment in the intervention group (n = 92) was tailored to baseline resistance. Detection of NS3-RAS led to an NS5A-inhibitor-based regimen and detection of NS5A-RAS to a protease-inhibitor regimen. Patients without baseline RAS in the intervention group and all patients in the control group (n = 101) received recommended standard DAA-treatment.RESULTS: The sustained virologic response rates (SVR) in the intervention and control groups were 97.8% (90/92) and 93.1% (94/101), respectively (p = .174). A trend toward higher SVR-rate in cirrhotic patients (p = .058) was noticed in the intervention group compared to the control group with SVR-rates 97.5% (39/40) and 83.3% (35/42), respectively. All patients with baseline NS3 (Q80K/R155K) or NS5A-RASs in the intervention group achieved SVR with personalized resistance-based treatment. In the control group, five patients with Q80K or R155K at baseline were treated with simeprevir + sofosbuvir and treatment failed in two of them. Furthermore, one of three patients who failed ledipasvir + sofosbuvir treatment had NS5A-RASs at baseline.CONCLUSIONS: In line with the findings of the OPTIMIST-2 trial for Q80K and the EASL-guidelines 2016 for NS5A-RASs, baseline RASs appeared to have an impact on treatment outcome albeit a statistical significance was not observed in this low-prevalence population.
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6.
  • Wallsten, Tuula, 1953- (författare)
  • Compulsory Psychiatric Care: Perspectives from the Swedish Coercion Study : Patient Experiences, Documented Measures, Next of Kins’ Attitudes and Outcome
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The use of coercion in psychiatry involves clinical, legal, scientific, ethical and emotional considerations. This thesis represents an attempt to further increase our understanding of some empirical aspects of this phenomenon. Interviews with 202 involuntarily admitted psychiatric patients and 201 voluntarily admitted patients and 295 of their next of kins were performed and analysed together with data from records and assessments made by professionals. Data was collected during two different periods of time with a compulsory psychiatric care law reform in between.Experience of at least one coercive measure was more common amongst patients who had been committed during the most recent legislation. Otherwise there were no differences in patient experiences during the different laws.Subjective short-term outcome was associated with having a contact person at the ward and being subjectively treated well. There were no relationships between subjective and assessed outcome or between legal status, perceived coercion at admission and subjective or assessed improvement.The changed legislation had no clear effect on the attitudes of patients and next of kins towards coercion.A majority of patients were able to accurately answer the question whether they had been restrained by belt or not during a specific treatment episode. Nineteen of 115 patients reported they had been restrained by belt. Eleven of these cases were true positive and 8 cases were false positive. In conclusion, the main results were first that when it comes to issues related to psychiatric coercion there are typically considerable differences between how these are perceived and interpreted by the professional and by the patient, and second that efforts made to change the face of psychiatric coercion in the minds of patients as well as the public on part of public policymakers have had limited effects.
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