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1.
  • Askling, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk and case characteristics of tuberculosis in rheumatoid arthritis associated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists in Sweden
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 52:7, s. 1986-1992
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:Because treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists may increase the risk of tuberculosis (TB), and because knowledge of the risk of TB in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) not treated with biologics is scarce and of uncertain generalizability to low-risk populations, this study sought to determine the risk of TB among Swedish patients with RA.METHODS:Using data from Swedish nationwide and population-based registers and data from an ongoing monitoring program of TNF antagonists, the relative risks of TB in patients with RA (versus the general population) and of TB associated with TNF antagonists (versus RA patients not treated with biologics) were determined by comparing the incidence of hospitalization for TB in 3 RA cohorts and 2 general population cohorts from 1999 to 2001. We also reviewed the characteristics of all reported cases of TB in RA patients treated with TNF antagonists in Sweden and calculated the incidence of TB per type of TNF antagonist between 1999 and 2004.RESULTS:During 1999-2001, RA patients who were not treated with TNF antagonists were at increased risk of TB versus the general population (relative risk 2.0, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.2-3.4). RA patients treated with TNF antagonists had a 4-fold increased risk of TB (relative risk 4.0, 95% CI 1.3-12) versus RA patients not treated with TNF antagonists. The reported TB cases during 1999-2004 in RA patients exposed to TNF antagonists (9 infliximab, 4 etanercept, 2 both) were predominantly pulmonary. TB occurred up to 3 years following the start of treatment.CONCLUSION:Irrespective of whether TNF antagonists are administered, Swedish patients with RA are at increased risk of TB. During 1999-2001, TNF antagonists were associated with an increased risk of TB, up to 4-fold in magnitude. This increased risk may persist over time during treatment and is related to both infliximab and etanercept.
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2.
  • Askling, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Time-dependent increase in risk of hospitalisation with infection among Swedish RA patients treated with TNF antagonists
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : British Medical Association. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 66:10, s. 1339-1344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES:The degree to which treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists may be associated with increased risks for serious infections is unclear. An observational cohort study was performed using prospectively collected data from the Swedish Biologics Register (ARTIS) and other national Swedish registers.METHODS:First, in the ARTIS, all 4167 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients starting TNF antagonist treatment between 1999 and 2003 were identified. Secondly, in the Swedish Inpatient Register, all individuals hospitalised for any reason and who also carried a diagnosis of RA, between 1964 and 2003 (n = 44 946 of whom 2692 also occurred in ARTIS), were identified. Thirdly, in the Swedish Inpatient Register, all hospitalisations listing an infection between 1999 and 2003 were identified. By cross-referencing these three data sets, RRs for hospitalisation with infection associated with TNF antagonist treatment were calculated within the cohort of 44 946 RA patients, using Cox regression taking sex, age, geography, co-morbidity and use of inpatient care into account.RESULTS:Among the 4167 patients treated with TNF antagonists, 367 hospitalisations with infections occurred during 7776 person-years. Within the cohort of 44 496 RA patients, the RR for infection associated with TNF antagonists was 1.43 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.73) during the first year of treatment, 1.15 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.51) during the second year of treatment, and 0.82 (95% CI 0.62 to 1.08) for subjects remaining on their first TNF antagonist treatment after 2 years.CONCLUSION:Treatment with TNF antagonists may be associated with a small to moderate increase in risk of hospitalisation with infection, which disappears with increasing treatment duration.
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3.
  • Lundstrom, Emeli, et al. (författare)
  • HLA-DRB1*04/*13 alleles are associated with vascular disease and antiphospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : British Medical Association. - 1468-2060 .- 0003-4967. ; 72:6, s. 1018-1025
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and objectives Vascular disease is common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are at high risk to develop arterial and venous thrombosis. Since HLA class II genotypes have been linked to the presence of pro-thrombotic aPL, we investigated the relationship between HLA-DRB1 alleles, aPL and vascular events in SLE patients. Methods 665 SLE patients of Caucasian origin and 1403 controls were included. Previous manifestations of ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) and venous thromboembolism (together referred to as any vascular events (AVE)) were tabulated. aPL were measured with ELISA. Two-digit HLA-DRB1 typing was performed by sequence-specific primer-PCR. Results HLA-DRB1*04 was more frequent among SLE patients with ICVD compared to unaffected patients. This association remained after adjustment for known traditional cardiovascular risk factors. HLA-DRB1*13 was associated with AVE. All measured specificities of aPL-cardiolipin IgG and IgM, beta(2)-glycoprotein-1 IgG, prothrombin (PT) IgG and a positive lupus anticoagulant test were associated with HLA-DRB1*04-while HLA-DRB1*13 was associated with IgG antibodies (beta(2)-glycoprotein-1, cardiolipin and PT). In patients with the combined risk alleles, HLA-DRB1*04/*13, there was a significant additive interaction for the outcomes AVE and ICVD. Conclusions The HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DRB1*13 alleles are associated with vascular events and an aPL positive immune-phenotype in SLE. Results demonstrate that a subset of SLE patients is genetically disposed to vascular vulnerability.
