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1.
  • Köhncke, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Three-year changes in leisure activities are associated with concurrent changes in white matter microstructure and perceptual speed in individuals aged 80 years and older
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 41, s. 173-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accumulating evidence suggests that engagement in leisure activities is associated with favorable trajectories of cognitive aging, but little is known about brain changes related to both activities and cognition. White matter microstructure shows experience-dependent plasticity and declines in aging. Therefore, we investigated the role of change in white matter microstructure in the activities-cognition link. We used repeated assessments of engagement, perceptual speed, and white matter microstructure (probed with diffusion tensor imaging) in a population-based sample of individuals over 80 years without dementia (n = 442, M-age = 85.1; n = 70 for diffusion tensor imaging; 2 occasions 3 years apart). Using multivariate latent change modeling, we observed positive correlations among changes in predominantly social activities, white matter microstructure, and perceptual speed. Interindividual differences in change in white matter microstructure statistically accounted for the association between change in leisure activities and change in perceptual speed. However, as analyses are based on observational data from 2 measurement occasions, causality remains unclear.
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2.
  • Lövdén, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in perceptual speed and white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract are associated in very old age
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 102, s. 520-530
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The integrity of the brain's white matter is important for neural processing and displays age-related differences, but the contribution of changes in white matter to cognitive aging is unclear. We used latent change modeling to investigate this issue in a sample of very old adults (aged 81-103 years) assessed twice with a retest interval of 2.3 years. Using diffusion-tensor imaging, we probed white matter microstructure by quantifying mean fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of six major white matter tracts. Measures of perceptual speed, episodic memory, letter fluency, category fluency, and semantic memory were collected. Across time, alterations of white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract were associated with decreases of perceptual speed. This association remained significant after statistically controlling for changes in white matter microstructure in the entire brain, in the other demarcated tracts, and in the other cognitive abilities. Changes in brain volume also did not account for the association. We conclude that white matter microstructure is a potent correlate of changes in sensorimotor aspects of behavior in very old age, but that it is unclear whether its impact extends to higher-order cognition.
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3.
  • Karalija, Nina, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular factors are related to dopamine integrity and cognition in aging
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2328-9503. ; 6:11, s. 2291-2303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aging brain undergoes several changes, including reduced vascular, structural, and dopamine (DA) system integrity. Such brain changes have been associated with age‐related cognitive deficits. However, their relative importance, interrelations, and links to risk factors remain elusive.Methods: The present work used magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with 11C‐raclopride to jointly examine vascular parameters (white‐matter lesions and perfusion), DA D2‐receptor availability, brain structure, and cognitive performance in healthy older adults (n = 181, age: 64–68 years) from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study.Results: Covariance was found among several brain indicators, where top predictors of cognitive performance included caudate and hippocampal integrity (D2DR availability and volumes), and cortical blood flow and regional volumes. White‐matter lesion burden was negatively correlated with caudate DA D2‐receptor availability and white‐matter microstructure. Compared to individuals with smaller lesions, individuals with confluent lesions (exceeding 20 mm in diameter) had reductions in cortical and hippocampal perfusion, striatal and hippocampal D2‐receptor availability, white‐matter microstructure, and reduced performance on tests of episodic memory, sequence learning, and processing speed. Higher cardiovascular risk as assessed by treatment for hypertension, systolic blood pressure, overweight, and smoking was associated with lower frontal cortical perfusion, lower putaminal D2DR availability, smaller grey‐matter volumes, a larger number of white‐matter lesions, and lower episodic memory performance.Interpretation: Taken together, these findings suggest that reduced cardiovascular health is associated with poorer status for brain variables that are central to age‐sensitive cognitive functions, with emphasis on DA integrity.
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5.
  • Laukka, Erika J., et al. (författare)
  • Combined Genetic Influences on Episodic Memory Decline in Older Adults Without Dementia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychology. - 0894-4105 .- 1931-1559. ; 34:6, s. 654-666
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Although heritability explains a large proportion of the variance in old-age cognition, studies on the influence of specific genes have been inconclusive. We investigated the individual and combined effects of four single polymorphisms, previously associated with episodic memory, on cognitive or performance and rate of change. Method: Participants were 2490 individuals without dementia (mean age = 72 years) from the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K). Genotyping was performed for APOE (rs429358, rs7412), BDNF (rs6265), KIBRA (rs17070145), and CLSTN2 (rs6439886). We used latent difference score models to estimate the effects of age and genetic variation on level and change in five latent cognitive factors: episodic and semantic memory, letter and category fluency, and perceptual speed. Results: Of the individual genes, only APOE was associated with cognitive performance; epsilon 4 carriers showed lower perceptual speed performance and faster category fluency decline. A cumulative score, combining APOE, BDNF, KIBRA and CLSTN2, was associated with faster cognitive decline that was specific to the episodic memory domain (regression coefficient -0.064, p < .01). Similar results were obtained for a score not including APOE. Conclusions: Results suggest a benefit of investigating the combined influence of polymorphisms related to specific mechanistic factors.
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6.
