SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Klovins Janis) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Klovins Janis)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 29
  • [1]23Nästa
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Almén, Markus Sällman, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis reveals DNA methylation markers that vary with both age and obesity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Gene. - 0378-1119 .- 1879-0038. ; 548:1, s. 61-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The combination of the obesity epidemic and an aging population presents growing challenges for the healthcare system. Obesity and aging are major risk factors for a diverse number of diseases and it is of importance to understand their interaction and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Herein the authors examined the methylation levels of 27578 CpG sites in 46 samples from adult peripheral blood. The effect of obesity and aging was ascertained with general linear models. More than one hundred probes were correlated to aging, nine of which belonged to the KEGG group map04080. Additionally, 10 CpG sites had diverse methylation profiles in obese and lean individuals, one of which was the telomerase catalytic subunit (TERT). In eight of ten cases the methylation change was reverted between obese and lean individuals. One region proved to be differentially methylated with obesity (LINC00304) independent of age. This study provides evidence that obesity influences age driven epigenetic changes, which provides a molecular link between aging and obesity. This link and the identified markers may prove to be valuable biomarkers for the understanding of the molecular basis of aging, obesity and associated diseases.
2.
  • Ciganoka, Darja, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of somatostatin receptor type 5 gene polymorphisms associated with acromegaly
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643 .- 1479-683X. ; 165:4, s. 517-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic variance of somatostatin receptor 5 (SSTR5) and investigate the possible correlation of such variants with acromegaly risk and different disease characteristics. Design and methods: The SSTR5 gene coding region and 2000 bp upstream region was sequenced in 48 patients with acromegaly and 96 control subjects. Further, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in the same group of acromegaly patients and in an additional group of 475 age- and sex-matched controls. Results: In total, 19 SNPs were identified in the SSTR5 gene locus by direct sequencing. Three SNPs (rs34037914, rs169068, and rs642249) were significantly associated with the presence of acromegaly using the initial controls. The allele frequencies were significantly (P<0.01) different between the acromegaly patients and the additional large control group. rs34037914 and rs642249 remained significantly associated with acromegaly after Bonferroni correction and permutation tests (odds ratio (OR) = 3.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.78-6.42; P=0.00016 and OR=2.41; 95% CI, 1.41-4.13; P=0.0014 respectively). Haplotype reconstruction revealed two possible risk haplotypes determined by rs34037914 (633T) and rs642249 (1044A) alleles. Both haplotypes were found in significantly higher frequency in acromegaly patients compared with controls (P=0.001). In addition, the 663T allele was significantly associated with a younger age of acromegaly diagnosis (unstandardized regression coefficient beta=-10.4; P=0.002), increased body mass index (beta=4.1; P=0.004), higher number of adenoma resection (P<0.001) and lack of observable tumor shrinkage after somatostatin analog treatment (P=0.014). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a previously undetected strong association of two SSTR5 SNPs with acromegaly. The data also suggest a possible involvement of SSTR5 variants in decreased suppression of GH production and increased tumor proliferation.
  •  
3.
  • Elbere, Ilze, et al. (författare)
  • Significantly altered peripheral blood cell DNA methylation profile as a result of immediate effect of metformin use in healthy individuals
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Epigenetics. - 1868-7083. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Metformin is a widely prescribed antihyperglycemic agent that has been also associated with multiple therapeutic effects in various diseases, including several types of malignancies. There is growing evidence regarding the contribution of the epigenetic mechanisms in reaching metformin's therapeutic goals; however, the effect of metformin on human cells in vivo is not comprehensively studied. The aim of our study was to examine metformin-induced alterations of DNA methylation profiles in white blood cells of healthy volunteers, employing a longitudinal study design.Results: Twelve healthy metformin-naive individuals where enrolled in the study. Genome-wide DNA methylation pattern was estimated at baseline, 10h and 7days after the start of metformin administration. The whole-genome DNA methylation analysis in total revealed 125 differentially methylated CpGs, of which 11 CpGs and their associated genes with the most consistent changes in the DNA methylation profile were selected: POFUT2, CAMKK1, EML3, KIAA1614, UPF1, MUC4, LOC727982, SIX3, ADAM8, SNORD12B, VPS8, and several differentially methylated regions as novel potential epigenetic targets of metformin. The main functions of the majority of top-ranked differentially methylated loci and their representative cell signaling pathways were linked to the well-known metformin therapy targets: regulatory processes of energy homeostasis, inflammatory responses, tumorigenesis, and neurodegenerative diseases.Conclusions: Here we demonstrate for the first time the immediate effect of short-term metformin administration at therapeutic doses on epigenetic regulation in human white blood cells. These findings suggest the DNA methylation process as one of the mechanisms involved in the action of metformin, thereby revealing novel targets and directions of the molecular mechanisms underlying the various beneficial effects of metformin.Trial registrationEU Clinical Trials Register, 2016-001092-74. Registered 23 March 2017, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2016-001092-74/LV.
