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Sökning: WFRF:(Kristén Lars 1956 )

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  • Klavina, Aija, et al. (författare)
  • Cooperation directed learning in inclusive physical education
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: EUCAPA 2012, Book of abstracts.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Peer tutoring is a type of collaboration directed learning strategy in which students support each other rather than relying only on assistant teacher or paraprofessional assistance. Utilizing peers as a natural support might facilitate interactions between students with and without disabilities. However, the research on cooperation oriented education approaches in Europe is very spare.PURPOSE:This study aims the implementation of cooperation oriented learning of peer tutoring in elementary general inclusive physical education (GPE) setting in three city schools in Sweden. The study was utilized within a Nordplus- Horizontal project.METHODS:A single subject multiple baseline design across elementary school age students with moderate disabilities (n=4) was used. While peer tutor training program was provided for the whole class target students were included when attending GPE, peer tutors (n=37) were students without disabilities who volunteered for this role. The peer tutor training program incorporating disability awareness, teaching instructions and communication skills served as the independent measure. Dependent measures included physical, instructional and social interactions between students with and without disabilities. Totally 43 observations sessions (á 20 minutes) were collected on videotapes. The obtained data were coded using the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of Interactions in Physical Education (CEPI-PE) (Klavina, 2011).RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:Age appropriate peer tutors were effective at assisting students with moderate disabilities in inclusive GPE in Swedish elementary schools. The percentage of interactions between target students and peer tutors significantly increased (3.2% to 11.8 % respectively, p<.5). These results replicate findings of previous studies done in the United States demonstrating that peer tutor arrangements can contribute the successful collaboration between students with and without disabilities in inclusive GPE (Houston-Wilson et al., 1997; Klavina & Block, 2008; Lieberman et al., 1997; Murata & Jansma, 1997). All four students with disabilities maintained high percentage of activities done independently throughout baseline and intervention phase (50.5% and 57.6%, accordingly). While collected data did not demonstrate significant change in social interactions for students with disabilities across the two study conditions (11.6% in baseline and 13.9% in intervention), anecdotal notes and social validation outcomes indicated that peer tutoring conditions provided them with the sense of being included in the class. For example, the classroom teachers stated that students with disabilities experienced more social interactions and positive attitude from their classmates during other situations during the school day increasing self-esteem of target students. Along this line, Goodwin and Watkinson (2000) found that factors contributing to positive experience for students with physical disabilities in GPE were a sense of belonging and companionship. Also, school principals and teacher assistants at all four research sites indicated positive change regarding social climate and the quality of the social interactions in the whole class after the study, not only between students with and without disabilities. The positive perceived peer culture (Jansson, 2005) reported by the school personal is an essential additional outcome of the peer tutoring training. The importance of using a class wide peer tutoring approach when including students with moderate disabilities in GPE become obvious.ReferencesGoodwin, D.L., & Watkinson, E.J. (2000). Inclusive physical education from theperspective of students with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17, 144-160.Houston-Wilson, C., Dunn, J.M., Van der Mars, H., & McCubbin, J. (1997). The effect          of peer tutors on motor performance in integrated physical education classes. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14, 298–313.Jansson, U. (2005). Vad är delaktighet? En diskussion av olika innebörder.Pedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet. [in Swedish]Klavina, A. (2011). Development and Initial Validation of the ComputerizedEvaluation Protocol of Interactions in Physical Education. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 15(1), 26-46.Klavina, A. & Block, M. (2008). The effect of peer tutoring on interaction behaviors in inclusive physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 25, 132-158.Lieberman, L.J., Newcomer, J., McCubbin, J., & Dalrymple, N. (1997). The effects of cross age tutors on the academic learning time in physical education of children with disabilities in inclusive elementary physical education classes. Brazilian Journal of Adapted Physical Education & Recreation, 4, 15–32.Murata, N.M., & Jansma, P. (1997). Influence of support personnel on students with and without disabilities in general physical education. Clinical Kinesiology, 51 (2), 37-46.
