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Sökning: WFRF:(Kjellström Tord)

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  • [1]2345Nästa
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1.
  • Dapi, Léonie N, et al. (författare)
  • Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa : potential health threat from climate change
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ; 3, s. Article nr 5610-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions.Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren’s health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaounde´ and Douala.Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285) aged 12=16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaounde´, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot) and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity.Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaounde´. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%), had fatigue (76%), and headaches (38%) in Yaounde´. Prevalences (%) were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39), feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21), and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18). Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.58C in Yaounde´ and 36.68C in Douala were observed in school.Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.
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2.
  • Kjellstrom, Tord, et al. (författare)
  • Climate Change and Occupational Heat Problems
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - : National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan. - 1880-8026 .- 0019-8366. ; 51:1, s. 1-2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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3.
  • Lundgren Kownacki, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Sustainability. - : MDPI AG. - 2071-1050. ; 5:7, s. 3116-3128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global climate change increases heat loads in urban areas causing health and productivity risks for millions of people. Inhabitants in tropical and subtropical urban areas are at especial risk due to high population density, already high temperatures, and temperature increases due to climate change. Air conditioning is growing rapidly, especially in South and South-East Asia due to income growth and the need to protect from high heat exposures. Studies have linked increased total hourly electricity use to outdoor temperatures and humidity; modeled future predictions when facing additional heat due to climate change, related air conditioning with increased street level heat and estimated future air conditioning use in major urban areas. However, global and localized studies linking climate variables with air conditioning alone are lacking. More research and detailed data is needed looking at the effects of increasing air conditioning use, electricity consumption, climate change and interactions with the urban heat island effect. Climate change mitigation, for example using renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic electricity generation, to power air conditioning, and other sustainable methods to reduce heat exposure are needed to make future urban areas more climate resilient.
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4.
  • Adam-Poupart, Ariane, et al. (författare)
  • Climate Change and Occupational Health and Safety in a Temperate Climate : Potential Impacts and Research Priorities in Quebec, Canada
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - : National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health, Japan. - 0019-8366 .- 1880-8026. ; 51:1, s. 68-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The potential impacts of climate change (CC) on Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) have been studied a little in tropical countries, while they received no attention in northern industrialized countries with a temperate climate. This work aimed to establish an overview of the potential links between CC and OHS in those countries and to determine research priorities for Quebec, Canada. A narrative review of the scientific literature (2005-2010) was presented to a working group of international and national experts and stakeholders during a workshop held in 2010. The working group was invited to identify knowledge gaps, and a modified Delphi method helped prioritize research avenues. This process highlighted five categories of hazards that are likely to impact OHS in northern industrialized countries: heat waves/increased temperatures, air pollutants, UV radiation, extreme weather events, vector-borne/zoonotic diseases. These hazards will affect working activities related to natural resources (i.e. agriculture, fishing and forestry) and may influence the socioeconomic context (built environment and green industries), thus indirectly modifying OHS. From this consensus approach, three categories of research were identified: 1) Knowledge acquisition on hazards, target populations and methods of adaptation; 2) Surveillance of diseases/accidents/occupational hazards; and 3) Development of new occupational adaptation strategies.
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5.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
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6.
  • Bi, Peng, et al. (författare)
  • The Effects of Extreme Heat on Human Mortality and Morbidity in Australia : Implications for Public Health
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Asia-Pacific journal of public health. - 1010-5395. ; 23:2, s. 27S-36S
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most regions of Australia are exposed to hot summers and regular extreme heat events; and numerous studies have associated high ambient temperatures with adverse health outcomes in Australian cities. Extreme environmental heat can trigger the onset of acute conditions, including heat stroke and dehydration, as well as exacerbate a range of underlying illnesses. Consequently, in the absence of adaptation, the associated mortality and morbidity are expected to increase in a warming climate, particularly within the vulnerable populations of the elderly, children, those with chronic diseases, and people engaged in physical labour in noncooled environments. There is a need for further research to address the evidence needs of public health agencies in Australia. Building resilience to extreme heat events, especially for the most vulnerable groups, is a priority. Public health professionals and executives need to be aware of the very real and urgent need to act now.
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7.
  • Byass, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing a population's exposure to heat and humidity : an empirical approach
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - : CoAction Publishing. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 3, s. Article nr 5421-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is widely accepted that assessing the impact of heat on populations is an important aspect of climate change research. However, this raises questions about how best to measure people’s exposure to heat under everyday living conditions in more detail than is possible by relying on nearby sources of meteorological data. Objective: This study aimed to investigate practical and viable approaches to measuring air temperature and humidity within a population, making comparisons with contemporaneous external data sources. This was done in a rural South African population during the subtropical summer season. Results: Air temperature and humidity were measured indoors and outdoors at three locations over 10 days and the datalogger technology proved reliable and easy to use. There was little variation in measurements over distances of 10 km. Conclusions: Small battery-powered automatic dataloggers proved to be a feasible option for collecting weather data among a rural South African population. These data were consistent with external sources but offered more local detail. Detailed local contemporary data may also allow post hoc modelling of previously unmeasured local weather data in conjunction with global gridded climate models.
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8.