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4.
  • Sigurdsson, Snaevar, et al. (författare)
  • Association of a Haplotype in the Promoter Region of the Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 Gene With Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 56:7, s. 2202-2210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To determine whether genetic variants of the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) and Tyk-2 genes are associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IRF5 and 3 SNPs in Tyk2 were analyzed in a Swedish cohort of 1,530 patients with RA and 881 controls. A replication study was performed in a Dutch cohort of 387 patients with RA and 181 controls. All patient sera were tested for the presence of autoantibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP). Results. Four of the 5 SNPs located in the 5' region of IRF5 were associated with RA, while no association was observed with the Tyk2 SNPs. The minor alleles of 3 of the IRF5 SNPs, which were in linkage disequilibrium and formed a relatively common haplotype with a frequency of ∼0.33, appeared to confer protection against RA. Although these disease associations were seen in the entire patient group, they were mainly found in RA patients who were negative for anti-CCP. A suggestive association of IRF5 SNPs with anti-CCP-negative RA was also observed in the Dutch cohort. Conclusion. Given the fact that anti-CCP-negative RA differs from anti-CCP-positive RA with respect to genetic and environmental risk factor profiles, our results indicate that genetic variants of IRF5 contribute to a unique disease etiology and pathogenesis in anti-CCP-negative RA.
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5.
  • Simard, Julia F., et al. (författare)
  • Ten years with biologics : to whom do data on effectiveness and safety apply?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1462-0324 .- 1462-0332. ; 50:1, s. 204-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methods. We identified all adult patients with RA (n = 9612), PsA (n = 1417) and other SpA (n = 1652) initiating a first biologic therapy between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2008, registered in the Swedish Biologics Register (ARTIS), including information on demographics, disease characteristics and 1-year risk of first-line treatment discontinuation. Results. Over calendar time, measures of disease activity at start declined substantially for all indications, and diminished between first-, second- and third-line therapy starts. One-year risks of first-line therapy discontinuation increased. Switchers to anti-TNF and non-TNF biologics had different comorbidities. Despite < 50% drug retention at 5 years, most patients remained exposed to some biologic. Conclusions. The trends in baseline characteristics and drug retention underscores that any effects of biologics, including comparison between different biologics, must be interpreted in light of the characteristics of the population treated. The observed differences further call for continued vigilance to properly evaluate the safety profiles of biologic treatments as they are currently used. Exposure to multiple biologics presents a challenge for attribution of long-term effects.
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6.
  • Smedby, Karin E., et al. (författare)
  • GWAS of Follicular Lymphoma Reveals Allelic Heterogeneity at 6p21.32 and Suggests Shared Genetic Susceptibility with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 7:4, s. e1001378-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a diverse group of hematological malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a prevalent subtype. A previous genome-wide association study has established a marker, rs10484561 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region on 6p21.32 associated with increased FL risk. Here, in a three-stage genome-wide association study, starting with a genome-wide scan of 379 FL cases and 791 controls followed by validation in 1,049 cases and 5,790 controls, we identified a second independent FL-associated locus on 6p21.32, rs2647012 (ORcombined = 0.64, P-combined= 2x10(-21)) located 962 bp away from rs10484561 (r(2)< 0.1 in controls). After mutual adjustment, the associations at the two SNPs remained genome-wide significant (rs2647012: ORadjusted = 0.70, P-adjusted= 4x10(-12); rs10484561: ORadjusted = 1.64, P-adjusted= 5x10(-15)). Haplotype and coalescence analyses indicated that rs2647012 arose on an evolutionarily distinct haplotype from that of rs10484561 and tags a novel allele with an opposite (protective) effect on FL risk. Moreover, in a follow-up analysis of the top 6 FL-associated SNPs in 4,449 cases of other NHL subtypes, rs10484561 was associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ORcombined = 1.36, P-combined = 1.4x10(-7)). Our results reveal the presence of allelic heterogeneity within the HLA class II region influencing FL susceptibility and indicate a possible shared genetic etiology with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays a complex yet important role in NHL.