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  • Klavina, Aija, et al. (författare)
  • Peer–tutoring and cooperative learning in PE : a collaborative project
  • 2011
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Titel ”Samarbetsorienterat lärande med kamratstöd/mentorsstöd för ökad delaktighet i ämnet idrott och hälsa”. Syfte Att ta del av ny forskning och pröva en modell med kamrat/mentors-stöd som visat positiva resultat i USA. Syftet med projektet är att öka möjligheten till delaktighet för elever med funktionsnedsättning. Studien riktar sig mot ämnesområdet Idrott och hälsa som har brister när det just gäller delaktigheten. Målgrupp Primär målgrupp är elever i grund- och särskolan, med funktionsnedsättning, lärare i Idrott och hälsa, rådgivare, specialpedagoger och rektorer. Bakgrund Kunskapen om, och vikten av lek, rörelse och fysisk aktivitet är idag ett väl utforskat område som har många förespråkare. Även politiker och myndigheter arbetar med nya förslag och rapporter som ligger i linje med detta, och ger ytterligare stöd för mer fysisk aktivitet i skolan. Problematiken ligger ofta i att detta måste komma alla elever till del. Genom satsningar såsom ex. handslaget och tillägg i läroplanen om daglig fysisk aktivitet, som borde gynna barn med funktionsnedsättningar, upplevs i istället att det ofta görs särskilda lösningar med följden att många elever med funktionsnedsättning upplever att de inte är delaktiga.  I detta sammanhang är det också anmärkningsvärt att notera att personer med funktionsnedsättningar, och i synnerhet personer med rörelsehinder, har den sämsta folkhälsan i Sverige (Folkhälsoinstitutet, 2008) Delaktighet är en viktig faktor för att må bra och elever som mår bra lär sig bättre. Forskning visar att delaktighet på lektioner också påverkar delaktigheten på raster och fritiden. Det förekommer alltför ofta att elever med någon funktionsnedsättning får en bristfällig undervisning i ämnet Idrott och hälsa, samt i andra fysiska aktiviteter inom skolans ram. Många elever deltar inte alls, andra deltar, men utan att vara delaktiga. Att ha en eller flera elever med någon funktionsnedsättning i sin klass bör ses som en tillgång. I forskningssammanhang internationellt, fr.a. från USA har man de senaste åren undersökt hur delaktigheten påverkas av kamratstöd istället för assistentstöd inom skolämnet Idrott och hälsa. I dessa studier har det visat sig att elever inte bara upplever markant ökad delaktighet, utan också att elever med funktionsnedsättning får ett bättre och mer situationsanpassat stöd. Metod Kvantitativ ”Single subject study”, videodokumentation. Kvalitativ intervjuer med fenomenografisk ansats.Projektgrupp Aija Klavina ass. Prof universitetet i Riga, Lettland; Kajsa Jerlinder, Högskolan i Gävle/GIH Stockholm; Lena Hammar, Specialpedagogiska skolmyndigheten. Tine Soulié, Handikappidrottens Videncenter, Roskilde Danmark. Lars Kristén, Högskolan i Halmstad
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  • Kristén, Lars, 1956- (författare)
  • Adapted physical activity : Active healthy lifestyle for all
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings / Nordic conference Health, participation and effects of sport and exercise 2-4 October 2008. - Halmstad : Högskolan i Halmstad. ; s. 15-15
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Children and young people with disabilities do not have today the same opportunities to participate in sporting and health-promoting activities as other young people without such handicaps. Sporting activities for these children and teenagers can in many cases not be pursued in their leisure time and are not exploited to any great extent within rehabilitation. Within the curricular framework of the school, special needs teaching in Physical Education is available but as with amateur sports provision in general it is dependent on the expertise and methods of the teacher or trainer. Today, the concept of health is defined as more than merely the absence of disease, and there is an ongoing development towards a total health concept, a holistic concept. APA is well in line with WHO’s new International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), where disability is replaced by activity and handicap by participation. The revised version supersedes the previous International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH), whereby the sporting activity becomes a means of achieving both health and participation. Among others, findings shows that adapted physical activity can involve different health aspects for the child or adolescent with a disability e.g. strengthening one's physique and having a good time as well as facilitating their participation in society e.g. getting new friends and becoming someone. On the other hand, physical activity can have both a positive and a negative influence on the different dimensions of health, seen in terms of physical, mental, social and spiritual/existential well-being. It would be desirable to more clearly tie research and educational investment into the area which would reflect not only national and community aims but also favour the individual’s opportunities and benefits in terms of sporting and health-promoting activities.