  • Crowe, Jennifer, 1976- (författare)
  • Heat exposure and health outcomes in Costa Rican sugarcane harvesters
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background The remarkably efficient mechanisms of the human body to maintain its core temperature of 37°C can be inadequate when harsh climatic conditions and excessive muscle movement lead to heat stress, dehydration and potential heat illness, ranging from minor symptoms such as fatigue to a potentially fatal heat stroke. Agricultural workers in the tropics are at high risk, which is expected to increase with climate change. Sugarcane harvesting in Costa Rica is largely done by cutting the cane with a machete, by temporary, sub-contracted workers who are often migrants and living in poverty. Sugarcane harvesters are known to be affected by an epidemic of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional origin, currently hypothesized to be related to working conditions.Objectives This work aimed to better understand and document sugarcane harvester exposure to heat and the health consequences of working under such conditions. Specific objectives were to 1) Document working conditions and heat in the Costa Rican sugarcane industry (Paper I); 2) Quantify heat stress exposures faced by sugarcane harvesters in Costa Rica (Paper II); and 3) Quantify the occurrence of heat stress symptoms and abnormal urinary parameters in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica (Papers III and IV).Methods This study took place over three harvests following a pilot assessment prior to the first harvest. Methods included direct observation, semi-structured interviews with 24 individuals and a participatory workshop with 8 harvesters about heat-related perceptions, exposures and coping strategies during the harvest and non-harvest season (Pilot). Researchers accompanied workers in the field during all three harvests, measured wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and conducted direct observation. Heat exposure assessment was conducted by calculating metabolic load, WBGT and corresponding limit values based on international guidelines (NTP and OSHA) (Harvest 1). Self-reported symptom data were collected using orally-administered questionnaires from 106 sugarcane harvesters and 63 non-harvesters from the same company (Harvest 2). Chi-square test and gamma statistic were used to evaluate differences in self-reported symptoms and trends over heat exposure categories. Finally, liquid consumption during the work shift was documented and urinalysis was conducted pre-and post-shift in 48 sugarcane harvesters on three days; differences were assessed with McNemar´s test on paired proportions (Harvest 3).Results Sugarcane workers in both the harvest and non-harvest seasons are exposed to heat, but particularly during the harvest season. Field workers have to carry their own water to the field and often have no access to shade. Some plantworkers are also exposed to intense heat. The metabolic load of sugarcane harvesting was determined to be 261 W/m2. The corresponding threshold value is 26 ◦C WBGT, above which workers should decrease work load or take breaks to avoid the risk of heat stress. Harvesters in this study were at risk of heat stress as early as 7:15 am on some mornings and by 9:00 am on all mornings. After 9:15 am, OSHA recommendations would require that harvesters only work at full effort 25% of each hour to avoid heat stress. Heat and dehydration symptoms at least once per week were experienced significantly more frequently among harvesters than non-harvesters (p<0.05): headache, tachycardia, fever, nausea, difficulty breathing, dizziness, and dysuria. Percentages of workers reporting heat and dehydration-related symptoms increased over increasing heat exposure categories. Total liquid consumed ranged from 1 to 9 L and differed over days (median 5.0, 4.0 and 3.25 on days 1, 2 and 3 respectively). On these same days, the two principle indicators of dehydration: high USG (≥1.025) and low pH (≤5), changed significantly from pre to post-shift (p=0.000 and p=0.012).Proportions of workers with proteinuria >30 mg/dL, and blood, leucocytes and casts in urine were also significantly different between pre and post-shift samples at the group level, but unlike USG and pH, these alterations were more frequent in the pre-shift sample. 85% of workers presented with proteinuria at least once and 52% had at least one post-shift USG indicative of dehydration.Conclusion Heat exposure is an important occupational health risk for sugarcane workers according to international standards. A large percentage of harvesters experience symptoms consistent with heat exhaustion throughout the harvest season. Pre and post-shift urine samples demonstrate dehydration and other abnormal findings. The results of this study demonstrate an urgent need to improve working conditions for sugarcane harvesters both under current conditions and in adaptation plans for future climate change.
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9.
  • Crowe, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • Heat exposure in sugarcane harvesters in Costa Rica
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Industrial Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0271-3586 .- 1097-0274. ; 56:10, s. 1157-1164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Occupational heat stress is a major concern in sugarcane production and has been hypothesized as a causal factor of a chronic kidney disease epidemic in Central America. This study described working conditions of sugarcane harvesters in Costa Rica and quantified their exposure to heat.METHODS: Non-participatory observation and Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT) according to Spanish NTP (Technical Prevention Notes) guidelines were utilized to quantify the risk of heat stress. OSHA recommendations were used to identify corresponding exposure limit values.RESULTS: Sugarcane harvesters carried out labor-intensive work with a metabolic load of 261 W/m(2) (6.8 kcal/min), corresponding to a limit value of 26° WBGT which was reached by 7:30 am on most days. After 9:15 am, OSHA recommendations would require that workers only work 25% of each hour to avoid health risks from heat.CONCLUSIONS: Sugarcane harvesters are at risk for heat stress for the majority of the work shift. Immediate action is warranted to reduce such exposures.
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10.
  • Crowe, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • Heat-Related Symptoms in Sugarcane Harvesters
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Industrial Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0271-3586 .- 1097-0274. ; 58:5, s. 541-548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundExposure to heat stress is a documented risk for Central American sugarcane harvesters. However, little is known about heat-related illness in this population. MethodsThis study examined the frequency of heat-related health effects among harvesters (n=106) exposed to occupational heat stress compared to non-harvesters (n=63). Chi-square test and gamma statistic were used to evaluate differences in self-reported symptoms and trends over heat exposure categories. ResultsHeat and dehydration symptoms (headache, tachycardia, muscle cramps, fever, nausea, difficulty breathing, dizziness, swelling of hands/feet, and dysuria) were experienced at least once per week significantly more frequently among harvesters. Percentages of workers reporting heat and dehydration symptoms increased in accordance with increasing heat exposure categories. ConclusionsA large percentage of harvesters are experiencing heat illness throughout the harvest demonstrating an urgent need for improved workplace practices, particularly in light of climate change and the epidemic of chronic kidney disease prevalent in this population. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:541-548, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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