4.
  • Fridmanis, Davids, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of new genes explains lower intron density in mammalian Rhodopsin G protein-coupled receptors
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. - 1055-7903 .- 1095-9513. ; 43:3, s. 864-880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mammalian G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes are characterised by a large proportion of intronless genes or a lower density of introns when compared with GPCRs of invertebrates. It is unclear which mechanisms have influenced intron density in this protein family, which is one of the largest in the mammalian genomes. We used a combination of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and BLAST searches to establish the comprehensive repertoire of Rhodopsin GPCRs from seven species and performed overall alignments and phylogenetic analysis using the maximum parsimony method for over 1400 receptors in 12 subgroups. We identified 14 different Ancestral Receptor Groups (ARGs) that have members in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. We found that there exists a remarkable difference in the intron density among ancestral and new Rhodopsin GPCRs. The intron density among ARGs members was more than 3.5-fold higher than that within non-ARG members and more than 2-fold higher when considering only the 7TM region. This suggests that the new GPCR genes have been predominantly formed intronless while the ancestral receptors likely accumulated introns during their evolution. Many of the intron positions found in mammalian ARG receptor sequences were found to be present in orthologue invertebrate receptors suggesting that these intron positions are ancient. This analysis also revealed that one intron position is much more frequent than any other position and it is common for a number of phylogenetically different Rhodopsin GPCR groups. This intron position lies within a functionally important, conserved, DRY motif which may form a proto-splice site that could contribute to positional intron insertion. Moreover, we have found that other receptor motifs, similar to DRY, also contain introns between the second and third nucleotide of the arginine codon which also forms a proto-splice site. Our analysis presents compelling evidence that there was not a major loss of introns in mammalian GPCRs and formation of new GPCRs among mammals explains why these have fewer introns compared to invertebrate GPCRs. We also discuss and speculate about the possible role of different RNA- and DNA-based mechanisms of intron insertion and loss.
  •  
5.
  • Fridmanis, Davids, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of domains responsible for specific membrane transport and ligand specificity of the ACTH receptor (MC2R)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. - 0303-7207 .- 1872-8057. ; 321:2, s. 175-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor has highly specific membrane expression that is limited to adrenal cells; in other cell types the polypeptide fails to be transported to the cell surface. Unlike other evolutionarily related members of the melanocortin receptor family (MC1R-MC5R) that recognize different melanocortin peptides, ACTHR (MC2R) binds only ACTH. We used a mutagenesis approach involving systematic construction of chimeric ACTHR/MC4R receptors to identify the domains determining the selectivity of ACTHR membrane transport and ACTH binding. In total 15 chimeric receptors were created by replacement of selected domains of human ACTHR with the corresponding regions of human MC4R. We developed an analytical method to accurately quantify cell-membrane localization of recombinant receptors fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The chimeric receptors were also tested for their ability to bind ACTH (1-24) and the melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) analog, Nle4, DPhe7-alpha-MSH, and to induce a cAMP response. Our results indicate that substitution of the MC4R N-terminal segment with the homologous segment of ACTHR significantly decreased membrane transport. We also identified another signal localized in the third and fourth transmembrane regions as the main determinant of ACTHR intracellular retention. In addition, we found that the fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of the ACTHR are involved in ACTH binding selectivity. We discuss the mechanisms involved in bypassing these arrest signals via an interaction with melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and the possible mechanisms that determine the high ligand-binding specificity of ACTHR.
  •  
6.