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7.
  • Askling, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies : does the risk change with the time since start of treatment?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 60:11, s. 3180-3189
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:To determine the short-term and medium-term risks of cancer in patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) therapies that have proven effective in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions.METHODS:By linking together data from the Swedish Biologics Register, Swedish registers of RA, and the Swedish Cancer Register, we identified and analyzed for cancer occurrence a national cohort of 6,366 patients with RA who first started anti-TNF therapy between January 1999 and July 2006. As comparators, we used a national biologics-naive RA cohort (n = 61,160), a cohort of RA patients newly starting methotrexate (n = 5,989), a cohort of RA patients newly starting disease-modifying antirheumatic drug combination therapy (n = 1,838), and the general population of Sweden. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox regression analyses, examining overall RR as well as RR by time since the first start of anti-TNF therapy, by the duration of active anti-TNF therapy, and by the anti-TNF agent received.RESULTS:During 25,693 person-years of followup in 6,366 patients newly starting anti-TNF, 240 first cancers occurred, yielding an RR of 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.86-1.15) versus the biologics-naive RA cohort, and similar RRs versus the other 2 RA comparators. RRs did not increase with increasing time since the start of anti-TNF therapy, nor with the cumulative duration of active anti-TNF therapy. During the first year following the first treatment start, but not thereafter, dissimilar cancer risks for adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab were observed.CONCLUSION:During the first 6 years after the start of anti-TNF therapy in routine care, no overall elevation of cancer risk and no increase with followup time were observed.
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8.
  • Askling, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Risk in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha Therapies Does the Risk Change With the Time Since Start of Treatment?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 60:11, s. 3180-3189
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To determine the short-term and medium-term risks of cancer in patients receiving antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF alpha) therapies that have proven effective in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. Methods. By linking together data from the Swedish Biologics Register, Swedish registers of RA, and the Swedish Cancer Register, we identified and analyzed for cancer occurrence a national cohort of 6,366 patients with RA who first started anti-TNF therapy between January 1999 and July 2006. As comparators, we used a national biologics-naive RA cohort (n = 61,160), a cohort of RA patients newly starting methotrexate (n = 5,989), a cohort of RA patients newly starting disease-modifying antirheumatic drug combination therapy (n = 1,838), and the general population of Sweden. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox regression analyses, examining overall RR as well as RR by time since the first start of anti-TNF therapy, by the duration of active anti-TNF therapy, and by the anti-TNF agent received. Results. During 25,693 person-years of followup in 6,366 patients newly starting anti-TNF, 240 first cancers occurred, yielding an RR of 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.86-1.15) versus the biologics-naive RA cohort, and similar RRs versus the other 2 RA comparators. RRs did not increase with increasing time since the start of anti-TNF therapy, nor with the cumulative duration of active anti-TNF therapy. During the first year following the first treatment start, but not thereafter, dissimilar cancer risks for adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab were observed. Conclusion. During the first 6 years after the start of anti-TNF therapy in routine care, no overall elevation of cancer risk and no increase with followup time were observed.
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9.
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10.
  • Bengtsson, Camilla, et al. (författare)
  • Common vaccinations among adults do not increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Swedish EIRA study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : British Medical Association. - 1468-2060. ; 69:10, s. 1831-1833
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To investigate the association between vaccinations in adults and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Data from the Swedish population-based Epidemiological Investigation of RA case-control study encompassing 1998 incident cases of RA aged 18-70 years and 2252 randomly selected controls matched for age, sex and residency were analysed. Those vaccinated within 5 years before disease onset were compared with those not vaccinated by calculating OR with 95% CI. Results Vaccinations neither increased the risk of RA overall (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.1) nor the risk of two major subgroups of RA (antibodies to citrullinated peptide-positive (ACPA-positive) and ACPA-negative disease). Furthermore, vaccinations did not increase the risk of RA in smokers or carriers of HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles, two groups with established risk factors for RA. Conclusions In this case-control study of incident cases of newly diagnosed RA, no increased risk of RA following immunisation was observed for vaccinations overall or for any specific vaccination. This indicates that immunological provocation of adults with commonly used vaccines in their present form carries no risk of RA. These findings should be implemented among public healthcare providers in order to encourage vaccinations according to recommended national vaccination schedules.
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