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Sökning: WFRF:(Koskinen Lars Owe D. Professor 1955 )

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  • Gravesteijn, B. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Variation in the practice of tracheal intubation in Europe after traumatic brain injury : a prospective cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Anaesthesia. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0003-2409 .- 1365-2044. ; 75:1, s. 45-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traumatic brain injury patients frequently undergo tracheal intubation. We aimed to assess current intubation practice in Europe and identify variation in practice. We analysed data from patients with traumatic brain injury included in the prospective cohort study collaborative European neurotrauma effectiveness research in traumatic brain injury (CENTER-TBI) in 45 centres in 16 European countries. We included patients who were transported to hospital by emergency medical services. We used mixed-effects multinomial regression to quantify the effects on pre-hospital or in-hospital tracheal intubation of the following: patient characteristics; injury characteristics; centre; and trauma system characteristics. A total of 3843 patients were included. Of these, 1322 (34%) had their tracheas intubated; 839 (22%) pre-hospital and 483 (13%) in-hospital. The fit of the model with only patient characteristics predicting intubation was good (Nagelkerke R2 64%). The probability of tracheal intubation increased with the following: younger age; lower pre-hospital or emergency department GCS; higher abbreviated injury scale scores (head and neck, thorax and chest, face or abdomen abbreviated injury score); and one or more unreactive pupils. The adjusted median odds ratio for intubation between two randomly chosen centres was 3.1 (95%CI 2.1-4.3) for pre-hospital intubation, and 2.7 (95%CI 1.9-3.5) for in-hospital intubation. Furthermore, the presence of an anaesthetist was independently associated with more pre-hospital intubation (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.3-6.6), in contrast to the presence of ambulance personnel who are allowed to intubate (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.8). In conclusion, patient and injury characteristics are key drivers of tracheal intubation. Between-centre differences were also substantial. Further studies are needed to improve the evidence base supporting recommendations for tracheal intubation.
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  • Naredi, S., et al. (författare)
  • An outcome study of severe traumatic head injury using the "Lund therapy" with low-dose prostacyclin
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-5172 .- 1399-6576. - 0001-5172 (Print) ; 45:4, s. 402-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There are two independent head injury outcome studies using the “Lund concept”, and both showed a mortality rate of about 10%, and a favourable outcome (Glasgow outcome scale, GOS 4 and 5) of about 70%. The Lund concept aims at controlling intracranial pressure, and improving microcirculation around contusions. Intracranial pressure is controlled by maintaining a normal colloid osmotic pressure and reducing the hydrostatic capillary pressure. Microcirculation is improved by ensuring strict normovolaemia and reducing sympathetic discharge. The endogenous substance prostacyclin with its antiaggregatory/antiadhesive effects may further improve microcirculation, which finds support from a microdialysis‐based clinical study and an experimental brain trauma study. The present clinical outcome study aims at evaluating whether the previously obtained good outcome with the Lund therapy can be reproduced, and whether the addition of prostacyclin has any adverse side‐effects.Methods: All 31 consecutive patients with severe head injury, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) ≤8, admitted to the University Hospital of Umeå during 1998 were included. The Lund therapy including prostacyclin infusion for the first three days at a dose of 0.5 ng kg−1 min−1. Outcome was evaluated according to the GOS >10 months after the injury.Results: One patient died, another suffered vegetative state and 7 severe disability. Of the 22 patients with favourable outcome, 19 showed good recovery and 3 moderate disability. No adverse side‐effects of prostacyclin were observed.Conclusion: The outcome results from previous studies using the Lund therapy were reproduced, and no adverse side‐effects of low‐dose prostacyclin were observed.