  • Fridmanis, Davids, et al. (författare)
  • Replacement of short segments within transmembrane domains of MC2R disrupts retention signal
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. - 0952-5041 .- 1479-6813. ; 53:2, s. 201-215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The proteolysis of the pro-opiomelanocortin precursor results in the formation of melanocortins (MCs), a group of peptides that share the conserved -H-F-R-W- sequence, which acts as a pharmacophore for five subtypes of MC receptors (MCRs). MC type 2 receptor (MC2R; also known as ACTHR) is the most specialized of all the MCRs. It is predominantly expressed in the adrenal cortex and specifically binds ACTH. Unlike other MCRs, it requires melanocortin receptor accessory protein 1 (MRAP) for formation of active receptor and for its transport to the cell membrane. The molecular mechanisms underlying this specificity remain poorly understood. In this study, we used directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of various short MC2R sequence segments in receptor membrane trafficking and specific activation upon stimulation with ligands. The strategy of the study was to replace two to five amino acid residues within one MC2R segment with the corresponding residues of MC4R. In total, 20 recombinant receptors C-terminally fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein were generated and their membrane trafficking efficiencies and cAMP response upon stimulation with α-MSH and ACTH(1-24) were estimated during their stand-alone expression and coexpression with MRAP. Our results indicate that both the motif that determines the ligand-recognition specificity and the intracellular retention signal are formed by a specific extracellular structure, which is supported by the correct alignment of the transmembrane domains. Our results also indicate that the aromatic-residue-rich segment of the second extracellular loop is involved in the effects mediated by the second ACTH pharmacophore (-K-K-R-R-).
  •  
7.
  • Haitina, Tatjana, et al. (författare)
  • Cloning, tissue distribution, pharmacology and three-dimensional modelling of melanocortin receptors 4 and 5 in rainbow trout suggest close evolutionary relationship of these subtypes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 380:2, s. 475-486
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely used fish species in aquaculture and physiological research. In the present paper, we report the first cloning, 3D (three-dimensional) modelling, pharmacological characterization and tissue distribution of two melanocortin (MC) receptors in rainbow trout. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these receptors are orthologues of the human MC4 and MC5 receptors. We created 3D molecular models of these rainbow trout receptors and their human counterparts. These models suggest greater divergence between the two human receptors than between their rainbow trout counterparts. The pharmacological analyses demonstrated that ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) had surprisingly high affinity for the rainbow trout MC4 and MC5 receptors, whereas alpha-, beta- and gamma-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) had lower affinity. In second-messenger studies, the cyclic MSH analogues MTII and SHU9119 acted as potent agonist and antagonist respectively at the rainbow trout MC4 receptor, indicating that these ligands are suitable for physiological studies in rainbow trout. Interestingly, we found that the rainbow trout MC4 receptor has a natural high-affinity binding site for zinc ions (0.5 microM) indicating that zinc may play an evolutionary conserved role at this receptor. Reverse transcription PCR indicates that the rainbow trout receptors are expressed both in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system, including the telencephalon, optic tectum and hypothalamus. Overall, this analysis indicates that the rainbow trout MC4 and MC5 receptors have more in common than their mammalian counterparts, which may suggest that these two receptors have a closer evolutionary relationship than the other MC receptor subtypes.
  •  
8.
  • Haitina, Tatjana, et al. (författare)
  • Functional characterization of two melanocortin (MC) receptors in lamprey showing orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 7, s. 101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe melanocortin (MC) receptors have a key role in regulating body weight and pigmentation. They belong to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The purpose of this study was to identify ancestral MC receptors in agnathan, river lamprey.ResultsWe report cloning of two MC receptors from river lamprey. The lamprey receptors, designated MCa and MCb, showed orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes, respectively. The molecular clock analysis suggested that lamprey MC receptor genes were not duplicated recently and diverged from each other more than 400 MYR ago. Expression and pharmacological characterization showed that the lamprey MCa receptor was able to bind and be activated by both lamprey and human MSH peptides. The lamprey MCa receptor had relatively high affinity for ACTH derived peptides similarly to the fish MC receptors. We found that both of the lamprey MC receptors were expressed in skin, while the MCb receptor was also found in liver, heart and skeletal muscle.ConclusionThis study shows presence of MC receptors in agnathans indicating early signs of specific functions of melanocortin receptor subtypes.
  •  
9.
  • Haitina, Tatjana, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacological characterization of melanocortin receptors in fish suggests an important role for ACTH
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. - 0077-8923 .- 1749-6632. ; 1040:Apr, s. 337-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract: The melanocortin (MC) receptor subtypes have distinctive characteristic binding profiles. We found that the trout and Fugu MC4 receptors have similar affinity for α-MSH and β-MSH and a much higher affinity for ACTH than does the human MC4 receptor. The Fugu MC1 and the trout and Fugu MC5 receptors also have higher affinity for ACTH-derived peptides than α-, β-, or γ-MSH. It is tempting to speculate that ACTH-derived peptides may have played an important role as “original” ligands at the MC receptors, while the specificity of the different subtypes for the α-, β-, and γ-MSH peptides may have appeared at later stages during vertebrate evolution.
  •  
10.
  • Huckins, Laura M., et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression imputation across multiple brain regions provides insights into schizophrenia risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 51:4, s. 659-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 29
  • [1]23Nästa
 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy