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Sökning: WFRF:(Krawczak Michael)

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1.
  • Ellinghaus, David, et al. (författare)
  • Association between variants of PRDM1 and NDP52 and Crohn's disease, based on exome sequencing and functional studies
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 145:2, s. 339-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 140 Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility loci. For most loci, the variants that cause disease are not known and the genes affected by these variants have not been identified. We aimed to identify variants that cause CD through detailed sequencing, genetic association, expression, and functional studies.METHODS: We sequenced whole exomes of 42 unrelated subjects with CD and 5 healthy subjects (controls) and then filtered single nucleotide variants by incorporating association results from meta-analyses of CD GWAS and in silico mutation effect prediction algorithms. We then genotyped 9348 subjects with CD, 2868 subjects with ulcerative colitis, and 14,567 control subjects and associated variants analyzed in functional studies using materials from subjects and controls and in vitro model systems.RESULTS: We identified rare missense mutations in PR domain-containing 1 (PRDM1) and associated these with CD. These mutations increased proliferation of T cells and secretion of cytokines on activation and increased expression of the adhesion molecule L-selectin. A common CD risk allele, identified in GWAS, correlated with reduced expression of PRDM1 in ileal biopsy specimens and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (combined P = 1.6 x 10(-8)). We identified an association between CD and a common missense variant, Val248Ala, in nuclear domain 10 protein 52 (NDP52) (P = 4.83 x 10(-9)). We found that this variant impairs the regulatory functions of NDP52 to inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation of genes that regulate inflammation and affect the stability of proteins in Toll-like receptor pathways.CONCLUSIONS: We have extended the results of GWAS and provide evidence that variants in PRDM1 and NDP52 determine susceptibility to CD. PRDM1 maps adjacent to a CD interval identified in GWAS and encodes a transcription factor expressed by T and B cells. NDP52 is an adaptor protein that functions in selective autophagy of intracellular bacteria and signaling molecules, supporting the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of CD.
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2.
  • Schafmayer, Clemens, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis of diverticular disease points towards neuromuscular, connective tissue and epithelial pathomechanisms
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 68:5, s. 854-865
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Diverticular disease is a common complex disorder characterised by mucosal outpouchings of the colonic wall that manifests through complications such as diverticulitis, perforation and bleeding. We report the to date largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic risk factors for diverticular disease. Design Discovery GWAS analysis was performed on UK Biobank imputed genotypes using 31 964 cases and 419 135 controls of European descent. Associations were replicated in a European sample of 3893 cases and 2829 diverticula-free controls and evaluated for risk contribution to diverticulitis and uncomplicated diverticulosis. Transcripts at top 20 replicating loci were analysed by real-time quatitative PCR in preparations of the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layer of colon. The localisation of expressed protein at selected loci was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results We discovered 48 risk loci, of which 12 are novel, with genome-wide significance and consistent OR in the replication sample. Nominal replication (p< 0.05) was observed for 27 loci, and additional 8 in meta-analysis with a population-based cohort. The most significant novel risk variant rs9960286 is located near CTAGE1 with a p value of 2.3x10-10 and 0.002 (OR allelic = 1.14 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.24)) in the replication analysis. Four loci showed stronger effects for diverticulitis, PHGR1 (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.56), FAM155A-2 (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.42), CALCB (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33) and S100A10 (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33). Conclusion I n silico analyses point to diverticulosis primarily as a disorder of intestinal neuromuscular function and of impaired connective fibre support, while an additional diverticulitis risk might be conferred by epithelial dysfunction.
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3.
  • Lascorz, Jesus, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study for colorectal cancer identifies risk polymorphisms in German familial cases and implicates MAPK signalling pathways in disease susceptibility
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 31:9, s. 1612-1619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic susceptibility accounts for similar to 35% of all colorectal cancer (CRC). Ten common low-risk variants contributing to CRC risk have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs). In our GWAS, 610 664 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passed the quality control filtering in 371 German familial CRC patients and 1263 controls, and replication studies were conducted in four additional case-control sets (4915 cases and 5607 controls). Known risk loci at 8q24.21 and 11q23 were confirmed, and a previously unreported association, rs12701937, located between the genes GLI3 (GLI family zinc finger 3) and INHBA (inhibin, beta A) [P = 1.1 x 10(-3), odds ratio (OR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.23, dominant model in the combined cohort], was identified. The association was stronger in familial cases compared with unselected cases (P = 2.0 x 10(-4), OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.16-1.60, dominant model). Two other unreported SNPs, rs6038071, 40 kb upstream of CSNK2A1 (casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide) and an intronic marker in MYO3A (myosin IIIA), rs11014993, associated with CRC only in the familial CRC cases (P = 2.5 x 10(-3), recessive model, and P = 2.7 x 10(-4), dominant model). Three software tools successfully pointed to the overrepresentation of genes related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways among the 1340 most strongly associated markers from the GWAS (allelic P value < 10(-3)). The risk of CRC increased significantly with an increasing number of risk alleles in seven genes involved in MAPK signalling events (P-trend = 2.2 x 10(-16), ORper allele = 1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.61).