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  • Dijkland, Simone A., et al. (författare)
  • Outcome Prediction after Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury : External Validation of Two Established Prognostic Models in 1742 European Patients
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurotrauma. - : Mary Ann Liebert. - 0897-7151 .- 1557-9042. ; 38:10, s. 1377-1388
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in Traumatic Brain Injury (IMPACT) and Corticoid Randomisation After Significant Head injury (CRASH) prognostic models predict functional outcome after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aimed to assess their performance in a contemporary cohort of patients across Europe. The Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) core study is a prospective, observational cohort study in patients presenting with TBI and an indication for brain computed tomography. The CENTER-TBI core cohort consists of 4509 TBI patients available for analyses from 59 centers in 18 countries across Europe and Israel. The IMPACT validation cohort included 1173 patients with GCS ≤12, age ≥14, and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) available. The CRASH validation cohort contained 1742 patients with GCS ≤14, age ≥16, and 14-day mortality or 6-month GOSE available. Performance of the three IMPACT and two CRASH model variants was assessed with discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; AUC) and calibration (comparison of observed vs. predicted outcome rates). For IMPACT, model discrimination was good, with AUCs ranging between 0.77 and 0.85 in 1173 patients and between 0.80 and 0.88 in the broader CRASH selection (n = 1742). For CRASH, AUCs ranged between 0.82 and 0.88 in 1742 patients and between 0.66 and 0.80 in the stricter IMPACT selection (n = 1173). Calibration of the IMPACT and CRASH models was generally moderate, with calibration-in-the-large and calibration slopes ranging between -2.02 and 0.61 and between 0.48 and 1.39, respectively. The IMPACT and CRASH models adequately identify patients at high risk for mortality or unfavorable outcome, which supports their use in research settings and for benchmarking in the context of quality-of-care assessment.
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  • Gasslander, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for developing subdural hematoma : a registry-based study in 1457 patients with shunted idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurosurgery. - : American Association of Neurological Surgeons. - 0022-3085 .- 1933-0693. ; 134:2, s. 668-677
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Subdural hematomas and hygromas (SDHs) are common complications in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients with shunts. In this registry-based study, patients with shunted iNPH were screened nationwide to identify perioperative variables that may increase the risk of SDH.METHODS: The Swedish Hydrocephalus Quality Registry was reviewed for iNPH patients who had undergone shunt surgery in Sweden in 2004-2014. Potential risk factors for SDH were recorded preoperatively and 3 months after surgery. Drug prescriptions were identified from a national pharmacy database. Patients who developed SDHs were compared with those without SDHs.RESULTS: The study population consisted of 1457 patients, 152 (10.4%) of whom developed an SDH. Men developed an SDH more often than women (OR 2.084, 95% CI 1.421-3.058, p < 0.001). Patients on platelet aggregation inhibitors developed an SDH more often than those who were not (OR 1.733, 95% CI 1.236-2.431, p = 0.001). At surgery, shunt opening pressures had been set 5.9 mm H2O lower in the SDH group than in the no-SDH group (109.6 ± 24.1 vs 115.5 ± 25.4 mm H2O, respectively, p = 0.009). Antisiphoning devices (ASDs) were used in 892 patients but did not prevent SDH. Mean opening pressures at surgery and the follow-up were lower with shunts with an ASD, without causing more SDHs. No other differences were seen between the groups.CONCLUSIONS: iNPH patients in this study were diagnosed and operated on in routine practice; thus, the results represent everyday care. Male sex, antiplatelet medication, and a lower opening pressure at surgery were risk factors for SDH. Physical status and comorbidity were not. ASD did not prevent SDH, but a shunt with an ASD allowed a lower opening pressure without causing more SDHs.
