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Sökning: WFRF:(Kniveton Dominic)

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1.
  • Andersson, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of climate change and development scenarios on flow patterns in the Okavango River
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology. - 0022-1694 .- 1879-2707. ; 331:1-2, s. 43-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper lays the foundation for the use of scenario modelling as a tool for integrated water resource management in the Okavango River basin. The Pitman hydrological model is used to assess the impact of various development and climate change scenarios on downstream river flow. The simulated impact on modelled river discharge of increased water use for domestic use, livestock, and informal irrigation (proportional to expected population increase) is very limited. Implementation of all likely potential formal irrigation schemes mentioned in available reports is expected to decrease the annual flow by 2% and the minimum monthly flow by 5%. The maximum possible impact of irrigation on annual average flow is estimated as 8%, with a reduction of minimum monthly flow by 17%. Deforestation of all areas within a 1 km buffer around the rivers is estimated to increase the flow by 6%. However, construction of all potential hydropower reservoirs in the basin may change the monthly mean flow distribution dramatically, although under the assumed operational rules, the impact of the dams is only substantial during wet years. The simulated impacts of climate change are considerable larger that those of the development scenarios (with exception of the high development scenario of hydropower schemes) although the results are sensitive to the choice of GCM and the IPCC SRES greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The annual mean water flow predictions for the period 2020-2050 averaged over scenarios from all the four GCMs used in this study are close to the present situation for both the A2 and B2 GHG scenarios. For the 2050-2080 and 2070-2099 periods the all-GCM mean shows a flow decrease of 20% (14%) and 26% (17%), respectively, for the A2 (B2) GHG scenarios. However, the uncertainty in the magnitude of simulated future changes remains high. The simulated effect of climate change on minimum monthly flow is proportionally higher than the impact on the annual mean flow. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Todd, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Simulating climate impacts on water resources : Experiences from the Okavango River, Southern Africa
  • 2008. - 1
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Modelling and the Water Cycle. - Berlin Heidelburg : Springer. - 9783540778424 ; , s. 243-265
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This collected work reports on the state of the art of hydrological model simulation, as well as the methods for satellite-based rainfall estimation. Mainly addressed to scientists and researchers, the contributions have the structure of a standard paper appearing in most cited hydrological, atmospheric and climate journals. Several already-known hydrological models and a few novel ones are presented, as well as the satellite-based precipitation techniques. As the field of hydrologic modeling is experiencing rapid development and transition to application of distributed models, many challenges including overcoming the requirements of compatible observations of inputs and outputs are addressed.The many contributing authors, who are well established in this field, provide readers with a timely overview of the ongoing research on these topics. The level of interest and active involvement in the discussions clearly demonstrate the importance the scientific community places on challenges related to the coupling of atmospheric and hydrologic models.
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  • Watts, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • The 2020 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change : responding to converging crises
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 397:10269, s. 129-170
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Lancet Countdown is an international collaboration established to provide an independent, global monitoring system dedicated to tracking the emerging health profile of the changing climate.The 2020 report presents 43 indicators across five sections: climate change impacts, exposures, and vulnerabilities; adaptation, planning, and resilience for health; mitigation actions and health co-benefits; economics and finance; and public and political engagement. This report represents the findings and consensus of the 35 leading academic institutions and UN agencies that make up The Lancet Countdown, and draws on the expertise of climate scientists, geographers, engineers, experts in energy, food, and transport, economists, social, and political scientists, data scientists, public health professionals, and doctors.
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  • Watts, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change : from 25 years of inaction to a global transformation for public health
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 391:10120, s. 581-630
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Lancet Countdown tracks progress on health and climate change and provides an independent assessment of the health effects of climate change, the implementation of the Paris Agreement, 1 and the health implications of these actions. It follows on from the work of the 2015 Lancet Commission on Health and Climate Change, 2 which concluded that anthropogenic climate change threatens to undermine the past 50 years of gains in public health, and conversely, that a comprehensive response to climate change could be "the greatest global health opportunity of the 21st century". The Lancet Countdown is a collaboration between 24 academic institutions and intergovernmental organisations based in every continent and with representation from a wide range of disciplines. The collaboration includes climate scientists, ecologists, economists, engineers, experts in energy, food, and transport systems, geographers, mathematicians, social and political scientists, public health professionals, and doctors. It reports annual indicators across five sections: climate change impacts, exposures, and vulnerability; adaptation planning and resilience for health; mitigation actions and health co-benefits; economics and finance; and public and political engagement. The key messages from the 40 indicators in the Lancet Countdown's 2017 report are summarised below.
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  • Wilk, Julie, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Estimating rainfall and water balance over the Okavango River Basin for hydrological applications
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology. - 0022-1694 .- 1879-2707. ; 331:1-2, s. 18-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A historical database for use in rainfall-runoff modeling of the Okavango River Basin in Southwest Africa is presented. The work has relevance for similar data-sparse regions. The parameters of main concern are rainfall and catchment water balance, which are key variables for subsequent studies of the hydrological impacts of development and climate change. Rainfall estimates are based on a combination of in situ gauges and satellite sources. Rain gauge measurements are most extensive from 1955 to 1972, after which they are drastically reduced due to the Angolan civil war. The sensitivity of the rainfall fields to spatial interpolation techniques and the density of gauges were evaluated. Satellite based rainfall estimates for the basin are developed for the period from 1991 onwards, based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) datasets. The consistency between the gauges and satellite estimates was considered. A methodology was developed to allow calibration of the rainfall-runoff hydrological model against rain gauge data from 1960 to 1972, with the prerequisite that the model should be driven by satellite derived rainfall products from 1990 onwards. With the rain gauge data, addition of a single rainfall station (Longa) in regions where stations earlier were lacking was more important than the chosen interpolation method. Comparison of satellite and gauge rainfall outside the basin indicated that the satellite overestimates rainfall by 20%. A non-linear correction was derived by fitting the rainfall frequency characteristics to those of the historical rainfall data. This satellite rainfall dataset was found satisfactory when using the Pitman rainfall-runoff model (Hughes, D., Andersson, L., Wilk, J., Savenije, H.H.G., this issue. Regional calibration of the Pitman model for the Okavango River. Journal of Hydrology). Intensive monitoring in the region is recommended to increase accuracy of the comprehensive satellite rainfall estimate calibration procedure. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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