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4.
  • Pfeiffer, D., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Imbalance Is Associated With Functional Outcome After Ischemic Stroke
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 50:2, s. 298-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-We sought to explore the effect of genetic imbalance on functional outcome after ischemic stroke (IS). Methods-Copy number variation was identified in high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray data of IS patients from the CADISP (Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients) and SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network)/ GISCOME (Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional Outcome) networks. Genetic imbalance, defined as total number of protein-coding genes affected by copy number variations in an individual, was compared between patients with favorable (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2) and unfavorable (modified Rankin Scale score of = 3) outcome after 3 months. Subgroup analyses were confined to patients with imbalance affecting ohnologs-a class of dose-sensitive genes, or to those with imbalance not affecting ohnologs. The association of imbalance with outcome was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, stroke subtype, stroke severity, and ancestry. Results-The study sample comprised 816 CADISP patients (age 44.2 +/- 10.3 years) and 2498 SiGN/GISCOME patients (age 67.7 +/- 14.2 years). Outcome was unfavorable in 122 CADISP and 889 SiGN/GISCOME patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased genetic imbalance was associated with less favorable outcome in both samples (CADISP: P=0.0007; odds ratio=0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.95 and SiGN/GISCOME: P=0.0036; odds ratio=0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98). The association was independent of age, sex, stroke severity on admission, stroke subtype, and ancestry. On subgroup analysis, imbalance affecting ohnologs was associated with outcome (CADISP: odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95 and SiGN/GISCOME: odds ratio=0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98) whereas imbalance without ohnologs lacked such an association. Conclusions-Increased genetic imbalance was associated with poorer functional outcome after IS in both study populations. Subgroup analysis revealed that this association was driven by presence of ohnologs in the respective copy number variations, suggesting a causal role of the deleterious effects of genetic imbalance.
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5.
  • Siegert, Sabine, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide investigation of gene-environment interactions in colorectal cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer. - 1432-1203. ; 132:2, s. 219-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most frequent neoplasias worldwide, has both genetic and environmental causes. As yet, however, gene-environment (G x E) interactions in CRC have been studied mostly for a small number of candidate genes only. Therefore, we investigated the possible interaction, in CRC etiology, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the one hand, and overweight, smoking and alcohol consumption on the other, at a genome-wide level. To this end, we adopted a two-tiered approach comprising a case-only screening stage I (314 cases) and a case-control validation stage II (259 cases, 1,002 controls). Interactions with the smallest p value in stage I were verified in stage II using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex and age. In addition, we specifically studied known CRC-associated SNPs for possible G x E interactions. Upon adjustment for sex and age, and after allowing for multiple testing, however, only a single SNP (rs1944511) was found to be involved in a statistically significant interaction, namely with overweight (multiplicity-corrected p = 0.042 in stage II). Several other G x E interactions were nominally significant but failed correction for multiple testing, including a previously reported interaction between rs9929218 and alcohol consumption that also emerged in our candidate SNP study (nominal p = 0.008). Notably, none of the interactions identified in our genome-wide analysis was with a previously reported CRC-associated SNP. Our study therefore highlights the potential of an "agnostic" genome-wide approach to G x E analysis.
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6.
  • Tehua Lu, Timothy, et al. (författare)
  • An evaluation of the genetic-matched pair study design using genome-wide SNP data from the European population
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 17:7, s. 967-975
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic matching potentially provides a means to alleviate the effects of incomplete Mendelian randomization in population-based gene-disease association studies. We therefore evaluated the genetic-matched pair study design on the basis of genome-wide SNP data (309 790 markers; Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 500K Array) from 2457 individuals, sampled at 23 different recruitment sites across Europe. Using pair-wise identity-by-state (IBS) as a matching criterion, we tried to derive a subset of markers that would allow identification of the best overall matching (BOM) partner for a given individual, based on the IBS status for the subset alone. However, our results suggest that, by following this approach, the prediction accuracy is only notably improved by the first 20 markers selected, and increases proportionally to the marker number thereafter. Furthermore, in a considerable proportion of cases (76.0%), the BOM of a given individual, based on the complete marker set, came from a different recruitment site than the individual itself. A second marker set, specifically selected for ancestry sensitivity using singular value decomposition, performed even more poorly and was no more capable of predicting the BOM than randomly chosen subsets. This leads us to conclude that, at least in Europe, the utility of the genetic-matched pair study design depends critically on the availability of comprehensive genotype information for both cases and controls. European Journal of Human Genetics (2009) 17, 967-975; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.266; published online 21 January 2009
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8.