  • Lövdén, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Latent-Profile Analysis Reveals Behavioral and Brain Correlates of Dopamine-Cognition Associations
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 28:11, s. 3894-3907
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with C-11-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed). Generally, greater receptor availability was associated with better cognitive performance. However, we discovered a subgroup of individuals for which high availability, particularly in striatum, was associated with poor performance, especially for working memory. Relative to the rest of the sample, this subgroup also had lower education, higher body-mass index, and lower resting-state connectivity between caudate nucleus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We conclude that a smaller subset of individuals induces a multivariate non-linear association between dopamine D2/3R availability and cognitive performance in this group of older adults, and discuss potential reasons for these differences that await further empirical scrutiny.
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7.
  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Dopamine D2 receptor availability is linked to hippocampal-caudate functional connectivity and episodic memory
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 113:28, s. 7918-7923
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1DRs and D2DRs) may contribute differently to various aspects of memory and cognition. The D1DR system has been linked to functions supported by the prefrontal cortex. By contrast, the role of the D2DR system is less clear, although it has been hypothesized that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognitive functions. Here we present results from 181 healthy adults between 64 and 68 y of age who underwent comprehensive assessment of episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed, along with MRI and D2DR assessment with [C-11]raclopride and PET. Caudate D2DR availability was positively associated with episodic memory but not with working memory or speed. Whole-brain analyses further revealed a relation between hippocampal D2DR availability and episodic memory. Hippocampal and caudate D2DR availability were interrelated, and functional MRI-based resting-state functional connectivity between the ventral caudate and medial temporal cortex increased as a function of caudate D2DR availability. Collectively, these findings indicate that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognition by influencing striatal and hippocampal regions, and their interactions.
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8.
  • Papenberg, Goran, et al. (författare)
  • Magnified effects of the COMT gene on white-matter microstructure in very old age
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Brain Structure and Function. - 1863-2653 .- 1863-2661. ; 220:5, s. 2927-2938
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic factors may partly account for between-person differences in brain integrity in old age. Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the dopaminergic system is implicated in the modulation of white-matter integrity. We investigated whether a genetic variation in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which influences dopamine availability in prefrontal cortex, contributes to interindividual differences in white-matter microstructure, as measured with diffusion-tensor imaging. In a sample of older adults from a population-based study (60-87 years; n = 238), we found that the COMT polymorphism affects white-matter microstructure, indexed by fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, of several white-matter tracts in the oldest age group (81-87 years), although there were no reliable associations between COMT and white-matter microstructure in the two younger age groups (60-66 and 72-78 years). These findings extend previous observations of magnified genetic effects on cognition in old age to white-matter integrity.
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9.
  • Papenberg, Goran, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping the landscape of human dopamine D2/3 receptors with [11C]raclopride
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain Structure and Function. - 1863-2653 .- 1863-2661. ; 224:8, s. 2871-2882
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dopamine D2/3 system is fundamental for sensory, motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of behavior. Small-scale human histopathological and animal studies show high density of D2/3 dopamine receptors (D2/3DR) in striatum, but also demonstrate the existence of such receptors across cortical and limbic regions. Assessment of D2/3DR BPND in the extrastriatal regions with [C-11]raclopride has long been considered unreliable due to the relatively low density of D2/3DR outside the striatum. We describe the distribution and interregional links of D2/3DR availability measured with PET and [C-11]raclopride across the human brain in a large sample (N = 176; age range 64-68 years). Structural equation modeling revealed that D2/3DR availability can be organized according to anatomical (nigrostriatal, mesolimbic, mesocortical) and functional (limbic, associative, sensorimotor) dopamine pathways. D2/3DR availability in corticolimbic functional subdivisions showed differential associations to corresponding striatal subdivisions, extending animal and pharmacological work. Our findings provide evidence on the dimensionality and organization of [C-11]raclopride D2/3DR availability in the living human brain that conforms to known dopaminergic pathways.
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10.
  • Werheid, Katja, et al. (författare)
  • Latent Change Score Modeling as a Method for Analyzing the Antidepressant Effect of a Psychosocial Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. - 0033-3190 .- 1423-0348. ; 84:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Developing and evaluating interventions for patients with age-associated disorders is a rising field in psychotherapy research. Its methodological challenges include the high between-subject variability and the wealth of influencing factors associated with longer lifetime. Latent change score modeling (LCSM), a technique based on structural equation modeling, may be well suited to analyzing longitudinal data sets obtained in clinical trials. Here, we used LCSM to evaluate the antidepressant effect of a combined cognitive behavioral/cognitive rehabilitation (CB/CR) intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: LCSM was applied to predict the change in depressive symptoms from baseline as an outcome of the CORDIAL study, a randomized controlled trial involving 201 patients with mild AD. The participants underwent either the CORDIAL CB/CR program or standard treatment. Using LCSM, the model best predicting changes in Geriatric Depression Scale scores was determined based on this data set. Results: The best fit was achieved by a model predicting a decline in depressive symptoms between before and after testing. Assignment to the intervention group as well as female gender revealed significant effects in model fit indices, which remained stable at 6-and 12-month follow-up examinations. The pre-post effect was pronounced for patients with clinically relevant depressive symptoms at baseline. Conclusions: LCSM confirmed the antidepressant effect of the CORDIAL therapy program, which was limited to women. The effect was pronounced in patients with clinically relevant depressive symptoms at baseline. Methodologically, LCSM appears well suited to analyzing longitudinal data from clinical trials in aged populations, by accounting for the high between-subject variability and providing information on the differential indication of the probed intervention.
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