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Sökning: WFRF:(Klein Ronald)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 19
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1.
  • Lanktree, Matthew B., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of Dense Genecentric Association Studies Reveals Common and Uncommon Variants Associated with Height
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 88:1, s. 41443-41443
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Height is a classic complex trait with common variants in a growing list of genes known to contribute to the phenotype. Using a genecentric genotyping array targeted toward cardiovascular-related loci, comprising 49,320 SNPs across approximately 2000 loci, we evaluated the association of common and uncommon SNPs with adult height in 114,223 individuals from 47 studies and six ethnicities. A total of 64 loci contained a SNP associated with height at array-wide significance (p < 2.4 x 10(-6)), with 42 loci surpassing the conventional genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 x 10(-8)). Common variants with minor allele frequencies greater than 5% were observed to be associated with height in 37 previously reported loci. In individuals of European ancestry, uncommon SNPs in IL11 and SMAD3, which would not be genotyped with the use of standard genome-wide genotyping arrays, were strongly associated with height (p < 3 x 10(-11)). Conditional analysis within associated regions revealed five additional variants associated with height independent of lead SNPs within the locus, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. Although underpowered to replicate findings from individuals of European ancestry, the direction of effect of associated variants was largely consistent in African American, South Asian, and Hispanic populations. Overall, we show that dense coverage of genes for uncommon SNPs, coupled with large-scale meta-analysis, can successfully identify additional variants associated with a common complex trait.
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2.
  • Asselbergs, Folkert W., et al. (författare)
  • Large-Scale Gene-Centric Meta-analysis across 32 Studies Identifies Multiple Lipid Loci
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 91:5, s. 823-838
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom similar to 50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering similar to 2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids.
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3.
  • Tragante, Vinicius, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-centric Meta-analysis in 87,736 Individuals of European Ancestry Identifies Multiple Blood-Pressure-Related Loci.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 94:3, s. 349-360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10(-7)) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification.
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4.
  • Andsberg, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropathological and behavioral consequences of adeno-associated viral vector-mediated continuous intrastriatal neurotrophin delivery in a focal ischemia model in rats.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Disease. - Elsevier. - 0969-9961. ; 9:2, s. 187-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were continuously delivered to the striatum at biologically active levels via recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) gene transfer 4-5 weeks prior to 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The magnitude of the deficits in a battery of behavioral tests designed to assess striatal function was highly correlated to the extent of ischemic damage determined by unbiased stereological estimations of striatal neuron numbers. The delivery of neurotrophins lead to mild functional improvements in the ischemia-induced motor impairments assessed 3-5 weeks after the insult, in agreement with a small but significant increase of the survival of dorsolateral striatal neurons. Detailed phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the parvalbumin-containing interneurons were spared to a greater extent by the neurotrophin treatment as compared to the projection neurons, which agreed with the specificity for interneuron transduction by the rAAV vector. These data show the advantage of the never previously performed combination of precise quantification of the ischemia-induced neuropathology along with detailed behavioural analysis for assessing neuroprotection after stroke. We observe that intrastriatal delivery of NGF and BDNF using a viral vector system can mitigate, albeit only moderately, neuronal death following stroke, which leads to detectable functional sparing. (c)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
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5.
  • Chaturvedi, Nish, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 372:9647, s. 1394-402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Results of previous studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system blockers might reduce the burden of diabetic retinopathy. We therefore designed the DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme to assess whether candesartan could reduce the incidence and progression of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Two randomised, double-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled trials were done in 309 centres worldwide. Participants with normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes without retinopathy were recruited to the DIRECT-Prevent 1 trial and those with existing retinopathy were recruited to DIRECT-Protect 1, and were assigned to candesartan 16 mg once a day or matching placebo. After 1 month, the dose was doubled to 32 mg. Investigators and participants were unaware of the treatment allocation status. The primary endpoints were incidence and progression of retinopathy and were defined as at least a two-step and at least a three-step increase on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale, respectively. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00252733 for DIRECT-Prevent 1 and NCT00252720 for DIRECT-Protect 1. FINDINGS: 1421 participants (aged 18-50 years) were randomly assigned to candesartan (n=711) or to placebo (n=710) in DIRECT-Prevent 1, and 1905 (aged 18-55 years) to candesartan (n=951) or to placebo (n=954) in DIRECT-Protect 1. Incidence of retinopathy was seen in 178 (25%) participants in the candesartan group versus 217 (31%) in the placebo group. Progression of retinopathy occurred in 127 (13%) participants in the candesartan group versus 124 (13%) in the placebo group. Hazard ratio (HR for candesartan vs placebo) was 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-1.00, p=0.0508) for incidence of retinopathy and 1.02 (0.80-1.31, p=0.85) for progression of retinopathy. The post-hoc outcome of at least a three-step increase for incidence yielded an HR of 0.65 (0.48-0.87, p=0.0034), which was attenuated but still significant after adjustment for baseline characteristics (0.71, 0.53-0.95, p=0.046). Final ETDRS level was more likely to have improved with candesartan treatment in both DIRECT-Prevent 1 (odds 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, p=0.0048) and DIRECT-Protect 1 (1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25, p=0.0264). Adverse events did not differ between the treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: Although candesartan reduces the incidence of retinopathy, we did not see a beneficial effect on retinopathy progression.
