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  • Bruder, Carl E G, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypically concordant and discordant monozygotic twins display different DNA copy-number-variation profiles
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 82:3, s. 763-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The exploration of copy-number variation (CNV), notably of somatic cells, is an understudied aspect of genome biology. Any differences in the genetic makeup between twins derived from the same zygote represent an irrefutable example of somatic mosaicism. We studied 19 pairs of monozygotic twins with either concordant or discordant phenotype by using two platforms for genome-wide CNV analyses and showed that CNVs exist within pairs in both groups. These findings have an impact on our views of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in monozygotic twins and suggest that CNV analysis in phenotypically discordant monozygotic twins may provide a powerful tool for identifying disease-predisposition loci. Our results also imply that caution should be exercised when interpreting disease causality of de novo CNVs found in patients based on analysis of a single tissue in routine disease-related DNA diagnostics.</p>
  • Andersson, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • A Segmental Maximum A Posteriori Approach to Genome-wide Copy Number Profiling
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Bioinformatics. - 1367-4803 .- 1367-4811. ; 24:6, s. 751-758
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>MOTIVATION: Copy number profiling methods aim at assigning DNA copy numbers to chromosomal regions using measurements from microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations. Among the proposed methods to this end, Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based approaches seem promising since DNA copy number transitions are naturally captured in the model. Current discrete-index HMM-based approaches do not, however, take into account heterogeneous information regarding the genomic overlap between clones. Moreover, the majority of existing methods are restricted to chromosome-wise analysis. RESULTS: We introduce a novel Segmental Maximum A Posteriori approach, SMAP, for DNA copy number profiling. Our method is based on discrete-index Hidden Markov Modeling and incorporates genomic distance and overlap between clones. We exploit a priori information through user-controllable parameterization that enables the identification of copy number deviations of various lengths and amplitudes. The model parameters may be inferred at a genome-wide scale to avoid overfitting of model parameters often resulting from chromosome-wise model inference. We report superior performances of SMAP on synthetic data when compared with two recent methods. When applied on our new experimental data, SMAP readily recognizes already known genetic aberrations including both large-scale regions with aberrant DNA copy number and changes affecting only single features on the array. We highlight the differences between the prediction of SMAP and the compared methods and show that SMAP accurately determines copy number changes and benefits from overlap consideration.</p>
  • Andersson, Robin, 1980- (författare)
  • Decoding the Structural Layer of Transcriptional Regulation Computational Analyses of Chromatin and Chromosomal Aberrations
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Gene activity is regulated at two separate layers. Through structural and chemical properties of DNA – the primary layer of encoding – local signatures may enable, or disable, the binding of proteins or complexes of them with regulatory potential to the DNA. At a higher level – the structural layer of encoding – gene activity is regulated through the properties of higher order DNA structure, chromatin, and chromosome organization. Cells with abnormal chromosome compaction or organization, e.g. cancer cells, may thus have perturbed regulatory activities resulting in abnormal gene activity.</p> <p>Hence, there is a great need to decode the transcriptional regulation encoded in both layers to further our understanding of the factors that control activity and life of a cell and, ultimately, an organism. Modern genome-wide studies with those aims rely on data-intense experiments requiring sophisticated computational and statistical methods for data handling and analyses. This thesis describes recent advances of analyzing experimental data from quantitative biological studies to decipher the structural layer of encoding in human cells.</p> <p>Adopting an integrative approach when possible, combining multiple sources of data, allowed us to study the influences of chromatin (Papers I and II) and chromosomal aberrations (Paper IV) on transcription. Combining chromatin data with chromosomal aberration data allowed us to identify putative driver oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in cancer (Paper IV).</p> <p>Bayesian approaches enabling the incorporation of background information in the models and the adaptability of such models to data have been very useful. Their usages yielded accurate and narrow detection of chromosomal breakpoints in cancer (Papers III and IV) and reliable positioning of nucleosomes and their dynamics during transcriptional regulation at functionally relevant regulatory elements (Paper II).</p> <p>Using massively parallel sequencing data, we explored the chromatin landscapes of human cells (Papers I and II) and concluded that there is a preferential and evolutionary conserved positioning at internal exons nearly unaffected by the transcriptional level. We also observed a strong association between certain histone modifications and the inclusion or exclusion of an exon in the mature gene transcript, suggesting a functional role in splicing.</p>
  • Andersson, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • RoSy : A Rough Knowledge Base System
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining, and Granular-Soft Computing,2005. - Berlin : Springer. ; s. 48
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
  • Andersson, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • RoSy: A Rough Knowledge Base System
