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Sökning: WFRF:(Kjellstrom Tord)

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  • Friel, Sharon, et al. (författare)
  • Global health equity and climate stabilisation: a common agenda
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 372:9650, s. 1677-1683
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although health has improved for many people, the extent of health inequities between and within countries is growing. Meanwhile, humankind is disrupting the global climate and other life-supporting environmental systems, thereby creating serious risks for health and wellbeing, especially in vulnerable populations but ultimately for everybody. Underlying determinants of health inequity and environmental change overlap substantially; they are signs of an economic system predicated on asymmetric growth and competition, shaped by market forces that mostly disregard health and environmental consequences rather than by values of fairness and support. A shift is needed in priorities in economic development towards healthy forms of urbanisation, more efficient and renewable energy sources, and a sustainable and fairer food system. Global interconnectedness and interdependence enable the social and environmental determinants of health to be addressed in ways that will increase health equity, reduce poverty, and build societies that live within environmental limits.
  • Asamoah, Benedict, et al. (författare)
  • Is ambient heat exposure levels associated with miscarriage or stillbirths in hot regions? A cross-sectional study using survey data from the Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Biometeorology. - : Springer. - 0020-7128. ; 62:3, s. 319-330
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is well established that high ambient heat could cause congenital abnormalities resulting in miscarriage or stillbirth among certain species of mammals. However, this has not been systematically studied in real field settings among humans, despite the potential value of such knowledge for estimating the impact of global warming on the human species. This study sought to test the hypothesis that maternal heat exposure during pregnancy in hot regions is associated with increased prevalence of spontaneous abortions or stillbirths and to develop an analytical strategy to use existing data from maternal health surveys and existing data on historical heat levels at a geographic grid cell level. A subsample of the Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007 was used in this study. This study sample consisted of 1136 women with pregnancy experiences between 2004 and 2007, out of which 141 women had a pregnancy that terminated in miscarriage or stillbirth. Induced-abortion cases were excluded. The linkage between ambient heat exposure and pregnancy outcome followed the epidemiological time-place-person principle, by linking timing of pregnancy outcome with historical data of local area heat levels for each month, as estimated in an international database. Maternal heat exposure level was estimated using calculated levels of the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), which takes into account temperature, humidity, heat radiation, and air movement over the skin (wind speed). The values we used applied to exposure in the shade or in buildings without cooling (no solar heat radiation) and a standard air movement of 1 m/s. We applied two exposure durations: yearly average and monthly average for second month of pregnancy. In one analysis, we restricted the sample to four regions with time-homogeneous ambient heat. Analysis was made using logistic regression. About 12% of the latest pregnancies ended in either miscarriage (9.6%) or stillbirth (2.8%). The odds ratios indicated 12 to 15% increase (ORcrude 1.15, 95% CI 0.92–1.42, and ORage adjusted 1.12, 95% CI 0.90–1.39) in the odds of having a stillbirth or miscarriage with each additional degree increase in WBGT, although this was just outside two-sided statistical significance. The WBGT range was quite narrow (most annual values in the range 24–26 °C, and most monthly values in the range 23–27 °C), which may have hidden any real impacts of high heat levels. The seemingly positive association observed disappeared after adjusting for gravidity. The analyses of the four selected regions indicated 27 to 42% increase in the odds of experiencing miscarriage or stillbirth with every degree increase in WBGT (crude OR 1.42 95% CI 1.00–2.03). This association remained after adjusting for maternal age pregnancy history, although no longer statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.89–1.81). Environmental heat exposures may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but this study was inconclusive, possibly because the heat exposure range was small. Historical records of routine observations in existing databases can be used for epidemiological studies on the health effects of heat, although data from properly and purposively designed studies might be more suitable for further studies.
  • Berry, Helen Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Climate change and mental health : a causal pathways framework
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International journal of public health. - 1661-8564. ; 55:2, s. 123-132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different aspects of climate change may affect mental health through direct and indirect pathways, leading to serious mental health problems, possibly including increased suicide mortality. We propose that it is helpful to integrate these pathways in an explanatory framework, which may assist in developing public health policy, practice and research.
  • Crowe, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • Heat-Related Symptoms in Sugarcane Harvesters
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Industrial Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0271-3586 .- 1097-0274. ; 58:5, s. 541-548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundExposure to heat stress is a documented risk for Central American sugarcane harvesters. However, little is known about heat-related illness in this population. MethodsThis study examined the frequency of heat-related health effects among harvesters (n=106) exposed to occupational heat stress compared to non-harvesters (n=63). Chi-square test and gamma statistic were used to evaluate differences in self-reported symptoms and trends over heat exposure categories. ResultsHeat and dehydration symptoms (headache, tachycardia, muscle cramps, fever, nausea, difficulty breathing, dizziness, swelling of hands/feet, and dysuria) were experienced at least once per week significantly more frequently among harvesters. Percentages of workers reporting heat and dehydration symptoms increased in accordance with increasing heat exposure categories. ConclusionsA large percentage of harvesters are experiencing heat illness throughout the harvest demonstrating an urgent need for improved workplace practices, particularly in light of climate change and the epidemic of chronic kidney disease prevalent in this population. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:541-548, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • De Blois, Jonathan, et al. (författare)
  • The Effects of Climate Change on Cardiac Health
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cardiology. - : Karger. - 1421-9751. ; 131:4, s. 209-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The earth's climate is changing and increasing ambient heat levels are emerging in large areas of the world. An important cause of this change is the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. Climate changes have a variety of negative effects on health, including cardiac health. People with preexisting medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease (including heart failure), people carrying out physically demanding work and the elderly are particularly vulnerable. This review evaluates the evidence base for the cardiac health consequences of climate conditions, with particular reference to increasing heat exposure, and it also explores the potential further implications.