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6.
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7.
  • Meng, Weihua, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study suggests new evidence for an association of the NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene with severe diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1755-375X. ; 96:7, s. 811-819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye complication in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic factors contributing to severe diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A genome-wide association approach was applied. In the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland (GoDARTS) datasets, cases of severe diabetic retinopathy were defined as type 2 diabetic patients who were ever graded as having severe background retinopathy (Level R3) or proliferative retinopathy (Level R4) in at least one eye according to the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Grading Scheme or who were once treated by laser photocoagulation. Controls were diabetic individuals whose longitudinal retinopathy screening records were either normal (Level R0) or only with mild background retinopathy (Level R1) in both eyes. Significant Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were taken forward for meta-analysis using multiple Caucasian cohorts. Results: Five hundred and sixty cases of type 2 diabetes with severe diabetic retinopathy and 4,106 controls were identified in the GoDARTS cohort. We revealed that rs3913535 in the NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene reached a p value of 4.05 × 10−9. Two nearby SNPs, rs10765219 and rs11018670 also showed promising p values (p values = 7.41 × 10−8 and 1.23 × 10−8, respectively). In the meta-analysis using multiple Caucasian cohorts (excluding GoDARTS), rs10765219 and rs11018670 showed associations for diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.003 and 0.007, respectively), while the p value of rs3913535 was not significant (p = 0.429). Conclusion: This genome-wide association study of severe diabetic retinopathy suggests new evidence for the involvement of the NOX4 gene.
8.
  • Qiu, Chengxuan, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebral microbleeds and age-related macular degeneration : the AGES-Reykjavik Study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 33:12, s. 2935-2937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We test the hypothesis that cerebral microbleeds (CMB) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), both linked to amyloid-beta deposition, are correlated. This study includes 4205 participants (mean age 76.2; 57.8% women) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)Reykjavik Study (2002-2006). CMB were assessed from magnetic resonance images, and AMD was assessed using digital retinal images. Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic models controlling for major confounders. Evidence of CMB was detected in 476 persons (272 with strict lobar CMB and 204 with nonlobar CMB). AMD was detected in 1098 persons (869 with early AMD, 140 with exudative AMD, and 89 with pure geographic atrophy). Early and exudative AMD were not associated with CMB. The adjusted odds ratio of pure geographic atrophy was 1.62 (95% confidence interval 0.93-2.82, p = 0.089) for having any CMB, 1.43 (0.66-3.06, p = 0.363) for strict lobar CMB, and 1.85 (0.89-3.87, p = 0.100) for nonlobar CMB. This study provides no evidence that amyloid deposits in the brain and AMD are correlated. However, the suggestive association of geographic atrophy with CMB warrants further investigation.</p>
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9.
  • Sjölie, Anne Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of candesartan on progression and regression of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes (DIRECT-Protect 2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 372:9647, s. 1385-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy remains a leading cause of visual loss in people of working age. We examined whether candesartan treatment could slow the progression and, secondly, induce regression of retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial in 309 centres worldwide. We recruited normoalbuminuric, normotensive, or treated hypertensive people with type 2 diabetes with mild to moderately severe retinopathy and assigned them to candesartan 16 mg once a day or placebo. After a month, the dose was doubled to 32 mg once per day. Investigators and patients were unaware of the treatment allocation status. Progression of retinopathy was the primary endpoint, and regression was a secondary endpoint. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00252694. FINDINGS: 1905 participants (aged 37-75 years) were randomised to candesartan (n=951) or placebo (n=954). 161 (17%) patients in the candesartan group and 182 (19%) in the placebo group had progression of retinopathy by three steps or more on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. The risk of progression of retinopathy was non-significantly reduced by 13% in patients on candesartan compared with those on placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.70-1.08, p=0.20). Regression on active treatment was increased by 34% (1.34, 1.08-1.68, p=0.009). HRs were not attenuated by adjustment for baseline risk factors or changes in blood pressure during the trial. An overall change towards less severe retinopathy by the end of the trial was observed in the candesartan group (odds 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, p=0.003). Adverse events did not differ between the treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with candesartan in type 2 diabetic patients with mild to moderate retinopathy might induce improvement of retinopathy.
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10.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.</p>
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