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Sökning: WFRF:(Kristensen Vessela)

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1.
  • Bojesen, Stig E., et al. (författare)
  • Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:4, s. 371-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • TERT-locus SNPs and leukocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the Illumina custom genotyping array iCOG, we analyzed similar to 480 SNPs at the TERT locus in breast (n = 103,991), ovarian (n = 39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (n = 11,705) cancer cases and controls. Leukocyte telomere measurements were also available for 53,724 participants. Most associations cluster into three independent peaks. The minor allele at the peak 1 SNP rs2736108 associates with longer telomeres (P = 5.8 x 10(-7)), lower risks for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.1 x 10(-5)) breast cancers and altered promoter assay signal. The minor allele at the peak 2 SNP rs7705526 associates with longer telomeres (P = 2.3 x 10(-14)), higher risk of low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer (P = 1.3 x 10(-15)) and greater promoter activity. The minor alleles at the peak 3 SNPs rs10069690 and rs2242652 increase ER-negative (P = 1.2 x 10(-12)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.6 x 10-14) breast and invasive ovarian (P = 1.3 x 10(-11)) cancer risks but not via altered telomere length. The cancer risk alleles of rs2242652 and rs10069690, respectively, increase silencing and generate a truncated TERT splice variant.
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2.
  • Brinkman, Arie B., et al. (författare)
  • Partially methylated domains are hypervariable in breast cancer and fuel widespread CpG island hypermethylation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global loss of DNA methylation and CpG island (CGI) hypermethylation are key epigenomic aberrations in cancer. Global loss manifests itself in partially methylated domains (PMDs) which extend up to megabases. However, the distribution of PMDs within and between tumor types, and their effects on key functional genomic elements including CGIs are poorly defined. We comprehensively show that loss of methylation in PMDs occurs in a large fraction of the genome and represents the prime source of DNA methylation variation. PMDs are hypervariable in methylation level, size and distribution, and display elevated mutation rates. They impose intermediate DNA methylation levels incognizant of functional genomic elements including CGIs, underpinning a CGI methylator phenotype (CIMP). Repression effects on tumor suppressor genes are negligible as they are generally excluded from PMDs. The genomic distribution of PMDs reports tissue-of-origin and may represent tissue-specific silent regions which tolerate instability at the epigenetic, transcriptomic and genetic level.
3.
  • Couch, Fergus J., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of four novel susceptibility loci for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723. ; 7:11375, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 x 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for similar to 11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.
4.
  • Dunning, Alison M., et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer risk variants at 6q25 display different phenotype associations and regulate ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:4, s. 374-386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed 3,872 common genetic variants across the ESR1 locus (encoding estrogen receptor a) in 118,816 subjects from three international consortia. We found evidence for at least five independent causal variants, each associated with different phenotype sets, including estrogen receptor (ER+ or ER-) and human ERBB2 (HER2(+) or HER2(-)) tumor subtypes, mammographic density and tumor grade. The best candidate causal variants for ER-tumors lie in four separate enhancer elements, and their risk alleles reduce expression of ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170, whereas the risk alleles of the strongest candidates for the remaining independent causal variant disrupt a silencer element and putatively increase ESR1 and RMND1 expression.
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5.
  • Dörk, Thilo, et al. (författare)
  • Two truncating variants in FANCC and breast cancer risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.
6.
  • Edvardsen, Hege, et al. (författare)
  • Experimental validation of data mined single nucleotide polymorphisms from several databases and consecutive dbSNP builds
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenetics & Genomics. - 1744-6872 .- 1744-6880. ; 16:3, s. 207-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rapid development in the annotation of human genetic variation has increased the numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes by several orders of magnitude. The selection of both useful target SNPs; for disease-gene association studies and SNPs associated with the treatment response is therefore an increasingly challenging task. We describe a workflow for selecting SNPs based on their putative function and frequency in candidate genes extracted from PubMed resources. The annotation of each SNP and its frequency in a Caucasian population was assessed in several databases. Approximately 4000 SNPs were identified from an initial 233 candidate genes. In a case study, we performed actual genotyping of 1030 of these SNPs in 213 genes and obtained 710 successfully genotyped SNPs. Using the flow-chart outlined here, only 87 SNPs were monomorphic (approximately 12%). This study reports the frequency of SNPs in a Caucasian population, selected in silico, using a candidate gene approach and validated by actually genotyping 193 individuals. The selected genotypes represent a valuable set of verified candidate SNPs for pharmacogenetic studies in Caucasian populations.
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7.