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining, and Granular Computing : 10th International Conference, RSFDGrC 2005, Regina, Canada, August 31 - September 3, 2005, Proceedings, Part II. - 978-3-540-28660-8 ; s. 48-58
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper presents a user-oriented view of RoSy, a Rough Knowledge Base System. The system tackles two problems not fully answered by previous research: the ability to define rough sets in terms of other rough sets and incorporation of domain or expert knowledge. We describe two main components of RoSy: knowledge base creation and query answering. The former allows the user to create a knowledge base of rough concepts and checks that the definitions do not cause what we will call a model failure. The latter gives the user a possibility to query rough concepts defined in the knowledge base. The features of RoSy are described using examples. The system is currently available on a web site for online interactions.</p>
  • Baltzer, Nicholas, et al. (författare)
  • Risk stratification in cervical cancer screening by complete screening history : Applying bioinformatics to a general screening population
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 141:1, s. 200-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Women screened for cervical cancer in Sweden are currently treated under a one-size-fits-all programme, which has been successful in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer but does not use all of the participants' available medical information. This study aimed to use women's complete cervical screening histories to identify diagnostic patterns that may indicate an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. A nationwide case-control study was performed where cervical cancer screening data from 125,476 women with a maximum follow-up of 10 years were evaluated for patterns of SNOMED diagnoses. The cancer development risk was estimated for a number of different screening history patterns and expressed as Odds Ratios (OR), with a history of 4 benign cervical tests as reference, using logistic regression. The overall performance of the model was moderate (64% accuracy, 71% area under curve) with 61-62% of the study population showing no specific patterns associated with risk. However, predictions for high-risk groups as defined by screening history patterns were highly discriminatory with ORs ranging from 8 to 36. The model for computing risk performed consistently across different screening history lengths, and several patterns predicted cancer outcomes. The results show the presence of risk-increasing and risk-decreasing factors in the screening history. Thus it is feasible to identify subgroups based on their complete screening histories. Several high-risk subgroups identified might benefit from an increased screening density. Some low-risk subgroups identified could likely have a moderately reduced screening density without additional risk.</p>
  • Baltzer, Nicholas, et al. (författare)
  • Stratifying Cervical Cancer Risk With Registry Data
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 14th International Conference on e-Science (e-Science 2018). - IEEE. - 978-1-5386-9156-4 ; s. 288-289
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The cervical cancer screening programmes in Sweden and Norway have successfully reduced the frequency of cervical cancer incidence but have not implemented any form of evaluation for screening needs. This means that the screening frequency for individuals can he suboptimal, increasing either the cost of the programme or the risk of missing an early stage cancer development. We developed a framework for assessing an individual's risk of cervical cancer based on their available screening history and computing a primary risk factor called CRS from a data-driven separation model together with multiple derived attributes. The results show that this approach is highly practical, validates against multiple established trends, and can he effective in personalizing the screening needs for individuals.</p>
  • Bergström, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Differential gene expression in the olfactory bulb following exposure to the olfactory toxicant 2,6-dichlorophenyl methylsulphone and its 2,5-dichlorinated isomer in mice
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Neurotoxicology. - 0161-813X .- 1872-9711. ; 28:6, s. 1120-1128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>2,6-Dichlorophenyl methylsulphone and a number of structurally related chemicals are CYP-activated toxicants in the olfactory mucosa in mice and rats. This toxicity involves both the olfactory neuroepithelium and its subepithelial nerves. In addition, 2,6-dichlorophenyl methylsulphone, induces glial acidic fibrillary protein expression (Gfap, a biomarker for gliosis) in the olfactory bulb, as well as long-lasting learning deficits and changes in spontaneous behavior in mice and rats. So far the 2,5-dichlorinated isomer has not been reported to cause toxicity in the olfactory system, although it gives rise to transient changes in spontaneous behavior. In the present study we used 15k cDNA gene arrays and real-time RTPCR to determine 2,6-dichlorophenyl methylsulphone-induced effects on gene expression in the olfactory bulb in mice. Seven days following a single ip dose of 2,6-dichlorophenyl methylsulphone, 56 genes were found to be differentially expressed in the olfactory bulb. Forty-one of these genes clustered into specific processes regulating, for instance, cell differentiation, cell migration and apoptosis. The genes selected for real-time RT-PCR were chosen to cover the range of B-values in the cDNA array analysis. Altered expression of Gfap, mt-Rnr2, Ncor1 and Olfml3 was confirmed. The expression of these genes was measured also in mice dosed with 2,5-dichlorophenyl methylsulphone, and mt-Rnr2 and Olfml3 were found to be altered also by this isomer. Combined with previous data, the results support the possibility that the persistent neurotoxicity induced by 2,6-dichlorophenyl methylsulphone in mice represents both an indirect and a direct effect on the brain. The 2,5-dichlorinated isomer, negative with regard to CYP-catalyzed toxicity in the olfactory mucosa, may prove useful to resolve this issue.</p>
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