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  • Gravesteijn, Benjamin Yael, et al. (författare)
  • Tracheal intubation in traumatic brain injury : a multicentre prospective observational study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Anaesthesia. - : Oxford University Press. - 0007-0912 .- 1471-6771. ; 125:4, s. 505-517
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the associations between pre- and in-hospital tracheal intubation and outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and whether the association varied according to injury severity.METHODS: Data from the international prospective pan-European cohort study, Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research for TBI (CENTER-TBI), were used (n=4509). For prehospital intubation, we excluded self-presenters. For in-hospital intubation, patients whose tracheas were intubated on-scene were excluded. The association between intubation and outcome was analysed with ordinal regression with adjustment for the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI variables and extracranial injury. We assessed whether the effect of intubation varied by injury severity by testing the added value of an interaction term with likelihood ratio tests.RESULTS: In the prehospital analysis, 890/3736 (24%) patients had their tracheas intubated at scene. In the in-hospital analysis, 460/2930 (16%) patients had their tracheas intubated in the emergency department. There was no adjusted overall effect on functional outcome of prehospital intubation (odds ratio=1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.28; P=0.96), and the adjusted overall effect of in-hospital intubation was not significant (odds ratio=0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.13; P=0.28). However, prehospital intubation was associated with better functional outcome in patients with higher thorax and abdominal Abbreviated Injury Scale scores (P=0.009 and P=0.02, respectively), whereas in-hospital intubation was associated with better outcome in patients with lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores (P=0.01): in-hospital intubation was associated with better functional outcome in patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 10 or lower.CONCLUSION: The benefits and harms of tracheal intubation should be carefully evaluated in patients with TBI to optimise benefit. This study suggests that extracranial injury should influence the decision in the prehospital setting, and level of consciousness in the in-hospital setting.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02210221.
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  • Malm, Jan, Professor, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid shunt dynamics in patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 58:6, s. 715-723
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to assess CSF dynamics of different shunt constructions in patients with adult hydrocephalus syndrome and correlate these findings to clinical outcome, neuroradiology, and the specifications of the shunts provided by the manufacturer. Thirty four patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus (normal pressure hydrocephalus) syndrome were included in a prospective, consecutive case series. A differential pressure valve (Cordis Hakim standard system) was used in 28 patients and a variable resistance valve (Cordis Orbis-Sigma) in six. A constant pressure infusion method was used; CSF pressure and conductance were determined before surgery. Three months after shunt placement CSF pressure, the "pressure v flow" curve, and gravity induced flow were measured. There was no difference between mean preoperative and postoperative resting CSF pressures in patients with Hakim shunts. The opening pressures of the Hakim shunts were higher than the value proposed by the manufacturer. A pronounced gravity effect induced CSF flow and decrease of the CSF pressure. In functioning variable resistance valves, CSF dynamics normalised postoperatively. There was no gravity effect and the characteristics shaped "pressure v flow" curve was sometimes seen. Six patients (three differential pressure valves, three variable resistance valves) had non-functioning shunts. Four of these patients were improved after the operation but improvement was transient in three. In all patients, there was no relation between the width of the ventricles and clinical improvement or CSF pressure. In conclusion, the differential pressure valve system does not behave according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. A decrease in CSF pressure in patients with this shunt was solely due to the effect of gravity. Eleven percent of the differential pressure valves and 50% of the variable resistance valves were non-functioning. In the functioning variable resistance valves, the antisiphon system seems to be effective.
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  • Mikolić, Ana, et al. (författare)
  • Differences between Men and Women in Treatment and Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurotrauma. - : Mary Ann Liebert. - 0897-7151 .- 1557-9042. ; 38:2, s. 235-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of disability, but little is known about sex and gender differences after TBI. We aimed to analyze the association between sex/gender, and the broad range of care pathways, treatment characteristics, and outcomes following mild and moderate/severe TBI. We performed mixed-effects regression analyses in the prospective multi-center Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, stratified for injury severity and age, and adjusted for baseline characteristics. Outcomes were various care pathway and treatment variables, and 6-month measures of functional outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), post-concussion symptoms (PCS), and mental health symptoms. The study included 2862 adults (36% women) with mild (mTBI; Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 13–15), and 1333 adults (26% women) with moderate/severe TBI (GCS score 3–12). Women were less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU; odds ratios [OR] 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.8) following mTBI. Following moderate/severe TBI, women had a shorter median hospital stay (OR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-1.0). Following mTBI, women had poorer outcomes; lower Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE; OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), lower generic and disease-specific HRQoL, and more severe PCS, depression, and anxiety. Among them, women under age 45 and above age 65 years showed worse 6-month outcomes compared with men of the same age. Following moderate/severe TBI, there was no difference in GOSE (OR 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.2), but women reported more severe PCS (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Men and women differ in care pathways and outcomes following TBI. Women generally report worse 6-month outcomes, but the size of differences depend on TBI severity and age. Future studies should examine factors that explain these differences.
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