  • Estrada, Karol, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human molecular genetics. - 1460-2083. ; 18:18, s. 3516-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Northwestern Europeans are among the tallest of human populations. The increase in body height in these people appears to have reached a plateau, suggesting the ubiquitous presence of an optimal environment in which genetic factors may have exerted a particularly strong influence on human growth. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body height using 2.2 million markers in 10 074 individuals from three Dutch and one German population-based cohorts. Upon genotyping, the 12 most significantly height-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from this GWAS in 6912 additional individuals of Dutch and Swedish origin, a genetic variant (rs6717918) on chromosome 2q37.1 was found to be associated with height at a genome-wide significance level (P(combined) = 3.4 x 10(-9)). Notably, a second SNP (rs6718438) located approximately 450 bp away and in strong LD (r(2) = 0.77) with rs6717918 was previously found to be suggestive of a height association in 29 820 individuals of mainly northwestern European ancestry, and the over-expression of a nearby natriuretic peptide precursor type C (NPPC) gene, has been associated with overgrowth and skeletal anomalies. We also found a SNP (rs10472828) located on 5p14 near the natriuretic peptide receptor 3 (NPR3) gene, encoding a receptor of the NPPC ligand, to be associated with body height (P(combined) = 2.1 x 10(-7)). Taken together, these results suggest that variation in the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway, involving the NPPC and NPR3 genes, plays an important role in determining human body height.
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9.
  • Pattaro, Cristian, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of genome-wide data from five European isolates reveals an association of COL22A1, SYT1, and GABRR2 with serum creatinine level
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - 1471-2350 .- 1471-2350. ; 11, s. 41-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Serum creatinine (SCR) is the most important biomarker for a quick and non-invasive assessment of kidney function in population-based surveys. A substantial proportion of the inter-individual variability in SCR level is explicable by genetic factors. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of SCR undertaken in five population isolates ('discovery cohorts'), all of which are part of the European Special Population Network (EUROSPAN) project. Genes showing the strongest evidence for an association with SCR (candidate loci) were replicated in two additional population-based samples ('replication cohorts'). Results After the discovery meta-analysis, 29 loci were selected for replication. Association between SCR level and polymorphisms in the collagen type XXII alpha 1 (COL22A1) gene, on chromosome 8, and in the synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1) gene, on chromosome 12, were successfully replicated in the replication cohorts (p value = 1.0 × 10-6 and 1.7 × 10-4, respectively). Evidence of association was also found for polymorphisms in a locus including the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor rho-2 (GABRR2) gene and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-J1 (UBE2J1) gene (replication p value = 3.6 × 10-3). Previously reported findings, associating glomerular filtration rate with SNPs in the uromodulin (UMOD) gene and in the schroom family member 3 (SCHROOM3) gene were also replicated. Conclusions While confirming earlier results, our study provides new insights in the understanding of the genetic basis of serum creatinine regulatory processes. In particular, the association with the genes SYT1 and GABRR2 corroborate previous findings that highlighted a possible role of the neurotransmitters GABAA receptors in the regulation of the glomerular basement membrane and a possible interaction between GABAAreceptors and synaptotagmin-I at the podocyte level.
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10.
  • Yang, Rongxi, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis associates familial colorectal cancer with increases in copy number variations and a rare structural variation at 12p12.3
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 35:2, s. 315-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancer worldwide. However, a large number of genetic risk factors involved in CRC have not been understood. Copy number variations (CNVs) might partly contribute to the missing heritability of CRC. An increased overall burden of CNV has been identified in several complex diseases, whereas the association between the overall CNV burden and CRC risk is largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide investigation of CNVs on genomic DNA from 384 familial CRC cases and 1285 healthy controls by the Affymetrix 6.0 array. An increase of overall CNV burden was observed in familial CRC patients compared with healthy controls, especially for CNVs larger than 50kb (case/control ratio 1.66, P 0.025). In addition, we discovered for the first time a novel structural variation at 12p12.3 and determined the breakpoints by strategic PCR and sequencing. This 12p12.3 structural variation was found in four of 2862 CRC cases but not in 6243 healthy controls (P 0.0098). RERGL gene (RERG/RAS-like), the only gene influenced by the 12p12.3 structural variation, sharing most of the conserved regions with its close family member RERG tumor suppressor gene (RAS-like, estrogen-regulated, growth inhibitor), might be a novel CRC-related gene. In conclusion, this is the first study to reveal the contribution of the overall burden of CNVs to familial CRC risk and identify a novel rare structural variation at 12p12.3 containing RERGL gene to be associated with CRC.
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