  • Gao, Chuansi, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational heat stress assessment and protective strategies in the context of climate change
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Biometeorology. - : Springer. - 1432-1254. ; 62:3, s. 359-371
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global warming will unquestionably increase the impact of heat on individuals who work in already hot workplaces in hot climate areas. The increasing prevalence of this environmental health risk requires the improvement of assessment methods linked to meteorological data. Such new methods will help to reveal the size of the problem and design appropriate interventions at individual, workplace and societal level. The evaluation of occupational heat stress requires measurement of four thermal climate factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity and heat radiation); available weather station data may serve this purpose. However, the use of meteorological data for occupational heat stress assessment is limited because weather stations do not traditionally and directly measure some important climate factors, e.g. solar radiation. In addition, local workplace environmental conditions such as local heat sources, metabolic heat production within the human body, and clothing properties, all affect the exchange of heat between the body and the environment. A robust occupational heat stress index should properly address all these factors. This article reviews and highlights a number of selected heat stress indices, indicating their advantages and disadvantages in relation to meteorological data, local workplace environments, body heat production and the use of protective clothing. These heat stress and heat strain indices include Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, Discomfort Index, Predicted Heat Strain index, and Universal Thermal Climate Index. In some cases, individuals may be monitored for heat strain through physiological measurements and medical supervision prior to and during exposure. Relevant protective and preventive strategies for alleviating heat strain are also reviewed and proposed.
  • Gao, Chuansi, et al. (författare)
  • Surveillance of work environment and heat stress assessment using meteorological data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Biometeorology. - : Springer. - 0020-7128. ; 63:2, s. 195-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Health surveillance and workplace surveillance are two related but different aspects of occupational health services. The assessment of heat stress using heat indices and thermal models in connection with meteorological data is an important part of surveillance of workplace heat. The assessment of heat exposure provides the basis for occupational health services. Workers should have health surveillance if the high heat stress cannot be reduced.
  • Kjellstrom, Tord, et al. (författare)
  • Climate Change and Occupational Heat Problems
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - : National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan. - 1880-8026. ; 51:1, s. 1-2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Kuklane, Kalev, et al. (författare)
  • Insulation of traditional Indian clothing: Estimation of climate change impact on productivity from PHS (predicted heat strain) model
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Achieving Sustainable Construction Health and Safety : proceedings of CIB W099 International Conference, 2-3 June 2014, Lund University, Sweden - proceedings of CIB W099 International Conference, 2-3 June 2014, Lund University, Sweden. - : Lund University. - 9789176230053 ; , s. 234-244
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major databases on western clothing and their thermal properties are available, but information on non-western clothing is lacking. A recent ASHRAE project 1504 TRP, Extension of the Clothing Insulation Database for Standard 55 and ISO 7730 dealt with the issue. Simultaneously, a co-operation study at Indian workplaces allowed us to acquire some sets of the traditional clothes used at construction sites in Chennai area. The work was related to mapping of present work conditions in order to allow predictions and measures to be taken if the mean temperature of the work environment would rise. We selected ISO 7933 on predicted heat strain (PHS) as a tool to estimate productivity loss in physical work. PHS criteria are related to reaching safe body core temperature limit of 38 °C or excess water loss. 3 sets of clothing were investigated: 2 female sets of traditional clothes (churidar and saree) modified as used at construction site (added shirt and towel to protect traditional clothes and hair), and a male set commonly used at the construction sites. The clothing insulation and evaporative resistance were measured on thermal manikins. The climatic conditions were based on weather statistics, and metabolic heat production was based on field observations at work places and the ISO 8996:2004 tables (Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Determination of metabolic rate). For the future scenarios all basic parameters were left the same except the air temperature was increased by 2 °C. Adding the protective layer on female clothing did increase clothing insulation by 25-31 % and evaporative resistance by 10-18 % respectively. This affected the performance showing lower capacity to maintain work pace already under present climatic conditions. Further increase in mean air temperature may decrease the productivity by 30-80 % depending on the parameter that is observed (limited exposure time or lower work load), and on the earlier capacity to carry out the tasks. The present evaluation may have several limitations related to the PHS model's boundaries, and validation of the presented method application is needed.
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