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  • Kristén, Lars, 1956- (författare)
  • Adapted physical activity : a study of sports for the disabled in the Swedish community
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Book of abstracts / ISAPA 2009. - Bollnäs : SUH. ; s. 91-91
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Children and young people with functional disabilities do not have today the same opportunities to participate in sporting and health-promoting activities as other young people without such handicaps. Sporting activities for these children and teenagers can in many cases only be pursued in their leisure time and are not exploited to any great extent within rehabilitation. Within the curricular framework of the school, special needs teaching in sport and health is available but as with amateur sports provision in general it is dependent on the expertise and methods of the teacher or trainer. Investment in sport in Sweden with the help of ‘HANDSHAKE’ funding has involved some 126 different projects and presumably even more have been carried out for the target group of children and teenagers with functional disabilities. The special study described in this paper was carried out partly as a questionnaire survey involving sports clubs and associations supporting the projects and partly as a more extensive interview survey with six selected clubs / associations. The clubs taking part in the special study were relatively few with a response frequency of 37%. The responses of the clubs are clear in that the projects will be continuing and will become a part of their regular activities. The pre-requisites for a successful project are related to both committed project leaders and financial means while at the same time club leaders have stated that the integration of children and teenagers with functional handicaps is not easy. This is possibly due to the fact that sports clubs and associations are not used to opening up their activities for children and young people with functional disabilities and also that these issues are rarely discussed within the day-to-day running of the clubs. It would be desirable to more clearly tie research and educational investment into the area which would reflect not only community aims but also favour the individual’s opportunities and benefits in terms of sporting and health-promoting activities.
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  • Kristén, Lars, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Challenges for Intervention Research in Health and Lifestyle Research – A Systematic Meta-literature Review
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IntroductionHealth and well-being are two concepts that are widely discussed within today’s society. A major perspective in health and lifestyle research is to investigate what determinants are associated with health. When it comes to the delivery of health interventions several different approaches have been suggested.MethodsThe meta-synthesis was chosen for synthesis of research studies using a health and lifestyle the review format and analyse meta-questions. The process included the following five phases:1. Literature search for articles.2. Selection of relevant articles after repeated reading and appraisal of the articles.3. Extraction of data from each article and creating a list of findings as key phrases, ideas and concepts for each individual study.4. Determining how the findings of the selected studies are related and translating findings into one another.5. Synthesizing the translations to produce a new theoretical interpretation.ResultsThe search yielded a total of 561 unique citations and finally 24 citations remained. Of those 11 studies focused on health determinants, while 13 focused on interventions for health promotion. The meta-synthesis led to four recommendations for the design of future intervention studies. (1) scientific disciplines should collaborate in the design, implementation and evaluation of the study. (2) to use theoretical frameworks that focus on health determinants and to apply longitudinal studies with a repeated measures design.(3) involve behavioral interventions. (4) to design face-to-face intervention studies.DiscussionDeterminants was related to a physical active lifestyle, more specifically high quality school programs for physical education. It could be a starting point for a nationwide approach of daily physical activity in whole society. In all intervention studies physical activity behaviors were included as outcome or intervention program. It is therefore speculated that physical activity behavior could be discussed as one mediator between health determinants and health outcomes.ReferencesBailey, R. (2006). Physical education and sport in schools: a review of benefits and outcomes. Journal of School Health, 76, 397-401.Dodge, R., Daly, A., Huyton, J., & Sanders, L. (2012). The challenge of defining wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2, 222-235.Kahn, E. B., Ramsey, L. T., Brownson, R. C., Heath, G. W., Howze, E. H., Powell, K. E., & Corso, P. (2002). The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: A systematic review. American journal of preventive medicine, 22, (4), 73-107.Paterson, B.L., Thorne, S., Canam, C., Jilings, C., (2001). Meta-Study of Qualitative Health Research: A Practical Guide to Meta-Analysis and Meta-Synthesis. Sage, Thousand Oaks,CA.Södergren, M. (2013). Lifestyle predictors of healthy ageing in men. Maturitas, 75, 113-117.Corresponding author email: Lars.Kristen@hh.se
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  • Kristén, Lars, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Future challenges for intervention research in health and lifestyle research : A systematic meta-literature review
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. - Järfälla : Co-Action Publishing. - 1748-2623. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The overall aim of this systematic meta-literature review was to (1) summarize the findings of review studies focusing on health determinants, (2) give an overview of intervention studies that have been used to facilitate health and lifestyle, and (3) provide recommendations for future studies in health promotion. A literature review, using a meta-method, was conducted to identify health and lifestyle research based on research articles related to health changes. The search yielded a total of 561 unique citations and finally 24 citations remained. Of those, 11 studies focused on health determinants, whereas 13 focused on interventions for health promotion. Results from this meta-synthesis led to four recommendations for the design of future intervention studies. (1) To increase the likelihood of capturing different biopsychosocial aspects of health, researchers from different scientific disciplines should collaborate in the design, implementation, and evaluation of the study. (2) It is recommended to use theoretical frameworks that focus on health determinants in longitudinal studies with a repeated measures design. (3) Studies should involve behavioral interventions. (4) Design face-to-face intervention studies where the participant can interact with other persons.
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