  • Edvardsen, Hege, et al. (författare)
  • SNP in TXNRD2 Associated With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis A Study of Genetic Variation in Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Signaling.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. - 1879-355x. ; 86:4, s. 791-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to identify noninvasive markers of treatment-induced side effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated after irradiation, and genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism might influence the level of radiation-induced adverse effects (AEs).METHODS AND MATERIALS: 92 breast cancer (BC) survivors previously treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy were assessed for the AEs subcutaneous atrophy and fibrosis, costal fractures, lung fibrosis, pleural thickening, and telangiectasias (median follow-up time 17.1 years). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 203 genes were analyzed for association to AE grade. SNPs associated with subcutaneous fibrosis were validated in an independent BC survivor material (n=283). The influence of the studied genetic variation on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of 18 genes previously associated with fibrosis was assessed in fibroblast cell lines from BC patients.RESULTS: Subcutaneous fibrosis and atrophy had the highest correlation (r=0.76) of all assessed AEs. The nonsynonymous SNP rs1139793 in TXNRD2 was associated with grade of subcutaneous fibrosis, the reference T-allele being more prevalent in the group experiencing severe levels of fibrosis. This was confirmed in another sample cohort of 283 BC survivors, and rs1139793 was found significantly associated with mRNA expression level of TXNRD2 in blood. Genetic variation in 24 ROS-related genes, including EGFR, CENPE, APEX1, and GSTP1, was associated with mRNA expression of 14 genes previously linked to fibrosis (P≤.005).CONCLUSION: Development of subcutaneous fibrosis can be associated with genetic variation in the mitochondrial enzyme TXNRD2, critically involved in removal of ROS, and maintenance of the intracellular redox balance.
8.
  • Fleischer, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in progression to in situ and invasive carcinoma of the breast with impact on gene transcription and prognosis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 15:8, s. 435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a precursor of invasive breast carcinoma. DNA methylation alterations are thought to be an early event in progression of cancer, and may prove valuable as a tool in clinical decision making and for understanding neoplastic development. Results: We generate genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of 285 breast tissue samples representing progression of cancer, and validate methylation changes between normal and DCIS in an independent dataset of 15 normal and 40 DCIS samples. We also validate a prognostic signature on 583 breast cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our analysis reveals that DNA methylation profiles of DCIS are radically altered compared to normal breast tissue, involving more than 5,000 genes. Changes between DCIS and invasive breast carcinoma involve around 1,000 genes. In tumors, DNA methylation is associated with gene expression of almost 3,000 genes, including both negative and positive correlations. A prognostic signature based on methylation level of 18 CpGs is associated with survival of breast cancer patients with invasive tumors, as well as with survival of patients with DCIS and mixed lesions of DCIS and invasive breast carcinoma. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that changes in the epigenome occur early in the neoplastic progression, provides evidence for the possible utilization of DNA methylation-based markers of progression in the clinic, and highlights the importance of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis.
9.
  • Ghoussaini, Maya, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new breast cancer susceptibility loci
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:3, s. 312-318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. To date, 22 common breast cancer susceptibility loci have been identified accounting for ~8% of the heritability of the disease. We attempted to replicate 72 promising associations from two independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in ~70,000 cases and ~68,000 controls from 41 case-control studies and 9 breast cancer GWAS. We identified three new breast cancer risk loci at 12p11 (rs10771399; P = 2.7 × 10−35), 12q24 (rs1292011; P = 4.3 × 10−19) and 21q21 (rs2823093; P = 1.1 × 10−12). rs10771399 was associated with similar relative risks for both estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and ER-positive breast cancer, whereas the other two loci were associated only with ER-positive disease. Two of the loci lie in regions that contain strong plausible candidate genes: PTHLH (12p11) has a crucial role in mammary gland development and the establishment of bone metastasis in breast cancer, and NRIP1 (21q21) encodes an ER cofactor and has a role in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth.
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10.
  • Hollestelle, Antoinette, et al. (författare)
  • No clinical utility of KRAS variant rs61764370 for ovarian or breast cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - Academic Press. - 0090-8258. ; 141:2, s. 386-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Clinical genetic testing is commercially available for rs61764370, an inherited variant residing in a KRAS 3′ UTR microRNA binding site, based on suggested associations with increased ovarian and breast cancer risk as well as with survival time. However, prior studies, emphasizing particular subgroups, were relatively small. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated ovarian and breast cancer risks as well as clinical outcome associated with rs61764370. Methods Centralized genotyping and analysis were performed for 140,012 women enrolled in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (15,357 ovarian cancer patients; 30,816 controls), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (33,530 breast cancer patients; 37,640 controls), and the Consortium of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (14,765 BRCA1 and 7904 BRCA2 mutation carriers). Results We found no association with risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04, p = 0.74) or breast cancer (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.01, p = 0.19) and results were consistent among mutation carriers (BRCA1, ovarian cancer HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.23, p = 0.14, breast cancer HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.12, p = 0.27; BRCA2, ovarian cancer HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.71-1.13, p = 0.34, breast cancer HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.94-1.19, p = 0.35). Null results were also obtained for associations with overall survival following ovarian cancer (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.07, p = 0.38), breast cancer (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.06, p = 0.38), and all other previously-reported associations. Conclusions rs61764370 is not associated with risk of ovarian or breast cancer nor with clinical outcome for patients with these cancers. Therefore, genotyping this variant has no clinical utility related to the prediction or management of these cancers.
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